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JUNE 1897 - MAY 1914 


JUNE 1897 -MAY 1898 


O K 


A Monthly Journal Devoted to Religion. Philosophy, Utet%\U\f Science-, &c. 

Commenced on the Queen's Commemoratioil ilttg/, 1897. 

VOL. I. ]• 

MONDAY, THE 21st JUNE i8g/. 


No. t. 

T D 

1 * 

O N S- 


fiKsr Tamha. 


.-Hjsir'^u Q minor ui fbnQf) la^-i^Sesr 
oil to 7 HJibtt i&'£ffWi& t ±n'2j. 


I. The ignorant tiiiuk that Love and Slv;hh (the 
■state oi' being Siva or Bli.s.s.i ar« (lifF<ji-otit, They do 
nut know that Love become, ui- settles into Sivam. 
After knowing th:it Love becomes or settles into St- 
vam, they rest themselves in that condition in which 
Love lias settled into Siviuu. 

Qu-^dsni ^t—K^ei-ii ^lc (./;?,.» "Sp.t i»c«jr, jr 

2, My great Love bus b 
(Siva) whose tiger skin it 
crescent Moon in whose hea 
aud iv ho dances in irobroken v 



'J'iio lijrtr skin of Si>a is iudicatyii 
liist liHvin<r tnn(|iiere(l tl .3 #*"** ns$t 

'I'lic creSlTBt MoOll Otl lilt! IliiRtl of 

Ity nuiderutR euld in tiie 'natter of CO 
I'm- it full discuaMini of the subject, « 

lUv tflintf,'.'" 

Tl.r ii:uiL'iuK of Siv'a in the Imrniiil} 
!.v motion from I In: bnsoiii of vnciiirv 
M-lf ilicrr. 

vjThStQtJ S&p&ff 1:7. Slirpcf£il!, 

Qut&hQl. tl J) 'T, SX S?JJ Q u U 

i r. „-fl wU a £ JF, XJJ &iEl(9j Sit tp A 

Qui ■,& 'j'ljToTt z^htS- 1 Csir Qiu ■'. 

Iv.en ihough with bones i 
turn to luu'n and burnt like £ 
tliusr v -In, internally melt thems 

^jjo-Oj^j >;< — iij'ii v/jfu j.7< 

-rtieii towards Him 

i i^-htwr ^han gold, the 

liwafii ins and bright, 

.-te^WAy iu the burning 

■■I 111;. Bn 1, ; it jfreat Vojfi, of 
■Id^rt'^ iffnira. niid of liia 

•v'roilMtt : die pan plnyeri 

i.i. ,,lirti , „ al \ inviilation- 
h ^f> : ntioPB uii I'ragft 

J»»Ht.- lo 4i3 ii'.jucion 

'■' i 'i|i>; (.)<,(- tlittn Hitn- 

' J 


), the fleali 
except to 

' Tjovo, Cwd 

^*:. * 

'i Jl T .^ 

J> ■% ' % *j t- 



4. Those with inter 
with compassion will sef 
load (of car*£:) will flee 
will enter cycles uf bii 

iSateurm Lf^j,§jt- 
patmtesr Qu^v/k-^ 

5. Adore the Lo' 
Melting with Love, 
great Nandi (the \ 
Let"? stand forth a 

<?*°^<5 LJ ' r : 

6. H you pn 
the way, He wi' 
towards Heaver 
with hooey ha 

Kcmnii floun-a 
flowers arc said 
~"^b seat on the 
an of the sens 

>K SI 



7. They do' 
jove in ereat 
Slias. It is I 
tith Love an' 

8. I£ on, 

fiiraself by 
Udores Hiu 
Grace, the 
■desires, be 

t ■ 

9. Ti 


ill see God. Those hut they never adore 
Those with the to Him for the same. 

the Lord and seek Him and pray 


subject to pressure, 

*th or misery. 

ir itxQifis&r 

tens '5/5,8?"/* 

jjf^j <aiuQp. (@1 

j with love as in myself 
Ffrst Being. Then the 

^eir&gsim eanmijpp ^sai- aunt/wire^ 
Qpeinuigiieir arironQpeifi ewrsQtti i9 r vmtus« 
juept9&)!stt ens® (uu)(5 m^UiGwr^eir 

10. He (The Lord) is within and without Love, 
He forms the body of Love, He is both before mid 
after j and He is the Lord of the contemplation. He 
forms the internal essence of Love, or found in Love, 

fm) will, directing His jjy j s tne doer, object sought in Love, and He is the 

(i protector. 

$ at sir Qp&fig3iu> 

SoSW iLiTVJ WpJ r'Sj in 
J 6BT Stop ID SB3T ePSU W 

3 as Self-existent, mire in 
ih your aid in your course 
■iirs Konrai flowers flowing 
seat in my Love toward-) 


Btior <if gense &ud lU-'tiiT. 'rUesc 
v its ft is an index to sIhjw that 
B isconstquent upo» StemiftJiK'-S- 

in : ^*^* QpjBaSoin— 

KiejJbar njj&Stevn ti 

<*sSl_* firrQ'SSt. (si") 

my Lord who evinced stron-r 
I opening up the .sources of 
/th Love, filled this hard life 
space with Love. 

eaiQtrtu .5* oj t i fi$ p Q fjpi 
l3 am psiiQcVtesr Qptsi't-jM 

;(&:tb '•$ ®K!T tarn m i (p&!t3«Bi «jy ) 

help to those who love Him. 






This is the secon'l 
tras, and its autbiM 

■'IT I OS. 

rreen Siddhanta Sas- 
uple of the Great 
Meikanda DevfL -ini! his t.'Bst i.'ipoi 't. Sivngnnna 
Both am is ct* d ihe " Mutku. Niu ~>v Revealed 
Book, and this ay "k is called thr- t r ft-;ft.i v hI'" con- 
taining the hi'st Jirnl tho mux h*eid ahuvim. "on of 
Jleikanda Duni'a short tod concise Gtphi*ft^ttt:; Tlie. 
author. is the second of i ; ;a jS(iH()ia7».a A,ctMNbu# 
canonized Saints of the Sai.ns, and his date may' he 
with more or less accuracy fix^-t at about JSfltp A.^>. 
He is author of another short vork -eallefl? '■"' Iru ■ 
pairupakthu" (glgu/r gjgu.'^), in whi«4t he ataujs 
some of the most puzzling problems in Indian Ph ; k* 
sophy in the form of questions addressed to hia 
master, in such a form that the answers .themselves 
are transparent. Aral Nandi Siva Chariya wus tpp 
& in the Light engeuderefl in name after he met and was initiated ^by his mastjjt* 
ion of attention inwards and Meika^da Deva and his other name was Sakalagama 
edition, and then desires for His Pandithar, which seems bowevgr not to be his real 
he Angelic Host will giant his name but one conferred on him for his vast erudition 

and researches in the Saivite lore. And there can 
be no doubt that he has displayed in his works aJl 
his vastlearning aud knowledge, and ' Siddhiar ' standi 
out as the bulkiest and most learned contribution ^ 
the field of Philosophy in the vast Tamil ; and will 
bear comparison in that respect wi^/the best p r0l 
ro 7 duction in Sanscrit. Umapathi Siva Pferiya includes 


i9 &»p u *Tn u ilj @ Q-g- iti tai di 
3fliLf wenB & it «sir 

IL.IU Qjtsesi/* iSlTtrQaViSJ 4? 

joy the benefit of cr* 

.nbyGodeverhanka sire this among the best six books, reqnfcetf foreman 1 


to perfect himself in Tamil, namely Tiravalluvar, 
with (Parimelalafrar's commentary), Devaram and 
Tirnvaebakam, Tolkapiyam, Sekkilar'a Pempuranam, 
Siragnana Siddhi. Many are tbe praises sung of him 
and his -work and of these we select two. The author 
of Sivabogaaara says ; — 

•&(*?■& 0F& &> QP <£ i 4H t * rti 'Qp<Ji l «rwaJ&w«/u> 
unneDSp/fi jf>Qe»»>&>iii* unnjpjitu &j£)if(lev 

(To those who ikwire the path of Mokeha. when at! i-hoir lower 
Tfctw^g, Akimtsnv and Karma will be burnt up l,u cindon, hull' 
a atanm tit Siddhinr will (if imrterntood) furnish the key for tin; 
nnderataiirtinjjr of all the. tubi lore of tliis woi-frl). 

Our Thayumanavar says: — 

" O for the (Wy when 1 isha.ll bow tlnwn to the. feet of hini who 
exhibited the trotli in half * Manna whereby I lost the whole 
deJnaivo world 

Of all the Siddhanta works, Siddhiar has had the 
greatest number of commentators, and six of these 
commentaries are brought out in a most praiseworthy 
manner by M. R. Ry- K. Shunmugasnndara Mudaliar 
of Chintadripet in his "SiTagnana Botha Press." 

Coming to the work in question, it is in two parts, 
the first part called Parapaksham contains a. review 
of 14 systems of Philosophy beginning with Loka- 
vitha and ending with Pancharathra, in the manner 
of Sayands Sttrva Daraana Sangraha. The other part 
called ' Snpaksha ' elaborates in detail Meikanda 
DevVa work. The Supaksham is prefaced vith a 
chapter on Indian Logic or Alavei or measure its 
it it called, a knowledge of which is essentia) for 
following the argument of the Indian Schools of 
Philosophy. We propose to begin with the trans- 
lation of this chapter and then proceed to Parapak- 
sham arid then to come back to Supaksham. Of 
previous translations, we are only aware of one. into 
German by Graul, about 42 years ago and published 
in Vol. 8 of the German Oriental Society's Journal. 

Invocation oj? Ganksha. 
O God, with the elephant head, single-tusked, 
doable eared, triple juiced, with the hanging lip, ami 
five hands, begotten by the Lord with the hi aided 
hair, adorned with the Ganges, rhe crescent moon 
and the cassia flowers. Thy feet will remove tin- 
evil in the hearts overflowing with love, humility. 
r* and knowledge night nnd day without fail. Thv 
feet will lift such far above the delights of Brahma 
and Vishnu. 


h'aiicgliH ig culled Yimujiihi " Ho who hna »<> IahtiX hIkitv llim "* 
The elephant bond, with tbr Minjtle timk nnd trunk demur lit* 
I'miitn'ii forui : tte. triplc-juico or nceretiuiw demiie liio |«iworn, will, 
iiiTellipMitc anil nt-timi 'IcluH'ha, tihms*, Kri,a), Hi* live linnd* 
denote his PmK)itlkirtlo;t (erirbti, xtliithi. *niiihn,-ii, <//•«»/« (•» me! 
Aninj.nha). The wearhij; of rhe (irinjreK si^nilic* hi* emi(|Tif'»i, 
nf Ali:nikar j jiml tlio wearing nf I lie Smim the uplifting of the 
truly humble \ ami i lie ennsia ( * -.-n r) fhnver in the iT-.wiiiiii; 
Indian ?.imrel *:ij*nifyrn# l'* s J'irtls-lri|». svm'ml of Vrnwira j/I'Iij* 
Munthra Uiijant). These pymlmla have other iiieiiiiingii tit 'he Vimi. 
The double oHVeiiif IlisHnu'ts in t«n*ii't ills' l':«mteiuiya mid inilin - - 
iii.sC l'ntliijniniKi in hIbo well «ei fnrtli ill thin ntsii/u. 


The Gracious Sun which shining on this universe 
opened the Lotus bud of the woman hearts, on the 
opening of which, the hoes of the ancient Vedic Hymn* 
hummed about, the fresh nnney gushed forth, and 
the Fragrace of Sivmu blowed forth; lie, .Meikanda 
Deva, who was living in Tinivennainallu., surrounded 
by groves, in full blossom, The Great Sm'vite ToacFier, 
His golden feet which outrivals the lotus, resting in 
my head, 1 shall ever worship. 

Alavki OK LfjMIt'. 

1. Some classify Logical methods into Six (J) IVa- 
thiatcho. (observation and experiment), (■>) Auunum.i 
(Inference). (•'!) At, a ma (Testimony or AuthoritvL 
(4) Abava (non-existenco), {"») Ajthapathi ^)cdnctioi>) 
(6) Upainana (aualogy). Some; add the following 
four to the foregoing, namely <7j Parishesha (Iuferenic 
by exception L Sanibava (co-existence), Lhig-.mi, 
(Tradition), (10) Svaba Linga (Xatuial Iiifercuiv). 
All these are included in the three first Prathiatclia 
Amnnana, and Again a. 

I. The Tamil i'«jmv»knrH" .it ihe«' n-n I'tuwiana sttt'.{I) »■>• 

(-) ' y«} 1+) .•-•■ C-ij CO (."' 'Si 

.-..■t |<l^ w. -mm. 'Id jf Ah:iv;l i« lite mere ne^:ith>ii 

nf :\ I'.ii-r jmil S\"aL.iliiiv K 'ii i.- imireh- i tie ifttlheriiTjJ rhe Ulimiviiii/. nf 
nil amIiJje<i»hk wuril I'runi r lie ronlivcl inul [lien; is mi inforenee ie 
i-iclu'i- t-;ibe :ini! tliev rest t lni'i'fi>ri' utirt an- ini Imfeil unili-j 
Pi'»rliiu[(.|i:i. .Vi'iiiliii|>;iilii (c. Hi' "lues nut em ilurinjj the ilav 

Hi- is I'm. Iieuee he niim. em iluiinj- ihp iiijflu). I'lirinlicshii e. -i. 
Bllinii I'oiiLflll K;iv;iiiti. ICluml ivini, lienec JitlVitlia fllile*H. ^iiijiIkivjl 
Ie.;*. ">0 i^ iti'.hiili.'il in JOtl. |.iiji in n mIh>I,'. jii'e Jl iiieliidetl iif.ilei- 
Iiifei'i-iu-e. hut in iiiiuiv *-f these Tliei-e is little <n' renl iuf?iTim>. 
Itlii^-Miii is iiielmleil iimli-i- Asimim. l'|ul|.|iiiiil <nvu|iies a |>eciib:ir 
|il:iei' riinl is ijifliiileil in int'cn-ni.e htit is smwetifni's pvhieli I think 
ig iiim-e fitvlTvet) ebsse ' us n sejianre niethtnl. The v^Aeiitinl iljs- 
tiHL-lioH hi't^eeti >\'o>tei'ii siiid KaMrni l/«^i« liiist in Uq heme in 

nillil. iiTi?iirl> t| L( ! Tlje I'.ir !■ drills vvfMi niipien mill jiro|Hi>iihm^ 

;inf! svlli.^i.u^ (nil ri.i'Jn^i ttkuViH ihp lairer denls irirli. eriiuTiif-4 

;ui'l 1 .it! ;i } '£ IiiiiiiiI :it Uill- VVVi.ierH l.ii^ie ivjis rill .Mill's Tili.e ;ill 
rlnJivetimi, :eul iiiiliirtiitn wji- f«n*eh eiieRtj i ipetit-nl hm 
K:\^r*rn I. j;rie i\;n- inriii- iiuhietiic t linii ileilii. tivi mill \t:i.. (">n- 
r.Tlteil in. .1.' \. illi tin' |,ru..t i if l.ii.j- »],il ill. tnt-llh.tls nf clis,,^,., 
illi;' fl'inli 1-H- Tir- :i|.|.fii ;itiiil. id' ) >n :nnl l«v iIk- ;ii.| ,.r 

the llit'lr.'.-r 'I siijm.jii Ajwl in il'i> List re.sjn-. t ik it,i-hitlm\z 
TestaiuinA -if ennrse ii l+i'i':.«h'r th.i:. IVi.; m [iM»h\ I'ltl..- 

It'll tli\ i^ltnis ,,t' }lr<MH' herein Stl Ji.rtli-' I In- \ Hl-it* is frnliiiii Sttn.iiJs 
Atiti|.i MiiPit- .nil) till. i|t>i:ilnt'. |l|.- iTltliiili ,M:|||-| f.ihv 

T.rikiiyitliii) tu'Ctjes .ii,l_v IVai it iitU'titit The Hwblh-.i jn.M nisit. 


2. P'-atliiateha i* the. direct and correct perception 
of things without doubt and mistake and without the 
Reuse of differentiation. By Anumana we infer things 
hidden front re"taiu datu by knowledge of their in- 
separable connection [by succession or co-existence 
or equality). Agania Praiuatia will guide us to the 
knowledge of things unattainable by the foregoing 
two methods. 

3. Doubtfnl perception is when we donbfc a thing 
seen to bo this or that ; the mistaken knowledge is 
where we know one tliiug to be another ; Savikurpa 
knowledge comprises the knowledge of name, class, 
attribute, action, and thing. Nirvikarpa knowledge is 
the knowledge of the thing itself without knowledge 
of its name, class, attribute and oc+ion. 

■I. Direct Perception or Parthiatcha is classified 
into four kinds, (I) Perception by means of external 
senses, (2) by means of internal senses, mind, (3) by 
the feeling of pleasure and pain and (4) by Yoga or 
seersbip. Anumina or inference is divided into two 

nhika accept this and inference; The SsnVaya accepts also Agama 
I'ramaua; The Nynyikn. accepts also rinalogy ; The Jain and Pm- 
paparn and to those four*' AmtliapatliT ' ; The Vcdunti accepts 
;ilso ' Abava' ; The roui-unik adds to these ' Sambava; 'Tradition.' 
Kacli one of these Schools take up Lo<;-j as only an instrument 
for ascertaining the Highest truth; and the subject is merely 
appended rs in .Siva^nana* Siddhi, as serving to help them in the 
elucidation of tVe postulates and proofs they set fortli in their 
discussion as to the nacirre of God, Soul and . Matter ; and each 
of the two distinctively Mi-called Logical Schools — Vaisheshika. and 
Kafka — treat of Logic aa such and proceed to discover the 
Highest Truth whereby and whereby alone cau any real escape 
from human pain and suffering can be effected. 

11 When man shall roll np the »*«y as a piece of leather 
Then shall there be an end of pain without the knowledge 

of Siva."— (Swet. V. 20.) 

As such, we shall explain certain terms which are used frequently 
in these discLiasious. Prutr.ana (Alavei «s)3f« «) is Proof ; Frameya 
f jj ..».t3t) is the tliinj* proved; Paramathi ( jj/5 8.3 ^ sir) is the person 
who investigates; Pratnithi {JtJ>*) is the lnte'ligence cognizing 
the proof. The term ' Abava, ' (non-existence) is frequently used 
in Yednntic discussions. It ia divided into Samstrgahava (fie- 
Intive non-existence) and Anyonayabava (<y=ir^« uraii), (na- 
tural or Biciprocal non-existence) and the former is divided into 
Adhvantahva (<>«r,s» i'^.i j absolute non-existence), Piahbava 
(^"reSii-^ffi antecedent ron-existenee); Pratidwamsabava (n-afou^a- 
man —emergent non-existence). The terms Yyapaka, Vyapthi 
* nd Vy nppia are of very srreat importance in Logic and in Sid- 
dhanta literature. Yyapaka is that which pervades over every- 
thing else, the universal, {v,a-ieSs.,sm\ ai-d corresponds to the 
major term in a .syllogism. Vyapthi is what is comprised in the 
universal, the particular (*<&&«>A«*) and corresponds to the middle 
rci'iu and Yyjippi* what is co-inheres to the Vyapthi {•jtM^S.-ir (£*»'- 
? *.r .-«/) and corresponds tq the minor term. 

4. Tlie different kinds of Perception are called 3r;»**( or tn*5p 
fl( _ fl "; .^r^jsj^^oi' ^--iTTfi aasi—Q, Za^&raiatC-Sl, and ^'^*ff. 
-i»..wj The different kinds of Atuimunu. arc called /n^r £ jigLL-^a, 

ViBheslia are called /nkeS**... - ; and Samanya, ^ujii'iiiu. The 
Visliesha man the Ini'iim specieB or the lowest species of objects 
• nd even among thcnii it seems to mean the class of Differentia more 

namely (I.) Swarthanumana, (2) Pnrathannmana. 
Again* is divided into (1) Mantra, (2 i Tantra, and 
(3j Up»3ana, the words of the teacher (Gnana). The 
things proved by means of these logical methods are 
classed as Vishesha, particular Jspccies! und Samanya 
of General (Genus). 

i>, Vishesha apply to things which exclude from 
its denotation species of its own class as well as other 
classes. Samanya applies to class to which the thing 
belongs excluding other classes. These two classes 
described above will comprise all things. 

6. Perception bj external senses arises when with 
the SouVs intelligence, tbe external senses coining in 
contract wiuh light, air &c, perceives correctly form 
sound &c., without the sense of difference and simi- 

Perception by internal senses arises when after such 
external perception, a inenta 1 impression is produced 
freed from doubt and mistake, involving the operations 
or retention and reflection and the sense of difference 
and similarity, 

7. Perception by feeling arises when the feelings 
of pleasure and pain are produced in accordance with 
the instinct of desire and hate guided by the Law of 

Perception by Yoga is the perception by the Yogi 
seated in one place of all things remote in "place and 
time, possible to him by his having destroyed all mala 
by remaining in Sa.rn.adhi. 

8. Faksham (Propositions) are of three kinds, 
Paksham (conclusion), Sapaksham, (analogy) Vip»k- 
sham, (negative proposition.) 

6. The first kind of perception is bare external perception 
without any shade of thought or operation of the internal senses. 
The mejital per-.' option is in fact the mora direct perception so far 
us the soul is concerned and the externft^perception is accordingly 
remote and indirect. This classification of perception is very 
exact and strictly scientific. Feelings are Also classed properly OS a 
source of perception. As regards Perception by Yojra, the western 
scientist may not admit, but proofs are accumulating which mate 
such knowledge passible. If by the interposition of a few slides 
and by the arrangement of a few wires, things invisible by distance 
by intervening matter, &e. can be made visible, why should not the 
human intellect be bo sharpened by practice as to make such 
knowledge possible. The difference between the Eastern and 
Western method is in this. The European tries to subjugate 
external nature to serve his mater'at ends Ac. bnt the Oriental 
aims at the highest and his mind is always turned on himself In, 
regard to Yoga, me really gifted are so few and the charlatans 
nnd deceivers are go numerous, which latter class are only too 
much encouraged by the utter stupidity and credulity of the 
many (we are afraid that we have to include among them, a luge 
section of even the so-called educated), that it is a pity that the 
practice Bhould be gradually falling into contempt. 

7. Kala (i»d is one of the higher Tatwas which enables man to 
experience perceptions, without at the same time reaching Gnanam, 
by the temporary drawing of the Veil of Antra. 


There are three kinds of Hcta (gJt/iaL^, mnftmiti, j^/p 
LMtfifi). Inference is drawn out of the invariable 
concomitants-flowing from these Paksham and Hetn. 
And the inference is of two kinds. Inference for one-' 
self and inference for others. Inference for others is 
for explaining the proof to others. And this 1 latter is 
divided into Anvya, Anum»n:t and Vyatreka Anu- 

9 Tlie three Paksliains are — Paksham, Sapakshani 
and Vifitvksham. Paksham is the statement com- 
prising the conclusion or Inference. Sapakshani 
is statement of similar instances. Vipaksham is the 
negative statement where the thing proved and the 
antecedent are absent. The first two give the proof 
by the method of agreement and the last by the method 
of difference. 

10. Hetn or Reason is of three kinds. Reasoning 
from natural relation (co-existence and equality), 
Reasoning from causal relation (succession) and Rea- 
soning by means of contraries (Inequality). As for 
instance, we exhibit the first kind of reasoning when 

B and 10. These h»ve reference to purely Logical Methods of 
Inductive proof. The Text (rives here the grounds of alt Induction, 
as based on uniformities in Nature (jy'pu'xo) as Equality or 
Inequality, co-esistence and causation. And on thaie depends all 
Inductive reasoning and the Inference (Paksham) is got nt-by 
the methods of Agreement (Sapaksham) and by the methods of 
Difference (Vipaksham). This is exactly the foundations of Mill's 
Inductive Logic and Dr. Bain condennes Mill's *J kinds ot predi- 
cates into three as here stated and Or. Bain (rives live methods. 
Method of Agreement, Method of Difference, The joint Method, 
The Method of Concomitant Variations, nnd the Method of Residue, 
of which the first two are no doubt the Primay Methods. 

We wfll state the five laws as pfiven by Dr. Brain 

(1) The Method of Agreement. — If two or more instances of a 
phenomenon under investigation have only one circumstance in 
common that instance is the cause or effect of the phenomenon. 

(2) The Method of Difference. — If an instance when n pheno- 
menon occurs and an instance when it does not occur, have every 
circumsianrc in common except one, that one occuring only in 
the first ; the circumstance present in the first and absent in the 
second is the cause or a part of the cause of the given phcnonieni-n" 

(3) The Joint Method. — If two or more instances when the phe- 
mauonoTi occurs have only one circumstance in common, while 
two or more instances when it does not occur have nothing in 
common save the absence of that one circumstance : the circum- 
stance wherein alone the two set of instances differ, is the effect 
or the cause or a necessary p~ rt of the cause of the phenomenon. 

(•) The Method of Concomitant Variations. — Whatever pheno- 
menon varies in any manner whenever another phenomenon 
varies in some other particular manner, is either a case or an 
affect of the phenomenon and is connected with it through aonic 
bend of concomitance 

(8) The Method of Residue. — Subduct from any phenomenon 
such part as previous induction has shown to he the- effect of 
certain antecedents, and the residue of the phenomenon is the 
■effect of the remaining; antecedent. 

we infertile meaning of "»** fa the sentence^ 
"">" y^.#" "»» v<$&ti>". The second, when we 
infer fire from the presence of smoke ; thr third, when 
we infer the absence of dew from the absjnee of cold. 

It. Anvayi Anumana comprises the argument with 
l'ratigna, Hefcu und Instance as in the form : lire is in 
the mountain Pratigna. Because smoke is rising from 
the mountain. (Hetn) Becrtnse firo and smoke is both 
present in oven. ( Instance ) - 

Vyathiroki argument is of f his form There is no 
fire in the fountain, because there is no smoke arking 
from the mountain For instance, there crm be no 
lotus flowers. There is neither smoke nor fire in the 
deep ttmk filled with lotus flowers. Nyayikas and 
Sai«is clearly state the argument witli five propo- 
sitions including Nig am and Jpanaya. 

12- Pitrvadarsana Anumana is where we infer a 
particular flower from a particular smell, from oor 
past knowledge of its connection* Vnsanalinga Ann- 
mana is where we infer the amount of a m^n's learn- 
ing by the words he utters; Agama Anumana is when 
we infer a man's past Karma from his present experi- 
ence of pleasure and pain. 

Note. — These kinds of inference are to be distinguished from the 
logical divisions of Pruthiatcha, Ac. 

13. Agama is the word of The Perfect Eternal 
Being. Of this Agama, the Tantra portion treats of 
the ritnals ascertained without defects and inconsis- 
tency and required for salvation ; The Mantra portion 
treats of Upasana required for controlling the senses 
and contemplation of God ; the Guana Kanda treats 
of the nature of the Supreme, Beginningless and 

!4. -Inferential Fallacies are four in number; 
Fallacies in reasoning (Hetu) are three; These 
Divide again into 21 ; Fallacies in agreement or 
analogy are IS ; Fallacies of Nigrahasthan are divided 
into two and Pub-divided into 22 ; There are 6 other 
gub-div'siorjs again. On the whole, the Fallacies are 
65 in number. 

J. M Nallaswami Pillai, b.a., b.l. 

14. We will discuss these fallacies in some future numbers. 




*i^-^<y Qtf>asrj§)Q#aj eff&r £>0*=u- sS«jitOeirgji., 

Jr m BKBUJ IT A' Gai-'pGsuSBI Ge»0illl$ l&ppBfif 

r lb tie *uiraj iSjfiGeu 
Jiptitet Qgd&iLW.r. Qfiri^jji© &JJ40.1U 

LjiriT&QtSi— Oioei(a'J^LDi!(Tj ,isaDp ,-ses>pSsitp 

u.flr^ir (gpejrra ^Qlo. {•=% J 

H. (I ! Thou Omnipresent lieing who dost (ill ftJ/ 
with Heatilic Bliss ! Thou being' the Omnipresent 
iiuiding Principle in all, my UL-tion.s are always 
Thine : mid because 1 om never live iudepender.t 
of Thee, I am not separate from Thee: -his is the 
stage where the Vedauta and the Xiddhanta can be 
understood to Le identical ; and to reach that high 
stage, Thou knowost that T h; ve struggled hard 
nod suffered very much. If [ should try a, little 
to lix my mind thereto. Ignorance (miura-iiialu)* 
gets hold of me again ; so I am afraid that Knruw, 
■inula and maya inula will pursue me and cause my 
rebirths. Thou do protect me, therefore, by granting 
tin- the true knowledge with which J can surely put 
tin end to my rebirths. 

2^$svv wtrSiiip :j,tt*ir.n-Qp£ C, si eii u /iS 'ft it 
QuxiBuso f^.i—aagj i£l-Qw 

Gt-ifBnSi— QtoesruT &seQun 
/j-T-farifl. OajSETunffloUff ffi9ii^ii.u^' Qio6"u/f£. 

/Ftl <_•*(& Gsmti (l*>Vfi 
a irCuKW'-'f &><x(inQL& wr.Qiz^ ui wiiii*(tf,£f 

(OTji^-ei'^ Geushrun &ei'Gun 

Qu&ax^ Qftrsmuir ffisuCo/r 

iSpsyQw Qldii l$&> Semeutun p. 
ijitfioe us it ili wear jfc jf/^9si>u uSuieCirp 

u kb F ^*) 6 " ! ** s1$Qt/>, (a) 

* Aiiur.i literally iiii-ans that which in exceed infjly email; the 
nun if Ann (si pviioiiytii fur suul) ; the soul which in a Vinhu in its 
rclil iiaturp is culled Ann in itB conjunction wjtji intava matu. 
Mi'Iu ib culled jiuwi rIbd. [ Yule also pape 10 of Translation of 
Siiutrnann Hutbom. First Iditiou and noto* to 2nd nnd 7rh tcisi-s 
*iiytt r tt\ 

U, ! Thou Omnipresent Being who dost fill all 
with Beatific Bbbs ! Some (such as the materialists) 
hold that the First Cause is the maya, the primor- 
dial state of the elements. Some say It is where 
the organs of sensation cease to work, and some, 
where the internal senses stop. Some call It the 
f-ffectlessness of the three principles* in nature. 
"According to some It is the form of the Sound 
and some assign to It the form of Pranava.j Some 
say that It. has a form and some argue thatjwhen 
carefully considered, It has no form. Some assert 
that It is the complete cessation of the Soul's sense 
enjoyment and some call It the Divine Ami (Sakti 
or Grace). And, lastly, according to some It is 
the state of annihilation that has neither begin- 
ning nor end : thus various other states also are 
assigned to It. By discussions such as the above, 
the mind must only be agitating like mercury, with- 
out ever seeking the Yoga of Supreme Dliss- 

esr/Sss> eu # a^sSl etneaaii 
asueu/fle^ ssaguGtD upjSesrjp up(^- 

Qtftaspfatt GmQgpu t-iuj.pfi!tit OiciLf^^nsf 
# s^a!a«»i_ Qifstt loGso 

girimiasn&i fi fliminrii Q&nGeotr 

£$fw£ifitoB Qfiesrpir fa*Qiutr 
fissi&nrG'jj Qisir'&iQ^) i§p&ioGjj G^neuQ&ri 
ppsteo Loe&fiGis/r euG<es) 

uB wrifp Giojp wjdGiuar 
wtit&(§L8i— Qittki^QiDtttTft iSiswp SstiTsQas p 

10. O ! Thou Omnipresent Being who dost fill all 
with Beatific Bliss! I cannot quite perceive the 
providential motive us to why I should have been 
limited asd placed like lighting in the darkness 
of Anava mala, my iniud at the same time dam- 
ning itself more and more to tliat ignorance. I 
cannot know by whom I' have been tempted into 
the belief that my body which resembles the bagpipe 
will last for ever; so that I have been all along 
indulging in the epicurean thought of simply 
feeding my stomach without ever strying to concen- 
trate my mind in blissful meditation, I think it has 
been my desire that has brought me in contact 

* The three principles in nature are the 3;jvn<ts — Sfltwa, Rvjas, 
and Tamatt. 

t Pranava is the chief immfur fanr-i^rl word) of the Hindu 


■with this Prapancha* such as mj parents Ac., who 
is blameworthy for this? Myself? Or others ? Or 
does the fault at each to my present life t Or, shall 
I say to 'my past karma which has caused my re- 
birth* T 

mist* QfieSurQiciifiaj aiQ^tuar QwevnSLDiL/ff 

UsQw6ht fikfifui 6l 0, /in p> wdipsK p 
vat-inn i&iot <•(?•!' 

Outii'jtfi—^u B%tuiua* Qpetu 
GuoaQxpB <'^g tte&tfljs lunsaibi 

&tmrsu&p jstairi—t SGeiir 
uWftjg iuj}<utrjs QukhssiGui t&xaiL^e&—.'u 
i-fp(#f& &p& CviT^iaJ an n uj 

uMt^ir gws pQw, ( MM ) 

II. 0! Thou Omnipresent Being who dost fill all 
with Beatific Bliss ! Thou hast been so much Graci- 
ous to me as to have taught me to submit myself 
to the inscrutable deoress of Thy providence and 
to be confident of all that I was not destined to 
never happening to me at all. It has been Thy 
Grace also that has helped me 10 know the tran- 
sientness of my body and to see the absence of 
difference between the Vedanta aud the Siddhanta. 
Than hast produced in me such excessive love for 
+ he eternal Happiness that I am ever pining for 
the same. Placing myself entirely at Tby mercy I 
pray to Thee to bestow upon me the power of con- 
centrating my thoughts always by profound medi- 
tation in Toga where the Tatwasf from earth Ac. 
can never act. 

JtUXiuS «aDffaS«rn9 iBp^eSfei GtuiGsiriQ-iu 

euJSL-f&sg lE£)€ii^— aierafip* aSn»2ru Giu-r 

suGftiJfi gSsn Gx,vm. 
SBW'K-D eti^nSfis s$ai?a>Giijir Qux^afis 

^Ct^Gm ama^LD ea&npf ^SsmiNp 

jFQftifi 0—eSai ckutju-ur 
ainws^ aiiripQai <i9 a n lost \* tuvp&faiq 

Ui_uiiac a.'«V sSteoQu-iir 
i&ssMtaipr «(T#(Uff«w GsnowdiB^ fispqeas 

* Prapancha, is the umnifested universe. It is also otherwise 
called as he, she and it, <>r us Thanu. (animal ho<lies\ K«,;n>„ 
(senses), Buvana (worlds) and {Bhnc,*, eensutious). (I /*■ p. * "1 
Translation of Sivagnana Botham .) 

t Tatwas means ihe com|.oncnt parts in nature ; they arc DO 
m number of which 24, five senses 4c. belting to man. 

t-i-Lf>tsBT QmnsTinairiii @aS a. Qa.< ir q p&Psuj 

uasregyiat ^sb"£' &(Tkem ■ "Qiurf 
uirnityiB^ OLoisgQjviJig 6dzu,p iStapSsrp 

cj/flyff ggiarr.j fi f -si£. (#a.) 

li>. 01 Thou Omnipresent Being who dost fill nil 
with Heatinc Bliss ! Is it a difficult thing for Thee 
to devise me a contrivance to concentrate my 
wicked inind in meditation ? No. Nothing is difficult 
or iw possible for Thee : For instance, it is by Thy 
U ill that with the mure-like fire fixed in the centre, 
the Hreat deep stops in its limit without an em- 
bankment round it; the tr v/f»/V J««V»»* was easily 
t a ken in aa food and the Jlernt mountain bent into 
a bow, landless worlds stop where they sts in the 
hejivens, and the seven clords gather and move under 
the orders of bidrai who is holding the thunder-bolt. 
Sri- Bunia'f foot-dust turned thf stone into a girli : 
sicd in this world tarfotw powers are resorted to with 
success such as alchemy Ac. 

j^eme-dQat! itnitaSeuiR! aSuO^ec sctfmziLis. 

Gu-JiQ'-iiTes'i&s smeUj*^ Gu(m 
Gi&0£> ir&suKp tS^ca^s sSfotijgi&SL'iT 

0,B®'or «iiti(g*# Gu(n 
iB3)i>ujiis GoinSsfim -oiusp uisQgUf. 

G'aj.7ffiig5ti Ger&truSp u&!gf syewujg; 

QptnerGp Gun jsreir gjCWwa faetJiGtu 

Qujirsi>eB>p>e3 Oi—Hsajti Lip^u 

Lin-r^ at— p(§GsfT al?£pffirra r tbesppp 

unns^tS^— QusiB(gQis>ii(7i\ /%£&L£p iBoepSsirp 

p,fly<r gWf ?Qti. («,-bt) 

13. ! Thou Omnipresent Being who dost fill all with 
Beatific Bliss ! Tb?re is no limit for the human desires 
in this world : Desirous of more power, ihe IJulers of 
land want to extend their rule over the Sea; coveting 
for more riches, the richest men, who are next to 
JCmc« : ™,j1 aspire for learning the art of alchemy, 
seized.with lust ; men who have already existed too 
loner, want to remain here, more and struggle in vain 

* Tile nlliieinn is to tlm Supreme Siv^'ft wet of savin? the 
DWUli li'V commandinK and tHking in [lie noison tlsnt innsurd 
1 1,, viii ivhon they churned the White Sen to get ambrosia. 

+ J/.-, « is i he Himalavan ilonntain ivhU'li was hy $u,, ln-m 
anil used :is il how to destroj the A"i."< »f JVrjitn/ 

* luu'l-n is liic Kin;,' (if the i''i".« 

i Tin' ■.-irl is Akaliiasln: ihr- wife i-l' Sh" "nf nn-rd 

liv 'her !ilsIj:li.,1 for luring le>l an'tmj l-v I in Iti* (hiislMri'i'tt 

aba.-iH-o. '1'ln- rolii'F wiis unhiined I" '"' hj R:nna s" fuvt-diibi 
Heuer tin' ajliitiou hi're. 

8' r,,-,,,, ia il.e God o[ wealth. called hy tlie Hindus. 


for such medicaments as can give them physical 
strength. What is the real use of nil this * I tliirk 
it is nothing but to eat well and sleep well. 

O Lord ! 1 would rest content with gifts I am 
already possessed of. Grant me, now the power to 
concentrate my mind in mono, by the help of which 
I can free myself from the trammels of Haughtiness 
and set off safe across the depth of passions. 

£ gfiuJie. ■ ;u lEaiOwLSiriLi s»tl#M'iB*uJ /£,rrtu 
<£ 9o p en a iLt- /$ (£3 4 t* 

sno/«'£i(J>>'F p ibraAiDit tuie&isp ivtuLBtrs 

uxor *• ti &• 0*L.i_-irf' 
&££(B)*-tiiLi£airr,QaiT(i!<asiT;& &&!rpibuuQt->(rt l Qsu meatus 

Sjim:; Qf'xjGj* in. 


14. I think on the eternal Hrahm.* the pure, 

Ali-blis*, All-right, in Tur'ya^ state perceived; 
It has no form, nor ail, nor mundane state; 
Yet is tli' First Cause of all (soul and not soul) 
All It fills; why, the Ether Great it is : 
Th' Intelligence beyond, our thought and speech. 
To true love It reveals, to else conceals. 

Quffn & ihf£& 

00aii-tgir ultimas &#gn&pu Qlj^u ffwfl«Bit;# 
£)/iea'fi 0#iiL*Bj'iL2. 

15, Again I think oh the Pure Heavenly Light 
The aim of Agaruti\ and Veda both; 
The Soul of Souls, the fountain head ot Bliss 
For those devoted; and to these doth show 
Itself devoid of form and attribute :— 
Ii forma the thought of thoughts th' mind is heir to. 

■e • God is gnat ami sobtile and Hence H:a name liralim or 
Brahma or Br&hmam or Brahman, the Lord over Trinitv. 

+ Vide note to 7th verse. 

t Agama is the Siddhanto Saetra giving the trne meaning and 
end uf the Tedae. 

QuiQbj G unrest u> 
aiQiBi—u.niL: iDariDiQs Qsd !—<r fi Quififiru 

l&lUWTtLl lGFfi&l& 
Qj$lB «U lUfi 11 !U i <* «H .5 fl Qfi ikjk U "2u T (Iff xr is# u Ou n (J. ufiX&x (U Ksjs 

16. On What Celestial Joy I meditate, 

Wliich the initiated* soul absorbs 
And flows and mixes in them still unknown ; 
Which is beyond our tho.ugut, beyond onr speech; 
And which the monaf only can lead to : 
The AkasJ whence th' five elements evolve : 
§)&uBQfi Qp <ii it *(g uS eaa tuitSsisi&rppjD &i<vjpee>ai 

a-«u : fli^ jrasrwsir ^jr^euicu Qsn&a paDffi 
jL'iHiu evri£iss£ii 

ili lB a an <b iBiis- 
Qtnir^QiDnQ^e^ ji'fytSifiilJ Qpfiy*e<Dpu\-'£ *fft.cei;ir&elr 

QpSipjSg) MpuitLc. (*") 

17, Let me think on and worship with my hands 
And my tears of joy pouring forth in drops 
Let me so worship the All-filling Bliss 
Enjoyed in TurJya ; the Nectar sweet 

As honey soaked in supar-candy, fruits. § 
It is the life of life on Heaven and Earth. 
And friend to tlio redeemed from / me' and l mine\ 
&ir@(ffjaiui tSputSpuL/u ump-QftpQ hjQ^aKnaifi 

pStums^f, Q^iuil/^ 

jp/fluj miKLpeaiGi!^ 
0JHniUB~ miruiQi-iiTQdstrfi ^QeuQQei:. ^Sswa/jr«ff 

13. On Brnhm Supreme The Pure Celestail Light 
Let me by its Divine Grace meditate : 
Because with joy It fills the Muhta's mind 
In Turiya state ; and to all it stands 
Nbn-dualistic[| ; for it has no form 

* Purified or Banctified by the Sargurn (Divine Teacher}. 
t Vide note to tl..? 2nd verse wpra. 

J As M** (either) ie to the lower 4 elements bo God is to the 
live elements : ether, air, fire, water and earth. 

§ The reference i« to the three principal fruiia mavmo, pfa.'t»»w 
andjoct./nnf. These three fruits are held by the Hindus to be 

the .nnst-deticioaa three. 

|| Non-dualiatic is synonymous with adwaftha relation (Vide 
note to the 3rd verse J. 


Nor name, nor caste, nor death, nor Hell ; 
Nor lineage It -has ; nor Heaven nor Hell ; 
Nor without form It is ; In all things, henee, 
Does It reside and does It all things guide. 

§)$$&!*' f^th'teraf <»/r«r«Ca? Ulrtv^so* 

**ppQp& ®puspjnr e&L$nj<r& pputpeep* 
mt'Kjp mmyf* 

LfiptoS appntntegib fee^—iupipi 1 ' fvif^sumrsirti 

<3une9a GmJshQp 
«i'*^0gjfKi (5(nj0u>«T-«^ Losdnf^nfot ujD^arQp-ji 

19. My JUiuKna Guru * I adore, and praise 
Hie lotas-like feet with undying lcve ; 
For, his initiative f sign and grace 
Has flooded my mind with beatitude : 
Has pinned my thoughts to the Eternal Lord 
And on Him to depend taught me so well 
That this world to me is, thence, but a dream 
Or is a juggling or mirage lake. 

mkp un3 

iSssipiQ&i S/putia, I 2 -©) 

■S*>. I worship The Light which onr darkness thrives : 
As 8at J It is the causeless cause of all ; 
As Qhit It marks the goal for devotees ; 
As A-aanda It plnngs them in Bliss. 

j»(Bju>*»*!(t9 Jr &gu 1 2u*Qm'B<L> dajGamiiutr QfwQmi&pp, 
QfflaiJIu Lj,Ofmu>ir*j£ jrjnai^g lj3b»*l_/b> 

QjFIKin) Utufii 

QpnQggGO Osf-n.ejt'Ut. i 5 - 9 ) 

21. I worship 27if GreaY Brahm that fills in ai/, 
And yet to Derat, Sishit, Sidhat § hid ; 

'• Movna Guru a descendant from the Saint rfiirtauutai is onr 
TWyitmiiiwwii-'* Spiritual Teacher. 

t Initiation it the fitri'i purifying touch with hi* sacred hand 
oi foot on the worthy diiciplc's head enlightening and benefitting 
him {disciple) for Mokaha. 

J Vide end of lit Verse. 

\ Sidhu are the Yogis working miraculous power* which are of 
eight kinds. Devas are Gods, Bishi is the sole beholder of God 
(from Daaarat) or from ri=Lo go. 


The Subtile It is and all things pervades 
Aft body's life, seed's oil, or flower's smell : 
The Brahm in Tier' yapada.* hence, It is, 
And the Supreme End of the Veda* rare. 
Nay, the eternal Sat beyond compare. 

Osusir.iLHuj tQtrai 

Qpsis^aijP uia.dSi xiSfi £i7^r)-t& O f iii f- (W serf. 
tSeupQiu iqmr pssr 

i—1atGu>p Q&i oneuirih. 


22. O ! Mercif nl Lord, praise be to Thy Lo ,-e 

That to the matured souls the Guanauff yields? 

Thy own Love it is that confines their mind 

And, when they know Thee, drowns them in deep Bliss. 

Thou Bright Akas, with my heaved up hands 

1 worship Thee. Thou dost keep and control 
The elements five, ether and the whole. 

eStmmBsnpisp QatsBiunQtuai u>arQaiifiu$ji> iezisp/Swia 
QeusfiuS gfflSii 

pea»Q aj §emur 
jlfSiteafteapiB/f Quassut ^idr^r^S Quartfl(S)enj$ 
ft/avt&s iur'ms, 

*©#^** ">«"Ju» ■'■•>. ( e -' 16 ) 

23. O ! The Great Akas whei-e the ether % rests ! 
O ! Thou, The Grand Eternal Bliss, that dost 
Flow and fill as sweet as Ambrosia 

Alike my wind § and my intelligence ! 
In love surpassing I esteem Thy Grace, 
Devoting my mind, my tongue and my act — 
To wit — my tongue to blab, my mind to melt, 
My tears of jo^ to pour down as 1 left. 

* Tvriijapoda is the Blissful Fourth State of the Supreme Brahm 
or Sivara as distinct from that of Brahma, Vishnu and Bodra res- 

f Gitanam means knowledge, Intelligence or Wisdom. 

J c. f. "aittariya Upanishad, Brahmanaiidavalli, lit Anuvaka.— 
" From that Soul (Brahm) rcriiv " eprang forth the ether, — from 
the ether the " air, — from the air tire, — from fire the waters, — 
" from the waters the earth, — Ac." 

§ Mind here neans tmnm* representing the 4 Jindhaiaranaima 
(internal seniei). 


Jjlsiu.'j/nb jit _i_ tp Qppee.r Oajuomtu) 

ffiQuQA (SjQwivcS mat tu it i Oii_^i 

& & * uj Lf.g lL- « OffieftDpitiu: ,Blc&> lbuS 

tatB/tlBfttQ PL£OjQ<lfi,i sSuJ^.g'V 

QLturergSgnn ljI! euQuL-iiifivti iL: turn si sir t£a:p 

24. T worship the Eternal Light Supreme. 

The Truth that can be neither said noi* thought; 
Nor He has ties nor blemish nor decay : 
Nor can the bigoted -c.'kioU i/uv miiulw Htiti ; 
Let me adore Him with tears of joy. 
For He is our life-guard and does protect 
With motherly love and appeal's to us 
As Sargiirn* in mcmirf whesn we are. 

uffmnSff Q^oeisifliu u"iin silo ujjiSiS 

SsMatutr ufSujirnr Qu«(gferr jjirjfl. 

Qatl.'BitSnfijvu GuneFrun e&dbwjsdu Qs-iutuati, (^@) 

2"). Though letters, consonants, if joined to ' « ' 
Can only sound and otherwise are mute, 
Yet they are not by nature, birth, the same ; 
So Pasupathi Th' Benen'cient Lord 
Is the Guide of all things and yet not all 
With no likes nor dis'ikes He does His act ; 
The Malta Chaitanyavi X in form He is ; 
By Himself He stands -not describable ; 
Lo ! Then, on Him with love J meditate. 

R. SnixjrccA.ii Mciiai.iai:. 

[The translation of the first 10 stanzas has been 
already brought out separately and our friend has been 
pleased to continue his translation in the pages of this 
Magazine. We hope to present the first part also to 
our readers ; we are glad to s,ppend the following 
opinions lie has already received, — Ed.] 

* SmriHiH Tiicana tiie Divine Tpticlicr. 
y Vide note to 2mt verse for ' Jlona.' 

* Miffet =jfW«lt ; ChitilPiiif'tii' ---Iiitelliifcncp. 
(JW'i=Soul with )*rr«i ; pat hi -s lionl)-=Tlir Lord of tonic 

c. f. "of tetters, the letter ' « ' I am. Hnvinjt pervided '? the 
whole universe \ritTi H portion of myself, I r\ist " — (iitn. c. f. also 
the liral verse of the sacred Kurnl :- - 

(just as'"* It end* nil letters and helps them to sound, go tlic 
Supreme Bralim is tUo ruler of tlio universe), e. f. 8th verse. 


"I am very much obliged to you for the translation 
of out 1 ' ,s"^JLOir^)i '■ They are very well done and 
I appreciate the translation very much. I will request 
you to continue in the task " * * * * * 

(Sd.) J. M. Nallaswami Pillai, b.a., b.l., 

District Munsilf, Ckittore, 

uzt—eo' j§Jisi s^s. Quhtl^I Outf!JL( £ eat— <g £? u Ou(j^ 
mSujjs v^iQjtsv', * * * *■ 

tuppCi ug^iSbffiyuj Qantr^&io Qstirsj&wir* QlditiSQuii-iit 

(ffOuii) S. SOMASl'SDARA NayaOAR, 


2Urd March 1897. 

" I acknowledge with thanks the receipt of Trans- 
lation of the Poem of the Saint Thaynmanavar of 
Southern India. I have read it with great interest 
I hope you will continue your studies and translate 
like works." 

33rd March 1897. 


Sigh Court, Bombay. 

" We are glad to welcome this translation of the 
first few stanzas of the great Tamil Sage. The lan- 
guage of Thayumanavar has an inimitable -grace and 
a mysterious something in it, which refuse to be trans- 
ferred to any translation, however careful. It is our 
opinion that none less than an Edwin Arnold, with 
greater capacity than even he had for entering' into 
Indian thought, can do anything like justice to the 
task of translating the poems of ihe sage. The present 
attempt, however, is good so far as it goes and de- 
serves every encouragement. The translation reads 
well and is nowhere too strict to the letter. The 
noble object of familiarising the Tamil Upanishadw 
to the English educated world has our fullest sym- 
pathy, and we hope that the translator will soon finish 
the work so well begun." 

Vide The "Awakened India" fa monthly Journal 
of Hindu Philosophy and Religion) of April 1897. 



Uk. g. u. pope* 

Masicea vachakab was one of the greatest of Hindu 
Poets, Saints rnd Sages : a typical Gwu. It is very 
difficult to disentangle his history from the multitude if 
legends in which it is involved ; but we have fifty-two 
Tamil poems ascribed to him. and (in the main) genuine. 
FroLi these something of his character, history, and 
teaching may he gathered. When they are careful!}' 
studied the figure of a real man is seen. 

In preparing a work on the * Poets, Saini and tfagen <•} 
the Tamil-land,' I have had occasion to study n£ h of the 
wonderful Saiva literature existing iii Tamil. To Euro- 
pean students this mixture of philosophy and religion 
presents an exceedingly interesting field of investigation-, 
since no non-ehristiau system so nearly resembles Chris- 
tianity/, in of its aspects ; and, certainly, none hn> 
departed so far, in other very important respects, from 
•what Christians recognise as pure,and holy. The constant 
mixture of loftiest aspirations, tenderest prayers. ami 
sublimest adoration with wild legends, and with symim- 
liBm much of which mast seem to us nnconth, repe!l;m(. 
unworthy and degrading, makes this Saiva Psalter in- 
tensely fascinating. The Saiva Siddliantaf system i I self 
is the choicest (pure Sonth Indian) prodnct of Dmvidinn 
intellect and ought to be studied by all who seek in influ- 
ence the Tamil mind. If an edition of Manicka Vwehisfc.-tr - 
poems which are bo exceedingly precious in the sij^lil of 
the Tamil people, with English translation, ciinral 
apparatus, lexicon and concordance, can be issued, its I hi" 
writer hopes, it will with the Kuru' and y,i<i,uliiju, 
already published, enable the student of Tamil in miner 1 
stand with tolerable accuracy the mental attiuiih- of it.*" 
very interesting peoples of South India. 

Mancika V&ehakar, whose legend (with those of uj Itt j ■•) 
it is hoped to publish, was a strange mixture of Si l*a>il 
and St. Francis of Assisi (not without somotWiusi of 
St. Dominic). According to tradition lie was the I Tommer' 
of the Buddhists. It seems certain. H.t any rate, that he 
was the great reviver of Saiva worship in the south, in 
or about 9th Century (A. D.),J and that he was engaged 

•Dr. U. U- f*up« l»is kindly eeut this to as fur puolkuliou m al 
Bpeeijiieii ivhich we do so with inudi jileaaure. Tliis jioitiun w:is 
published Bometime »;;<> in The Indian Mnpn-iiu- ""il flrvieir «« 
bcttcv-ts. At the sH^jjeation of a respected Mod irf ours, Ur. U. L. 
Pope inU'iide bringing out Manicka. Vachakar'a life in Tamil also. 

This ia the Tamil form or Ilia name, and is eqnivhleiii o> lln; 
St. Manicka Vachafci ('Author of Rabrj-Uks tttfemucex}.' 

+ This is the of Saiva'a law. It ie expounded in ftmrrwn 
treatise.- l*y the SafcMuMttt Uwm (Teacher of the auceesaioul, 

J [According to the facts brought out by Profi?aeoi- Bundrmii 
Pillai, in hie ' Soine mile-atones," Manicka Vachakar'a date must 
be sought very far behind the 6th century.— Eo.] 

in a life long struggle with Buddhists, and other sectaries 
whom he does not in his poems elearij indicate. 

By the Christians in Ti-avancore he was confounded 
with Manes ; and it is an ascertained fact that he 
visited the western coast, and held intercourse with the 
Nestoritin Christians, who were then very influential in 
those regions , nor is it improbable that he learn* much 
from them, and exercised in return some influence over 
them. The (peculiarly Tamil) Saiva Siddhanta system of 
the south contains very much that may well have had its 
origin in such Christian influences. 

I venture to offer here, as a rpecimen of Saiva literature, 
a transcript of a, hymn sung to this day in all the Siva 
shrines of Sontli India, jrrcnt and small. Of course very 
little of the exceed in.u- beauty of the Tamil original can be 
preserved in a.lir.rul translation; but the attempt has 
been made to give with absolute fidelity some idea of this 
exquisite ' Morning Hymn.' Almost every line requires 
annotation, but this must be reserved for a complete 
edition. These remarkable poems are full of a simple 
fervour, which Tamil people, find absolutely irresisti) le ; 
niul hence with Saivas they (jnite faku the place occupied 
nrcioug Christians '»} Llie IJook of Psalms. 

Lew of *.he world's biographies are more interesting 
Hum that; of this man of rare genius ; who, in his early 
youth. when he was the favourite and chief minister of 
the great King of Madura, met with, and was converted 
l>y a Saiva f/«i/i., whom he then und always believed to 
In 1 IS i van himself, anil became at ouee mi utterly .self- 
reiniiiiii-iiig ascetic Saiva mendicant; i-ouliiiuing instant 
in labours, patient iit suJfcviujr. and constant in devotion, 
llimugli the many years of his after life. 

MoitxiXG iiymx r_v the temple 


Hail ! Being, Source to nie of ail life's joys ! 'Tis dawn ; 

upon Thy flower like feet tv, in u tenths of blooms we lay 
And worship, 'neath the beauteous suiilo of grace benign 

that from Thy sat. red face beam:- on us. Siva-Lord, 
Who dwell'st iu Poiim-Tiinai f ^irt with cool rice fields, 

where mid tho fertile soil th' expanding lotus blooms • 
Thou on whose lifted banner is the Bull !J Master! 

Our rnijrhty Lord ! from uff Thy conch in grace 

•The iuiojjc "f tin" ifod is hii.1 it email rnch evening, unci 
mkeii up in tlr? nifji'iiinfj. 'J'liia ■■crci/tc is the first bHEioeas of the 
lift* Tliid fieet»« bMiniyely nt vui-iuiiee with verse o. 

+ TI»is ViiH c(ni)|iu*tfil [n J\'..itfTttri-tii t 'the grunt hnruour,' 
whcvi' tl"' |- ■*'! wi'ut [<> Imy horsei for his King, a ml Has matte a 
HiiU-ipIc of liy Siva 

J 1'lie hull is Bivti's cmhlem. lie riiles nil a white trnJi. It ia 
affd <>u Ilia bniiier. Thv hull-lioadud Xamii ia hia Lord High 
Chai-uLTluin, whose image ia everywhere in South India. 


The sun bas neared the eastern bound*; darkness departs; 

dawn broadens out ; and, like that sun, the tenderness 1 
Of Thy bleat face's flower uprising shines ; and so, 

while bourgeons forth the fragrant flower of Thine eyes' 


SouBd the King's dwelling fair bum myriad swarms of 


See Siva-Lord, in Perttn-Turrai's hallowed shrine who 


Houataii of blisa, treasures of grace who com'st to yield ! 
surging sea! from off Thy conch in grace arise ! (2) 

The tender Kuyil's* note in heard ; the cocks have crowed ; 

thj little birds sin^ out ; loud sound the tuneful shells ;§ 
Starlight; have paled; day's lights npiu the eastern hill 

are mustering. In favouring love O show to us 
Thy twin feet, anklet-dec ked.|| divinely bright; 

Siva-Lord, in Ferun Turrafs hallowed shrine who dwel- 
Thee all find hard to know ; easy to us Thine own. 

Our mighty Lord, from off Thy conch in grace arise!(3) 

There stand the players od the sweet voiced lute and lyre; 

there those that utter praises with the Vedic chant ; 
There those vhose hands bear wreaths of flowers entwined; 

there those that bend, that weep, in ecstasy that faint ; 
There those that clasp above their heads adoring hands ; 

Siva-Lord, in Perwi-Turrai'x hallowed shrine who dwel- 

Me too make Thou Thine own, on me sweet grace bestow ! 

Our mighty Lord from off Thy conch in grace arise !(4) 

' Thou dwell'st in all the elements,' 'tis said ; and yet 

' Thou goest not, nor com'st ;' the sages thus have sung 
Their rhythmic songs. Though neither have wc heard nor 


of those that Thee by seeing of the eye have known. 
Thou King of Peruii-Tuimi,' girt with cool rice fields, 

To ponder Thee is hard to human thought. To us 
Id presence come ! Cut off our ills ! In mercy make us 


Our mighty Lord, from off Thy couch in grace arise !(5) 

Thy Saints, who finless in Thy home abide and know, 
their bonds cast off; have come, and- now, a mighty host; 

• The orisinul ssys, lndra'it icRion, since he is recent of the. 
East, There are H points of the Cosnpass. Over each ft deity 

+ This passage it n curious doullc _r,ite,iAfe. It mny nlen Iw 
rendered ' the vast nsscniblcd host sing the six-syllabled' ; om-ri- 
iw-^a-ri(i-)H«/i. The bees, or winged beetles, are failed by inetniioniv 
* sii-feeto.' 

JThe Koi), or Knyil for which there is na English name It 
is the ' Indian nightinRflte,' a small bird with a very tender note ; 
it jnuat not be confounded with the 'Indian Cuckoo,' which is a 
larger bird, the (' golden nn'(jfr,')aiii1 net a sweet singer. 

| The fkmkh*, o» conch-shell, used in the temple music. 

|| Worn especially by Kings and heroes. 

With beanteons garlands decked, and clothed in human 


they all adore Thee, Bridegroom -of the Goddess dread f 

Siva-Lord, who dwell'st in Pemii-Turrai' s hallow'd shrine, 

Girt with cool rice-fields, where th' empurpled lotus 

[blooms ! 

Cut off this ' birth,'* make us Thine own,bc stow Thy grace! 

Our mighty Lord, from off Thy couch in grace arise !(6) 

' The flavour of the fru'lt is that '; ' ambrosia that '; 

' that's hard '; 'this easy': thus Immoi tals too know not! 
'This is His sacred form ; this is Himself ": that we 

may say and know, make us Thine own ; in grace arise ! 
In Uttara-Kosa-Manrjats^ sweet perfumed groves 

Thou dwell'st! O King of Fervn-Turrais hallowed shrine! 
Whai service Thou demandest, Lo ! we willing pay. 

Our mighty Lord, from off Thy couch in grace arise !(7) 

Before all being First, the Midst, the Last art Thou. 

The Three J know not Thy nature : how should others 

[know ? 
Thou, with Thy fawn like spouse, Thy servants' lowly huts. 

in grace did'st visit, entering each, Supernal One ! 
Like ruddy fire Thou once did'st show Thy sacred form ; 

did'st show me Penui-Tnirai'* temple, where Thou 

[dwell'st ; 
As Anihanan§ did'st show Thyself, and make me Thine. 

Ambrosia rare from off Thy conch -m grace arise ! • (8) 

The gods in heaven who dwell may not approach Thy seat! 

O Being worthiest ! Us who worship at Thy foot 
To this earth having come. Thou caasedBt to be blest. 

Dweller in fertile Peruu-Tunai's shrine ! our eyes 
Beheld Thee ; honied sweetness made our being glad. 

Ambrosia of tl\e sea ! Sweet sugar-cane '. Thou: art 
Within Thy longing servants' thought! Soul of this 

[world ! 

Our mighty Lord, from off Thy couch in grace arise \ (9) 

'Tis time we went to earth -no more, were born no more ! 

This day in vain we spend, look forth and cry ; 
'Ah, when, and how will Si van come this earth to save ?' 

Thou King, Who dwell'st in Peinn Tit,ra& hallow'd 

Mighty Thou wert to enter earth, and make us Thine ; 

Thou and the Grace, that flower like blooins from forth 

[Thy form- 
Which sacred Mai || and flower-born Ayan IT hinged to see! 

Ambrosia rare, from off Thy covch in grace arise ! <_10) 

• Compare by Niliidiyar, Chapter XI pages 66 to 68. 
hUttarn-KosB-Manpfti, an Ancient Pandiau capital, 8 miles 
gbnth West of Ramnad. 

X i. c. In dm, Brahma and Vishnu. 

§ A title of Brahmnns. (See Pope's Kurnl in Lei.) 

|| A name: of Vishnu. 

•T A name of Brahma. 

This ip Hymn XX in the fkiruvachakajrn. 




O K 

Siddhanta Deepika. 

MONDAY, THE 21st JUNE 1897. 


A Floeal Wbeath. 
Whit is there in Nature so full of beauty and so 
symbolic of the heart's purity, innocence, and love 
and joy, as the tiniest flower of the field ? Wh:it reflects 
the great Divine Beauty and the Divine Loveliness 
and the Divine Harmony more than the lowliest blos- 
som of the dale ? The freshness, the" symmetry and 
the delicate tracery of those flowers, bow tbey appeal 
to man's inmost nature and how inspriting they' are 1 
Need we wonder therefore that they have attracted, 
not more than what they are entitled to we should say, 
the attention and love of the Oriental ; and they enter 
Jargely into his enjoyments, bis Religion and Philoso- 
phy. They hold a considerable place in Oriental 
eyiabology and the Indian fans loved to illustrate his 
great truths from flowers. No ceremonies can be 
performed without flowers } and he loves to deck with 
them the Presence of his Heavenly Father and he calls 
out to his bretbern. 

" &jpm*pa$djmr& O Ye who wish to attain Peace of mind 

JI##S®**» If Ve. oar Father of Arur, worship 

o^gmMf jrii With Flowers of Bhakthi. 

(ji^^it^djiiJii Then will Te attain Moktlii — (Deraram) 

The flower in its trifold character of flower, colour 
and fragrance appeals to him as the visible presence 
of That which is Sat, Chit and Ananda. 

'' L±aiemw*J> li eSeaweaiLD Guftn QiotLi uG Lit pdl is u 
uxrsjoircsir QunumGanaai-^ mi&J 1 

" Like the flower, its colour and its fragTsncc 

The Lord ai Sat. Chit and Ananda assumes from." 

Says the author of " Thiruvilayadal Puran," a 
work by the way noted for its charming diction and 
great powers of clear description. 

Our Saint Appar addresses this Divine Form as 'O! 
Tbon cow, the five products of the cow, ! Thou Intelli- 
gence, Thou Ajrni, Thou Sacrificial food, Thou Tonpne, 
words proceeding from the tongue, Thou Lord, present 
in the heart ot the four Veda", Thou Flovcer, fragrance 


present in thefiower, Thou joy offiovivt present in the 
hearts of the freed, Thou Deva, Deva of Bevas, Thon 
Effulgent Snn, Lo ! Such is Thy Divine Presence." 

To the philosophic and highly devout Maniekava- 
chaka, the delicate connection of the flower -and its 
fragrance has appealed io another light and he sings of 
'*His greatness, in filling all inseparably and surpas- 
singly like, the fragrance of the flower." 

In another place, he compares this very connection 
to the connection of body and soul and in comparing 
both to the connection of the Param distinguishes them 
at the same time. 

Girig^gj ij « ill ante? LI a SO 
upp> eoteuC^nir SlmotSleittiu ufDQui>(i£uir 
j> uQ ui (Qsp untrnQp 

t5pfiiQ&<Tp G/BatiuirGio 
u-\g r & @)ffler© 1 S6iJ7' ear m. luifl jb &.tLtB.HJ 

r; Like the sonl prpsent in the body and the fragrance 
in the flower, The Supreme (Param) pervades them and 
surpasses all. The fools, not perceiving tnis truth, 
Biraply delight in enjoying the fruits of their own 
Karma. The words of these, my Father has taught 
me not to listen by making me his slave and has drawn 
me to the society of his Bhnktas. This miracle has 
been permitted to me to see !" 

Though God's connection with ns is compared to 
the connection of the sou) and the body, yet in this 
case, the of the soul is still confined 
to the body and the connection yields the sonl only a 
a fancied pleasure, and not a re;il and lasting one, 
differing thereby from the Supreme- who pervades all 
and surpasses all and who is all Love and all Bliss, 
ready to impart this Love and Bliss to those who 
understand him as such ; and whon this undying love 
(jjr^ff.T ji/tKij) is possessed, then thnt very moment, 
" the fragrance of Sivam (Love, Aoanda) will blow 
v. it ^f the flower of Jiva," 

" 9 m guv^fr Gar Saiu-aa it ££££&" — [Thirttmular.) 

That great Yogin, Thirumular is very prolific in 
the use of the simile of the flower, and amidst a variety 
of such we select one in which he piles his flowers 
(of Rhetoric) thick, one over the other, to express the 
omnipresence of the most Supreme. 


"My Lord and my King is present) united in all 
like feeling in air, sugar in the cane, butter in milk 
and the aweet j nice in the fvnit and the fragrance in 
the blossom" 

"«ff«£gvj»ib ttQwtSe&p «ff(_ifu^ii) 

^aSjpar itipjDQpCo Qurrggert* erunJStop 
jrrfiugu Ge&t&^-j) aso/s^ S "as gpG est ." 

Oar Saint Thayumannvar, whose felicity in epithets 
and phrase making, we will some day illustrate, uses 
most happy language in this connection in invoking 
tha» llock of Love 

"O.' Thou support of the devotud who attain to the 
Limitless Yoga Sainadi by the one word (of their 
Divine Guru) when they view this vast world as the 
Supreme Btis.s ! O ! Though loving friend of even my 
lowly self ! ! Thou Hock of joy, uniting with and 
showing in all bodies and the world and the souls like 
tLe fragrance playing on the. half blown jiower shaped 
like the half parted, elegant and sweet toned tinkling 
bells on children's feet." 

The co-nparison of the half opened flower (iii the 
Jasmine for instance) in which the fragrance is the 
sweetest aud sharpest to the sweet bells with half 
parted months tied round children's feet is most happy 
and delicious. 

Navkirav is a very aucient author said to belong to 
the last Sangam or College of Pundits in Madura and 
he has, 

** Lo ray Lord of Kailasa, which soars high above 
all, without any other higher than itself, is present in 
all like the meaning in the word and the soul in 
the body and tlm fragrance, hi the, fU>u:er " 

We will weave into this growing breath one mare 
flower caHed from the garden (Sivabogasaram) of the 
founder of the Dharmamira Mutt, inasmuch as it 
illustrates the weaning of ' Adwaitha' clearly. 

"The Adwaitha relation of God and the perfected 
soul in Mukti is like the adwaitha relation existing 
always hetween tire and wood, heat and water, 
sweetness and honey, fragram-i nnd fioicer, akas and 

Mightily diffident us we are of achieving any 
thing without the Grace (Arul .Agjeir) of the most 
High, and without the spirits of the sanctified filling 
our inmost soul, we have helped ourselves to these holy 
flowers of His Bhaktas to make a wreath and lay at 

the fragrant Lotus Feet of Him, who has never been 
known to forsake his devotee* and pray to him in all 
love and in all humility to crown onr humble efforts 
with success. 


We "may be pardoned if we* aim too high. Our 
aim is no less thau to transplant in the Indian soil 
some of those activities in the field of Indian Religion 
and literature nnd history which are carried on in 
far off countries by Western Savants, and to stimulate 
indigenous talenu to work und achieve a moderate 
share of success in these departments. In fact the 
foremost difficulty in carrying out our enterprise 
which was pointed out to us by our friends, nay^ wh*t 
we have ourselves felt is in finding contributors; 
and translators among Indians on such sobjects. And 
is not this difficulty owing to the fact that our attain' 
meats are not deep in any one subject, either in langu- 
age or history or science and that it is too superficial to 
be of any value and that we do find very few young 
Indians after a general course, taking up any one 
subject for their pleasure, for their special improve- 
ment and for their hobby in after life. We are heavily 
handicapped by want of means, .opportunities, good 
libraries and other access" nries, we also know. Yet 
the difficulties are not insuperable, and we beliew 
that the Indian intellect is fertile enough. We can 
soon see our way to success if we begin to realize 
the necessity for our supreme effort in these directions. 
We have considered it a shame that we should he 
coached in our Veda andVedantaby German Professors 
on the banks of the Rhine and the Ouae, and that an 
American from a far off country should be the first 
translator of the foremost work in Tamil" philosophy 
and that an old Oxford Professor should sit pouring 
over the Tamil ' Word/ and render it into English 
verse. All these facts redound greatly to the glory 
of the European, who could forget for. the time being 
hivnarrow bit^of native land, and his own selfish 
wants and go out to distant lands add to remote anti- 
quitites, in search of the diggings of the past and by 
living laborious days, live to finish the task he had 
set to himself, in a thoroughly universal and truly 
Christian spirit. Noble examples these ! May we follow ! 

Our Journal will devote itself to bring out transla- 
tion of rare works in Sanscrit and Tamil, both 


literary and philosophical and religions, will devote 
its pages to a more critical and historical study of 
Ixtdiau Religions systems, to develops a taste for 
and to induce a proper and more appreciative, cultiva- 
tion of onr Indian Classical and Vernacular Langua- 
ges and Literature, to bring into the Tamil all that 
is best and noblest in the literature and philosophy 
of the west, to supply to it its deficiency in the 
field of science and history, ancient and modern. 
Greater attention will be paid to the language and 
history of Sooth India, aitd the Dravidian philosophy 
and religion will find their best exposition in its pages ; 
and in this respect it is intended to supply a real 
and absolutely inpor'.ant want. Being fully aware 
of the fact what a small minority we will be addressing 
if our Magazine is conducted wholly in English and 
being aware that no real improvement in the condition 
of the people can be effected except by means of 
their own vernacular and being anxious to preserve 
to them, this much at least of their natural birth right, 
the love of their own language, we have resolved to 
bring out a Tamil edition of this Magazine, to extend 
its usefulness among all classes of the South Indian 
community and to impart to them the benefits of 
Western research and knowledge :ind to infuse into 
them corrector notions of science and _liistory and 
■scientific and historical criticism. 

In regard to its policy, it is intended to conduct 
ijhe Journal on the broadest and most innocuous lines 
•consistent with the objects of the Magazine us above 
set forth. It is needless to observe that we shall 
religiously eschew all politics, and the only politics 
shall be if ever there be any occasion, to appeal to 
the innate loyalty of every Indian, bound up as it is 
with his deeply rooted religious instinct, which cannot 
leave him even in his bitterest extremes. In social 
matters we are fully alive to the mam fold evils 
(adyatmikam, >6sg)«u, adiboudhikam Span™, Adidai- 
■vik&ni Qfiiuaiipaei)) existing in our soceity, and we are 
positively convinced also that caste and custom over 
ride*i all determinations of science and i-eligion and 
real piety, and we will not be afraid to speak truth 
in the plainest terms. But let not the orthodox stare 
and frown. We can be really as conservative in our 
heart and deed and we will lose nothing by giving up 
■o? gradually changing some of onr pernicious and 
ageless customs. We will assure them however that 
we will strictly guard their religion and sentiment 
and tbe preservation of their own habits and manners 

if they are not positively harmful. Nothing will be 
done to wound any body's feelings unnecessarily and 
we will take care however not to sacrifice scientific 
truth and honest conviction to mere absurd sentiment. 
We honor the past and we appreciate tbe present 
phase of onr existence at the same time. We feel it 
our duty to love our country and our people and our 
religion ; and at the same time we will not bt blind 
to the excellence in the character of other nations and 
other religions. Let the Grace of God and the good 
will of our fellow-beings speed our wish and work. 


o/jipi jj/j^tanrif ffli/ifflreurf ^t^ajrui 

(&$•£& €s>aj3jSQptb jur fiiisGai. 

Hail to xYe sages, to the Gods, and Kinc all Hail! 
Let drop the gentle rain, the wrrait'* day* increase 
May Hani's name resound and all corrupt deeds f»il 
And let all t'nese ills that afflict the world decrease. 

fjet us repeat this prayer to-day in all reverence and 
loyalty, a prayer which whs repeated more than thou- 
sand four hundred years ago, on the banks of the 
Vaiffah by that " Tamil Child,"* on £.n oceasicn, when 
the King of Pandy was lyiug ill and the hearts of all 
his people were stricken sore. And yet we are better off 
to-day in some respects and our Mother Empress (God 
Bles3 Her) is all hale and stroug, strong in the love of 
her children, and childvens' children and children* 3 
childrens' children, and strong in thfl love of her 
people all over her vast Empire, nnd strong in the 
love of her Sovereign neighbours. Her Majesty has 
reached her sixtieth year of her reign ; and our hearts 
fill with joy and glanuess, more and more as we know 
how she rejoices in us at this very n.oment, though 
we have never set onr eyes on Her August Person. 
And does not the poetT ask whose love is greater, 
that of the mother who suckled her own child, or 
that of Mangayarkarasi '.Queen of Women) who mel- 
ted into love at the distant approach of the " Tamil 
CVnld." And does not our Sovereign Mother's teart 

t ■ Diia'irlji Sttu', mi expression used bj Mri Sankara in referring 
to Saint Gnanajambanthar. 

t Sivftprakaaar, i" his beautiful pwiii called " Nalvnr Xniimani- 
uialai " The reference is to a tnucliinjt episode in Gftanssnm- 
bantha's life whi-li Sivapiakusar has embodied in tbe stanza. 


flow out to U3 at this time of oar trial and grief by. 
famine and pestilence. And how appropriate is there- 
fore oar appoal to our God, the God of all nations 
to save us from famine and pestilence, by the timely 
down pour of freshening showers „nd the increase of 
cattle, by removal of that dread evil monster from 
onrs midst, and to gladden us by increasing the life 
and prosperity of our Beloved, Good Mother Victoria- 
Yea, our God will surely hear us if we utter this ex- 
quisitely simple and truly universal prayer with true 
Love and penitence. 

eintf>s jfi&izsii B:ffsgreui .gssflssrii 
dupe fi4&t i^/ssiea Goiii^gtw ««?(*,« 


A Highland Idyll. 

This pretty idyll, whkdi we have picked out to- 
day for our review is one of the brightest gems in the 
necklace woven by the Tamil classic poets of more 
than one thousand-eight hundred years ago. The 
classics of this epoch are so old, as to make the 
best classics iu Sapscrit or Greek look quite new, 
and yet the subject in which they deal are so 
human that they land us back among the fiction 
and poetry of Modern Europe. They are models of 
different species of, poetic composition, of style and 
diction, repositories of so much wealth of wisdom 
and sentiment ; their style and diction are so pure 
and noble> that it is a matter for pity; that they 
have not, left us many more than we possess at 
present imd it is a matter for greater pity that such 
excellent models have not been followed by the 
successive generations of poets,-who have been allu- 
red away by their excess of religious zeal to the 
departments of Puranic compositions, Pillai tamil 
(Jsrr&rr^ $&&), Kalambagam (swtibujau;) and Audadi 
(^ns^o^). Yet these works are numerous enough if 
we want to test the nobility and greatness of the 
language and its great capabilities and its genius for 
adapting itself to general requirement?. The language 
is*so old, the oldest some scholars assert not even ex- 

* One of the Tattupattu,' edition by V. Saininathier. Pandit 
• KumbaconRm College. Price 3 Rupees. 

cepting the Sanscrit, and its vitality ia fo great that 
it has preserved itself alive to-day when all other great 
languages ire dead. Have any other people loved and; 
fostered and tended their own mother tongue and sung 

of its praises tmd elevated it into a Deity as the Tamils 
have_done. And yet, Mores, Temporal 

How are we faller ! Do we not find Tamils to-day 
who would vote in the senate its abasement add its 
extinction ! 

Coroinjr back to our song, its great ootnmentawr 
Nachinarkfnar (whose priceless services to the anci- 
ent Tamil Literature it is mot possible for us lo esti- 
mate), remarks that this was composed by the Poet 
Kapila in the presence of the Aryan King, Brahatta* 
who wished to know the excellence of Tamil. The 
metre is Agavalpa ^ssian.-i') of the strict English 
blank verse type, which seems to be the oldest Tamil 
metre and which the late lamented Professor iSnndratn 
Pillai tried to reintroduce in his excellent work 
" Manonmaniyam" and which is best fitted for nar- 
rative and dramatic composition. Each line is divided 
into 4 feet or £ ii and each (fit of two syllables or j»s=>*. 
The syllables are of two kinds, Qaa f and Smut; CW» 
when the syllable is composed of one single short or 
long vowel or vowel-consonant, orone short or long 
letter followed By the consonant as iii <g, j£, Qmm , 
Q&>«>, j£ta>jr when it is two short letters, or one short 
and one long letter by themselves or followed by the 
consonant (^tijp), as in Ga/t$ y »(St Spih, eSmrtii. 
Two syllables of either kind in different permutations 
give four different kinds oE feet, called @j*.jb§i or 
jf&eup&ir, namely Gn«Gis/! f Sana Caif, QniMas>ir , iBaao 
iSeas . And these four feet are known by four formulas, 
called G&LD1, Ljefiuxr, *.«fieirio, ^{jjsSsrtb. Only one 
more rule is necessary to be learnt for understanding 
the full prosody of Agavalpa; and that is what is 
called the »h* , the link between one foot and 
another, which is essential to the rhythm of the 
line. The #te" used here is called ®<upp%s, and 
the- usual formula is that the last syllable of the 
first foot should be followed by the same kind of sylla- 
ble in thie following foot. The following by a different 
kind of syllable is also permitted in Agavalpa. The 
formula is expressed by saying 'mi' (yj«r, C«(5<*, S&r 
uyce, ' eSsrtii' (per, teaffufti. Gsqjth. And the line can 
be shortened or lengthened by the short or long #&f 
and made to express appropriate ideas and feelings. 


. This is as regards the prosody (0*HJ*v«r gjmsamrus). 
As regards the subject matter, called ' Outgor/ * 
the highest aim of Art and Literature is regarded as 
the attainment of ofae or nil of the four great Purn- 
aharthams, jvpu^ Qnygjw, ®«itruu>, efi®, Dharinn, 
Wealth, Pleasure and Moksha. And the attainment, 
of the highest pleasure ( &*u2uir(J5&r) is sought for 
intheloTe of the sexes and such bliss mny result from 
a wedded life {s^titueu) or from the natural union of 
two b«irtsi*»T Jil.^) without undergoing tho fihackless 
of society. *«ir«fl«ja> does not mean immoral union 
as is ignorantly snpposed, but is fully made subservi- 
ent to every rule of virtue, and is only permitted to 
people of sufficient ireans and it is sought to w^an 
him gradually from such earthly and mistaken love and 
to lead him on to the Love of the Most High (sS©l. 
There fire ceveral other divisions and sub-divisions of 
*itStL« and s&re&iuea, based on the kiud of country 
(£2bp-) inhabited by persons, the time oF meeting &c, 
and we arrive after all to the divisions called ^shjd. 
These f»*>p exhibit a classification of the varying 
passions and sentiments arising from the human hearts 
of two lovers circumstanced as they are by time, place 
and distance, aud natural and human obstacles, ordi- 
nary and extraordinary. The aim of this idyll is 
pleasure. '.jua.uQ^s^m, Qsoruii). The union of the two 
lovers is effected not by premeditation or arrangement 
by the parents but by sheer aacident and by natural 
and legitimate causes and the parties are in no, way 
to be blamed. The lovers apprehend opposition from 
their respective parents and they are pining away in 
Bfleret, content with such chance meetings as was pos- 
sible, mutually dreading what mischance may befall 
the other, in the interval, rather prepared to die 
and be united in heaven than be pronounced guilty by 
the world's slanderous tongue. The mother finding 
her daughter wasting away, ignorant of the real cause, 
resorts to magic and medicine without avail. Things 
are growing desperate, and the maid (<i*>frt£) of tho 
girl who was acquainted with their love and whose 
heart is very nigh broken, by the misery of her mis- 
tress andmother makes up her mind to disclose every- 
thing, trusting to chance nnd the good sense of t he- 
mother and the poem accordingly opens and ends with 

her address to the mother in a thoroushly dramatic 
manner, reciting the various circumstances in this 
passage of love apd begging her pardon «nd sanction 
for the union of the two hearts. 

" Hail, mother ! Jie pleased to hear me. The secret 
tnalady preying on your daughter's mind and bea-ity is 
of so delicate a nature as tb prevent me hitherto from 
disclosing the same to you till now. It is incurable, 
and you have accordingly sought in vain its eradica- 
tion by consulting astrologers and magicians and by 
performing various vows to various Gods and other 
eer^iiiouies ; and yon have become sorely distressed. 
( In this respect, we are ;».s superstitious as our ancestors 
of oldj. And my yO'ing mistress in her extreme dis- 
tress says; to me, " Whaf, gold and diamonds and 
pearls if lost once can be recovered again. Unlike 
this, family prestige and nobility of character and 
good name if once, tarnished, it will not be possible 
to brightea it again even for the greatest seers.* 
I have been united to my lover by a train of accidents 
and my good fortune, to the destruction of the well 
cherished plans of my parents. Do you think, that any- 
thing but good would result from disclosing <'«r love to 
lay mother : If she does not approve of our innocent 
and legitimate love, let me die, and let ns be united in 
Heaven"t : so saying her gazelle eyes fill with tears and 
she is pining away. If y;>u would know my own 
state of mind, I am, like the arbitrator % between 
two enraged potentates, highly distressed, unable to 
bear the sorrow of yourself and your daughter. I 
will now narrate to you how your daughter fell in 
love, without previously ascertaining if he was a 
pioper match in respect of birth, wealth nnd character 
and extent of relations, i%c., and you can judge how 
far we are to b'anie. lie not incensed, therefore, before 
you hear toe. You may lemembei* you sent us one 
day to watch the millet field where in the ripe ears are 
bent around the stalk iike the trunk of the elephant 
on its tusk, when it felt wearied ttfter its vain attempt 

• "Su»f3ar2*u**M J. " '■ The Laws of Higher Criticism >n Art and 
Literature 'i forme the subject of elaburatc treatment <n t^f Tamil 
LmgDftjreaTitl it is oeeuiiar to the Tamil anil T^mil lan- 
guage aJouc. There in no (such tiling L-oirespCudiug to it ill/ Sanscrit 
or in any other language, though thcit inuy be literature following 
the laws a,s herein laid down. We shall in a separate paper deal 
With til" subject of » ur^iry'' j.- it.:? j,. 


* Compare with this s[iovch of our nanndess Juilian lady (She h 
uiilv a rvpej j f the first i-nitiirr a. n. oar fair ami gentle DeBdemo- 
Hu'st vfurds of the Ifiih i-mitur* 

(luoil nnmc, in man awl woman, ileal- niv lord, 
la ihc immediate jewel "!' their *ouls : 

Who steals tin purse, sti-als trash it is something ; nothing. 
Tiim mine, 'tis liis. uml has been slave to thousands ; 
Hut he that filches from me iny good name. 
Hubs ine of that, which not enriches him, 
And makes ine poor indeed" 
■f The pathe*ie anil beautiful nature nf this speeeli is beyond 

J The dittitiiltv uttlie Ehiintiun is now manifest to every hudy 
bv the niter futility of the efforts of not one but of great many 
[lowers hi solving the eastern question- 


to reach the ears of the tall bamboo .* We sat watch- 
ing for a time, perched on the buunhoo platform built 
on the topmost branches of the tallest tree and we weve 
chasing »wa- the green parrots with our slings and 
by making noise with divided bemboo sticks. The 
d:iv was growim* hot, when happily the clouds came 
up the sky thick aud dark, with peals of thunder 
like the repeated sounds of the drum, and of 
lightniny as from the spear of God Kuiuaia, brandished 
for the destruction of the .wicked Asm as and disper- 
sed pellmell by the rising gust of wind, poured down 
on the mountain heights»fl'ishiitg the mountain torrents 
with brisrht and limpid water like well washed clothes. 
We could not keen quiet : we jumped into the stream, 
ar.d and ran hi not leave the deep pools 

shining U;e molten crystal iu a 'stone basin; w« 
played and sung with perfect- freedom ; ftnal'y we 
wrung onr hail dripping with water, our hair 
which was lying on our backs like a big blue-stone 
ou a base of gold, we dried it, and we reached the 
bank -with our eyes veil like anything and began to 
cull all so-ts <<f flowers — (Here follows a list of 09 
flowers — tliL' names of all of which except Champac 
and Palasa are pure Tamil words ; in fact we could 
scarcely recognize any other Sanscrit word in the 
v:hole pit'jiti^, and heaped them till on a now freshly 
cleaned piece of rock and began to deck our parts 
with leaves and nur heads with strings of variegated 
flowevst and snt under the cool sliade of the flaming 
Asoka, chatting among ourselves, and now and then 
bawling oat to drive away the parrots. When lo and 
behold, who should come ? but a man, with scented 
bair with flowers adorned ou the head, ears, and neukj 
with sandal eotwred body, holding a. bow, with tink- 
ling bells attached to his ankles, followed bv dues 
The dogs sighted ns ami with gnashing teeth like young 
bamboo shoots, staring and flaning eyea, were coming 
nearer and nearer to urf, like young warriors driving 
back their enemy ; we shuddered ; we got up and ran ; 
our feet faltered aad our minds fi|]«d with intence fear. 

* Wc hitrn ft'H it a*«,>lief«i iiiinif uur head uml throw down i, in- 
arms lifter fBachinir ami culling tin 1 wild jasmine twining itself 
'.'..':uri:nitl\- r.iL« i liuriiy UuMuM hi our hill £>aiiiiHi. This giriice- 
ful attitude nf rlii- i'li'|i1m|it. ii>i innik'Tosiinij in its tusk tt'e noticed 
ai ion*,' some reivntly caught elephants at Kniirly 

f We would vnt have helieicil tliifc. had not uur own darlings from 
3 to 10 yrara ohi pus.^nied themselves liefore us, after a i-iiiuhlc in 
■nil- sptrden and nmuiid tin- mljaininfr tuuk fully dci'ked with a wild 
Vine '*<!■"«■ r-*-'-v) in all its flowery aloiy ami crowned with the 
dower* i>r the rUmiu of the forest ami other flowers, Vfe-havo for- 
gotten, alas, the iiteosores of country ami hill resorts. 

Read the jineeaRC in Fronde's 'Oceania,' where he contrasts the 
Smouldering life of old Enjflniidere in the dingy resorts of Loudon 
and the free nnd roliimt life of Australians. 

The young man noticed onr fear and feeling sorry 
called to us in soft ind reassuring tones and addressing 
us, asked if we had seen any of the animals he had 
been hunting flee past ns ; we were pleased but did 
not reply hi in . and lie felt offended, and asked us if 
we could not at least spare him a few words even if 
we did not choose to do him a service, and like an 
elephant which leavinjr off the lead of its trainer, runs 
off breaking and brandishing branches of trees laden 
with flowers, whereon the bees and beetles hum the 
Nattarakam tune, he broke a flower laden branch and 
silenced the barking dogs and stood awaiting our 
answer." — (Herein is given the first accident which 
brought the lovers together). 

( To he . 


The Prekjiibekce or Vekxaculaks. 
History repeats ifself ; and fully half of a century 
ago, the question was hotly debated outside and inside 
the Councils of State what educational policy should 
be followed by Government and whether the medium 
of education should be English or the Vernaculars. 
And the question was determined, on the ground of 
might if not solely on the ground of justice that 
English should be the dominant language ; and it was 
conceded at the same time, that instruction in thj 
vernaculars, was at the same time necessary, and 
onr Universities recognized the vernaculars as one 
of the compulsory subjects in its scheme of edu- 
cation, and more than a decade ago, our alma matter 
permitted its graduates to go to the Degree of Master 
of Arts in any two Vernaculars. The question to-day as 
such is not so broad as with our friends and opponents 
of mere than 50 years ago and yet in the current dis- 
cussion of the subject, we have met with very old and 
outworn arguments which tnke as back to this old 
period, without taking account of the important work 
which both our paternal Government and the Univer- 
sities independently and conjointly are carrying out. 
The object of the movement is in no way to depreciate 
the value or the importance of English education; 
and the names of two such great men as that of the 
Hon'bleDr. Duncan and the Hon'ble Mr. Justice 
Subramanya Aiyar ought to be a guarantee against 
any snch assumption. It simply takes note of a few 
defects in our present system of education and the 


great necessity there, ia at present, of improving the 
system of Higher Vernacular Education, by increasing 
its scope .and its status, and by affording greater facili- 
ties and better tuition, That a graduate goJDg up for 
his High Degree Examination shonld not grasp in 
his mother tongue nnch simple idens which are fami- 
liar to a second rate Trnril Pundit does not bespeck 
much in favour of the foundation, he has received, in 
the vernacular at College. Nay, everybody knows, 
what contempt our young student has for his; optional 
language and what dodges he resorts to, to get a bare 
pass in that subject. Then it ia felt by iimny* 
that the barrenness oE the Indian Intellect so often 
bewailed of, is due ir. a great measure to the waste 
of energy involved in early life, when the young 
mind must be fully engaged in the gathering and 
receiving of foots of knowledge and experience 
-and ideas direct, instead of mere sounds and symbols, 
by having to learn a foreign Innguawe, not akin, but 
quite alien 'in every respect. More, how often have we 
cried when the brightest gems among oiir Indian gra- 
duates are cnt off in the full flush of manhood. Well, all 
manhood, his best energies are well nigh dried up by 
the time a man leaves his University ; what little that 
remains is fully eaten up, in a scramble for bare exis- 
tence atid the disappointments in life; and the man 
finds an early grave. The want of harmony noticed 
in the life of an Indian betwen his speech, and con- 
duct is also traceable in a way to this defect in his 
education. It was only the other day, a valued friend 
of ours informed us of what that mature Scholar and 
Statesman, we mean the lata Raja Sir T. Madava 
Row, thought, was the cause of that want of clearness 
of thought and expression noticed in Indian graduates 
namely, the too early inculcation in a foreign language 
and this was folly perceived and anticipated by our 
friends among the rulers themselves at the very b«- 
ginning. Then the fact is most blindly forgotten what 
large population claims each vernacular for its mother 
tongue, aad what proportion of this lar^e population, 
has been benefitted, nay even affected by the last oO 
years of English Education'. The total literate class 
in lndi;t is estimated at about 6 or 7 per cent, and of 
this small percentage.t what proportion can be said to 
have received any English Education, much less, any 
real benefit. For instance, on such :v simple subject as 

* Onre is howerer a conviction. 

t TKe lowest prcccntaffe among the xreat nininus of tlie world 
and we havp nations like Germany ami Bflilzei-lniiil wherr ni-iirU 
all are literate. 

female education, could we get*fivo out of ten gradu- 
ates meeting casually in a public place to vote in 
its favour. We f-ould undertake to convince the so- 
called illiterate persons but not the dissertient gradu- 
ates who receive tr=e question, not from a practica' 
point of view but purely in a dialectical spirit: The 
object of the present movement is therefore not to 
supplant but to supplement the present System of 
education, to the benefit not of a few but all, and the 
greatest happiness of the greatest number. In onr 
study of tins question, we have not: eoino across ot a 
more abler paper and move abler arguments than, that 
were put forward by Mr. B. H. Hodgson, late of the 
Bengal Service, an erudite scholar and linguist and a, 
man of world-wide sympathjes,co]1ected and published 
in Volume II of his miscellaneous writings by Trubinw 
i% Co. We have deemed it worthwhile ;o summarise 
his arguments in the body of his letters, which by the 
way were first addressed to the Calcutta pa oer, called 
"The, Friend ff India " which we believe is now ij- 
oorporated in the present Statesman, Calcutta. 

■ r PreeuHUrHff <f tin: I >'i"it<ifithfF$ ur Hit? avijlitt^iit 
i mm r i- red " 

The letters are prefaced with a quotation from Kir T. 
More in quaint Eoglish, which we also quote : 

•' For us for that our tongue is called barbarous i* 
but a fantasy ; for so is, as every man knoweth, every 
strange language to other, and if they would call it 
barren of words, there is no doubt but it is plenteous 
enough to express our minds in nnythings whereof 
one man hath used to spoke with auother." 

He points out in the first place how Lord William 
Rentick's proposal ws»s a reversal of all former acts of 
Parliament, pud solemn pledges, which after all wen? 
but bare acts oF justice, and poceeds to assign some- 
reasons for the opinion that he entertained that the 
Indian's essential welfare not less than rights may be 
ur^ed against the proposed scheme of Lord William 
Bentick- Granting th:it sound knowledge, the diffu- 
sion of wl 'ch fhi/ioghout India was the sole purpose, 
is to b* fouud only in the Enropean languages, lie en- 
quires what is the best instrument for the free and 
equal diffusion ot that knowledge, whether English 
or the Vernaculars. The an.sflitixts assume that the 
English language is a, perfect and singly sufficient. 
Oi'<_'.in. whilst the native languages u vu equally objec- 
tionable from their plurality nnd rij--ir intrinsic icvli!?- 
-,*$* lie i'harar!i*i'N'i ,; < 1 1 p >.~i ■ ^-siioifinon-; as iui>"» 


nrhut hjwty- anil unfounded. A large portion of the 
sound knowledge of Europe is ,wt to be found in the 
English language, but must be sought in those of 
France and (iermany. Englishmen daily pick up use- 
ful and important words from France and Germany. 
In regard to plurality of Indian languages lie points 
i.i the vast range oC territory and population claimed 
Iry each vernacular, aud thinks that it is a range of 
language large enough to satisfy tho most ardent of 
reasonable reformers — a range rather above, than 
below that of Europe. In regard to the alleged feeble- 
ness ot the Indian tongues, he excepts the language 
employed in the unmixed sciences and applied sciences 
which Iiasv a language of their own, which words are 
Hut furnished by 'The well of: pure 1'higlish undefiled' 
and in which ll» Eubagh language is imperfect and un- 
able to tsspix** such ideas but* thinks tli:ri the Indian 
Vernacilais are sufficient ill the field uf the moral 
sciences : " For blended as these, branches of know- 
U-iVe are, from their very nature, with the daily pur- 
suits aud thoughts, and quickly responsive as they aro 
tn tho strongest prejudice* and "p&snons, of mankind; 
appealing, too, as they do for their ultimate evidence, 
In universal consciousness, or fo almost universal ex- 
perience,poverfulintrinsicalreaso.,smay come in aid of 
the Hn"iial considerations I am about to show, against 
the direct communication of our superior light to the 
Indians." He thinks that the Vernaculars possesses the 
1,1 wwtry capacity to bear any weight of knowledge 
mming home to the ?>K*«Mf«s and lioHimx uf Mankind, 
that can be laid ou them. The Vernaculars possess 
jj'o'id dictionaries and grammars, as wallas works which 
exhibit a respectable share of precision and compass; 
whilst its connection with Sanscrit and the peculiar 
genius of the latter, afford extraordinary means of 
enrichment by new terms competent to express any 
imrvgiuahle modification "f thought. He again proceeds 
t>i assert without fear of contradiction that the exist- 
mil wtrviitr. uf all European languages as 
instruments of thought is iwiin-iiiiii and iiitduiiit-d and 
tkr.t the object.- are unly sought to bo vemovud by 
<nui>lt' definition and much circumlocution. There is 
;iUo such (i thittZf n.v tlir if&iui* tit. the ItinWtfiff of a 
rigid and commanding nature, according to which the 
improvement can only proceed f>>v within and not by 
direct grafting fmm a lorcign utiignnge"f. After iles- 

* Hi- siilisrsilltiill i'.- llii-- In 'fhiplal it"ii> Trtiin \:n-ii.iL> Kn^'li>], 


+ Ir \>:iii unly ili>- mlii -r duv Mr. Ili'iinn l':iiil -|ir:ikint,- ;ii ;m 
Kn_'li?-li ili'ini'i* ri'iimrki'il Imu Dullish je(U'|wli*f^ -i,iv ^I'ViUifuK 
4t; - i ■[,j>in^ riit lii;'i'ii;n ]ihl':i*i E s :imi unnU, 

canting on Sir T. Mbre's wordsqnoted at the beginning,, 
the following remarkable sentence occurs: '"The 
history, not only of our own language, but of every 
vulgar tongue in Europe, justifies the presumption 
that, as soon as effort is directed towards their improve- 
ment, the Indian Vernaculars will almost immediately 
and spontaneously put forth the ordinary strength of 
language,* and as for what may bo called its extra- 
ordinary strength, even our language, had not yet, put 
it forth. The habit of language, of all habits difficult 
of change, is the most obstinately adhesive and the 
Indiansof all Nations are wedded to their habits most." 
He applies the very reasoning of Sir T. More when he 
contended against Latin and Greek as the sole organ 
of communication by pointing out that love of know- 
ledge itself most difficult, would be rendered hopeless 
if the aditns of the temple were rendered so steep and 
thorny as the necessary acquisition of a. difficult foreign 
tongue must make it; and th^t in all probability, the 
end would be defeated by the means employed to 
achieve it; to which loss ought to be added the entail- 
ling in perpeftt it y those wwsl of evil* rciultinfj from 
monopolised and mis-applied learning. Noble words 
are these which follow:"Our aim is the people's increase 
in happiness through increase in knowledge. We 
seek to regenerate India ; and to lay the foundations 
of a social system which with time and God's blessing 
on the labours of the founders, should mature, perhaps 
long after we are no longer forth coming on the scene. 
Let then the foundations be broad and solid enough 
to support the vast superstructure. Let us begin in 
the right way or fifty years hence, we may have to re- 
trace our steps and commence anew.t Sound know- 
ledge generally diffused is the greatest of all blessings: 
but the soundness of a language has ever depended 
and ever will on its due and equal and large communi- 
cation- Partially diffused it is not only no good, but 
a bitter and lasting curse — the special curse which 
hath blighted the fairest portions of Asia from time 
immemorial, and which for hundreds of years made 
even Christianity a poison to the people of Europe!" 
The chance of the speech of this vast continent iE not 
impossible is most difficult, for which our means are 
most enormously disproportionate to the end. Special- 
ised knowledge should not be nn»de the monopoly of 
a few it not, it will bo abused. Leisure and ease are 

'■ TJi<" only TTiint misv is the* winit lit' tiiivi.'viiiiiciit luHriiiiu"? anil 


t These wiu'iIk :uv ;iliiiiist i>iu|iIk'( ic, but we Ui> not want to 
ti'U-.iix Inn lo ruei'Usulcr ami wmt'tK tin* ilil'ccts. 



the parents of knowledge and how is it to bo expect- 
ed that the poor Indians with no inborn taste for the 
English language will readily and willingly conquer 
the vast and odious obstacle, we thus place at the 
threalihold of the temple of knowledge, obscuring all 
the beauty the.-ein, though the few caw always be 
won to pursue through it the path of profit and power* 
The mystification of knowledge and administration, 
separately evil, are dreadful when combined and he 
holds iu special horror the course of this double iniquity 
if allowed in India. " Why did we immortalize our 
Edward," he askspertiuently enough ''EorVernac ulariz- 
iug the language of the courts of law ? because itrts of 
the last importance to the happiness of nations that 
the people,— the many — should have the readiest possi- 
ble means of rightly appreciating legal proceedings."* 
He further contrasts the means and the ease and 
facility of Llnglishmen ir Indian acquiring the Indian 
Vernaculars, and the means and the difficulty andtoiliu- 
volved in the Indians acquiring a foreign language and 
asks whether the change of policy is not .due to the 
wish on the pat t of the rulers to cast off even this 
slight burden. J Here is a golden senteii(je : "' Add to 
these objections, also the following (1) Jt is apt to 
generate or confirm ttprrilv intellectual 7t«i><7»,espeeialiy 
when combined with the absence of politics) liberty : 
(2) it is not less apt to riiroret-. ajietulatwii from, ex- 
perience, theory fivm practice, distraction frvut lip: § 
and in instancing the case of Koine, her vassals and her 
conquerors, he observes that those whom Home sub- 
dued, became twice subject by their slavish acceptance 
of her language ; and her conquerors were only saved 
from vassalage to her learning by the free genius of 
their political institutions ; and he follows out other 
examples, among the European nations, as they came 
under such lioinan influence or not, in their media of 

* How many parciitri do already liinl that they cannot afford 
their children lite cheap Knglisdi Kilni-ation which they theiinielvos; 
eoiumu tided in their mm <lnyn mill llicy have n> retrace tlicit t*tc|tG 
imd give in their children such education aa v,-ill start [Item in life, 
it is Liht'lcfB to ignore that Kurdish is primarily learnt as a mentis of 
In endwiiinitu* utiil; his effort in that direction is enoriiioii*. Me 
knows lift content. Within the hist 2 days, Wit* heard of iwo i-tni- 
limit Tamil raiiditts. who Htc raincn to eke out just cuo.'xh for the 
barest e-twtencc ignoring all ambition except in the attaining ol 
learciiij: and piety. 

t The evils of Italian Judges mid Vakils wlm imw think it un- 
iligniHed to speak except in Kn<rli*li. in court, are now becoming,' 
more and more manifest. 

t Europeans in India openly eonl'ees tlmt ihcv have fui-jrotien 
the little Vernacular they had to learn In pans a sii*m cxaminati'-ii, 
and yet these very European ■'ciitleineu uaidnct the klmni exuiiii- 
nation, and we Iihvc heard hoiv it Ha : i$ rimdiietcd in particular 

** The italic* arc om>. 

language. And he finishes bin first letter with a very 
strong exhortation that what the Europeans see k to 
introduce into India is not to prove ir-nutritive or 
poisonous but wholesome food, not'a curse hut a, hies 
sing, and that a Vernacular organ should be given. 
This is datod August IStfo, the author does not thiuk 
it stiJe in 1670, and he q notes the ft/Mowing from the 
Times, which we also reproduce in the foot notes * 
and with this, we shall close to-day reverting to the 
subject again iu our next issue. 


(I'ull Mull 31 ay, 'zi ue). 

Where, then, hath Faith litt uveiliistin™ home 'f 

l'uviliuncd viewless in Hie *hi*pcaring wind. 

Or iu the Sky's blue dome r 

Of in the tlil-obbiu^ heart of passionate huuiuu kind r 

Or in the an;ient lap of darkest Ocean, 

Or in earth x centre deep. 

Ketl by internal tires and roi-ki-d lo .il«c|i 

fii tcii'ine caves withi» the tvuiuh of cea.sele.s:*, •notion i 

Kre yet a planet swept around the sun. 

Kre yet the sun was — 1 n itliiu the dim 

Eternal made but one 

OF attributes etcnie. which, uncreate with hint 

Who is all faith, all soul, all .spring of bciuj;. * 

* In Alliance anil Iiorraiiic. the peasantry after tivo cenl urii-s 
tif mtlijot-th"!. ta Km in i' (In not klnffl .nto mini of Ki-cneli. In Wales, 
in Sle-.wic, and everywhere in Austria anil Hns-ay. we *rc nil 1 h- 
I'tTiirts to t'niTe the rolin^ lan^im^p on n suhji-ei raee resented, etreii 
when li«lil. civilizittimi. and enjoyiuent of eipial lights follow in the 
Lr;(in df this tU'f>cifi"iif//':/nti w-lioul tnteitee." n\»r..\ April $5. l^i'* 

There are in almost in every dopaitnuix i ; 
nliieh iln not e\im in hii iivnilal/lr I'lii-ni. anil wliii 
-sari fur ns. form n" pnrf of uiir (irdinori ti^ 
jieliiiol luniks liave lii'i-o rrivrill in. liinl lihen tli 
Jl'j.eareh Icivc lieen inc. i'hioali-d wild lli.n. Hi. 
every way iminele-e. T'.HH*. Julv 10, IflTfi. 

i>i hoardei of t rui 
h. Iioivevi'i, ncci 
i + ]iini.'. When mi 

■ proved i'4>Mirtl ^ . 
l..r|.,li( ii ill l„ 


ami h»vi 


1 lie* Knulish pciipff liair lii. L '. 
heeh edileal inji" don nun rils in?,i cad 

ilie ivrini'j'ds. Wl 

do lie- In 
lo- pivjin 

II", /,..( 

iir hi 

. -ill 


id' real iniporl-'ii.-e i*- In leach Ilie | r liniii. to 

self, to clilii^l.Lcli ihe ii^iniranei'. to ilh*3»jiiali* i 
make hi> life so nincli liardcr than it need lie 

'<«. Eifllifl, -Jtm,l r,'|, I ,,,-cl III, I. vi, i |,.-1 

(The iialicu are unr-i. Tow > May 2-"i. is7l. 

t When ire ivait tlii> nut in uor 'J'-.iinil Kditoi. ,'ie dcrc.iroil Mirpri f . 
ed that this lyiiB pure ndivail ha. ami iw li..,l ioas--t»'e hiin that t In-ve 
veng \\i> need for son-prise. n*.iln- Kuropean-i ;ii-e niouli and Miridv 
envidvili^' u syulelll id tliou^'hl inilependent of nx. ami nlriiot-I.nkin 
Hi our on ii. Tl.i-reiipon nor Pandit declared tliat on ilonltr il uoi»i 
he irne a» it. ivas the same l'arnloe?.hiiai-a ivlio made H*. niade ilieiii 
al*,n. We t-taii- lliis ai>- lie' fceliiis: U i.m cnlincd !u tin chi*-~i.f 
people wile are iun-n-aal nf i lie KoL-li-^li laTiena-;! 

| .Ml -priii- 
itli or ly.'(c i 





t hil 



Held me, Sis sun;* holds .sound,* 

Or light hold* colour, as it were, euwoiuid 

Even within itself, beyond the sense oJf swing! 

The universe is mine — lor that is He. 

And 1, all iucurruptible. am part of puie etornity 

So which man lowlv knee* with trembling in his liu;.it ' 

What though all creeds be torn and tempest driven r 

They but the miuvaid form 

Yond which, unruffled by the wildest storm. 

Still lives the Faith .supreme for which 

All faith hath striven. 

The faith that give sight of things Uivine. 

'Clint shows them immortality beyond 

heath's thin dividing line ! 

J lispersing lis a dream the- vain delurion fond 

They hug as life, which life at best concealing 

As with n inist — grows iliin 

To let faith's bright news stream rejoicing in 

Tliixiiicli infinite knowledge God to mortal man revealing. 


Wf, draw our reader's prominent attention to the 
aiinon>iceiii<fiitfrom the Reverend Doctor Cr. L. Pow:, Ji- .v., 
clsenheu' irsertcd in our pages. Some have r.sked whether 
such a translation was necessary and whether it will be 
good reading. In the first place, it is an honour to our 
language that ils treasures should be brought to the notice 
.if the wl'ule word, and which we should duly recognize 
and properly appreciate. Besides, we will have to con- 
sider what great revival in Sanscrit learning even ii> 
India has been brought about by Hie publication of trans- 
lations. We publish to-day a specimen page and our 
readers can find that it is more readable than many 
trunsluiioi' of. the kind. ' LYiruvncliakuiu occupies a, 
irtist iinuptc place in the spiritual and mental History 
<■! mankind and we eaiiestly hope that the Reverend 
Doctor will be suoit enabled to bring out his invaluable 
work. We hitve heard it said that another Reverend 
Gentleman and Tamil Scholar used (o call ii the 
Lasm dr^iS or in a* a> igi (5 i 6b u/sn^atrj," 

. -if 
* * 

-Mir. R. Ji. Cl>V. a great Scholar and Linguist contributes 
a valuable paper to the April Number of (lie Calcutta 
ttrrit -i>: on ihe uchicvcineuts during the lust '>0 veurs in 
ihc departments of litligioti. Science, History. Geography, 
Ac . it it. Til*, progress which he thus notes is almost 
astounding and in the field of Religion, he contrasts the 
opinion of Archbishop Usher accoiding to whom there 
could be no good religion except Christianity and that 
uf to-day when it is recognized that God h;is not been 
partial to one people or one country. We hold the letter 
ill a Reverend Missionary friend of ours, who acknow- 
ledges that salvation is possible even without Christianity. 
Anglicists will note by tile way that the achievements here 

e. f. Iltusiraritm. (. ). i-. Ul ;ii';riiiiieiit uf 8iiu* eiura. Sivatrua. 

J,ikr I ti<- Hiivmir in iln' t'niu, ilu- annul) th [1h> timv 
The Miiiiirlnv V Otiii whiHi i)il' ii IiuI.- i- unl |it'l'vjulec 
'?" tvilli l In- ^iH'tl 1','iilieL'lril et'vl' anil us our 
lli'nei; Vm\ i- A'liviijiiiiini an' uue s;iy the Vcdas. 

recorded were not all by Englishmen nor confined to the 
English language. The Article con'aina an excellent 
diatribe against the idea of ' liberty ' entertained by Home 

# • 

The same Review contains another excellent article 
from the pen of Mr. Charles Johnston on Vedauta and the 
doctrine of reincarnation in the West and the East, and 
his view that this doctrine of the Vedanta is not the pro- 
perty of Aryans will he familiar to our readers. He quotes 
several passages to show that the doctriDe was clearly 
recognized in the Bible, but that Christ held that al' sncli 
knowledge *a* useless. His ideal was one of Pure Love 
and Duty, as that of Buddha was of one of duty alone. 
The latter has surely failed to take any loot in man i.nd 
we find it necessary to find a sound philosophical basis 

to *he former to support and strengthen it. 

s * 

T«fo distinct and clearly marked periods in the British 
occupation of India are noted. 20th June of this year, the 
day of so much joy and gladness will, it is earnestly pray- 
ed, mark a new era in our national life, which will redound 
much more greatly to the g-ory of Bluish rule. We 
begin our own enterprise also+his day to mark our loyalty 
and our hope of success. 


* * 

Tnv Trichiuopolv Srtiva Siddhania Sabba celebrated its 
1:2th Anniversary and the Royul Jubilee yesterday and 
to-day by the singing of hymns and prayers, performance 
of services in the Temple by the distribution of prizes 
to the Sabha's Sunday School boys and girls and by 
feeding them Ac, Ac, and by the reading of the report. 
A full report will appear in our next. 

* * 

His Hiiwnkss the Anibahivana Pandara Stinuadhi of 
the Tiruvavadulhurai Mutt, Kumbakouam, has sent u 
telegram to the Queen, in which His Holiness '■ begs to 
approach Her Majesty's Throne on behalf of himself and 
the numerous disciples of Saivite community of Southern 
India. He most humbly and reverently conveys his 
cardinal greetings on the happy occasion of Her Majesty a 
Diamond Jubilee, and invokes Heaven's choicest bless- 
ings on Her Majesty and the Royal family/' Various 
charitable functions and public festivities hnve been 
organised by His Holiness in memory of the occasion. 
Amongst other things, is to be established a permanent 
cluittnnu and water-pandul at Knmbakoiiniu, the 
foundation stone of which will be hud to-morrow at 
•> o'clock. 


* * 

In the death of PitoKKssoit Si m:i;.vm, m. a. we 
have sustained a deep personal loss, which it is not possi- 
ble to replace. Our Magazine itself was started af ter n 
good deal of consultation with hint and with his promised 
co-operation. He was just beginning what he conceived 
to be the real mission of his life; his proposed tour to 
Woty was to be almost a preaching tour, as he wrote to us. 
Our minds fills with very great sorrow as we write this 
and we trill reserve what we have got to say of bim and 
his work to a future occasion. We have been carrying on a 
long literary correspondem* with him and we have filed 
most of Lis letters und we should like to publish his 
correspondence, if our friends ill other part of the conntrv 
would oblige ns also with theirs. 


— OR 


A Monthly Journal Devoted to Religion, Philosophy, Literature, Science &c. 

Commenced on the Queen 9 s Commemoration Day, 1S9" 

VOL. I. 




No. 2. 

T II A X 8 L A T I O X S. 


(Ci'titinru-il frum payt 2). 

Giving to the Needy. 
piTLL r >$Git<r tre&stsrn (ftftmuadft snijeurr 

t—nUifl5! euirrirgp /StDirui ^j(?u). ; *) 

Those wh<j know (s.>r who know themselves ; are those 
n ho worship the feet of the Lord ; those who know 
^or who know themselves) are those who stand in the 
said beautiful way (i. e., who love God and take 
themselves to His worship), those who know (or who 
know themselves) are some philosophers ; and to 
those who know themselves, the Lord is their relation. 


The following are the important maertions made in the text :— 
(1) True knowledge ot knowledge of self' is the Lovt of and 
rvotion to God. 

Rcv?"n : — Absolute lijvo fur G«l makes? one to forget eelf and 
ilit? iorfcotfnlnesa of self takes one beyond the Eta;;e of AhaniAra ; 
mid love, m this transcendental stnge, is transformed into spiring 
knowledge, real find omniscient. Love »F God being translated 
into Divine knowledge, real knowledge is the Love of God. 

(2) Knowledge of eelf or true knowledge ia to stand in the 
hcimtifiil way of devotion and love, that is, to practice Love of 
devotion to God. 

Rett tor, : — Abstract Love towards God ia practically unattainable 
for ordinary men. Thirteen ways of practising Love towards 
God are mentioned in Bha^arata. 
The following ure some of tlicm : — 
(i) Love Bhown to His disciplea. 
(ii) Attending His temple, 

(iii) Washing and cleaning His. temples and decorating them, 
(iv) llrimjino; flowers Ac. for Axchana, bringing pure and holy 
water and milk for Abhisheka. 
(v) Establishing flower gardens for Archana. 
(vi) Commemorating Hie incarnation days or days in which 

he displayed note of grace, 
(vii) Attending festivals celeherated on His account and eele- 

bcratin^ festivals in His name, 
(viii) Dedicating property to Hie Bervice. 
(ix) Constructing templea for Him. 
(x) Illuminating His temples. 
(mi Uniisst clLuity l»i tliv jjo stud Uiv iiccu'i 
It ii by pvuerieu of Luft t^wan'- 
:i li solute love towiinli Him enn hi ik'Vch.p 
,il)fuliitu- lovi- tnwiirds God, real kiwii Icdijv 
self is attained. 

fli- i,. u ,i. 

bv dt'l.l.. 


( ii 'If tiod'a devoted difiijiles win, kmm tl„-n-< >,„,„ 

;■:■:■ |d;ilw. # iJvrr. ,\...-,n!ii,, f.i Vu-~i Kmnlnifui t" j.;.i,i-|,: L ,r. 
IlJ ;• is divided int.. Mclcu.-im (tfinirfticitj imd AM- 
'•i .-'it-id 1 , i'in- fcmwk-duv i.'l' svla ut till- J'i 1 . i:,v 


kuowleilga can be Attained through the grace of God I>y practice 
of devotion und love, without theoretical knowledge, non-psychic 
lilid psychic. Those with such theoretical knowledge may 
practice LoVc toward* God and attain true knowledge or Divine 
knowledge ur fciHWteljfe <if self; but in practice some of them alone 
practice 'Divine lovo and attain it; the largest majority loving 
themselves i n distracted speculations and scientific and philosophic 

(i) God is the relntiou of choso who kuow themselves^ A banillin 
ji- relation communicates bis personal secrets in confidence and- 
out of confidence, shows sympathy and participates in the 
pleasures and pains of him whi>sc relation ho is. God acts like » 
Handhoo towards his disciple in l|is simple for onward devotional 
til- Spiritual progress, by strengthening his will ami cheering up 
his mind, by relieving his pains as in the ease of Manikavachakar, 
i>v revealing nil mysteries to liim and by keeping »"" abort want. 
It is characteristic of a hnndtin t" supply food or partake In meals 
supplied, God has supplied fund Lo Appm\ Sundnr ajid Gnana- 
NHiihlia dhar and has partaken in meals euppHcd l>y Gouri and 
K'.tminppav av.d Elnynutiudi. 

u j it sn >( & (if\ LCfiDuJi wpQ&iTfm iuiriLjemp 

ltJT31JlTii^iWiT ftftSTSt gp/US Q U IT Qfi ff (fff GS>£UI-J(p_ 

iLnreuirJ&Lomh &pi£ 63«t ggi&nir jinQev. (a ) 
Ft is possible for all to pick a leaf for or to put a leaf 
uVisr Ood ; it ia possible for fill to give a handful of 
tmirler to cow ; it is possible for all to part with a 
handful of food at the time of meals; aud possible 
for nil to 'punk kind nurds to <dl* 


■J' tww is just :iu enumeration of some of the ways of 
practicing Love tint or Devotion tu God. 

jup ja'SmQl' (meiisr ggn (LpQant nipQ-ajreirgDiiEi 
.sppaiT Qurpmi XLctpusuir ic/r.42Jt— 

■If) bi^fS-Af Q?lKJ'3<5T25 Oh.'Sllp (^sn^^&fip 

Ascetics arc those who smell sweet with fcheconvic- 
turn learnt that the Dharma is to part with food (apart 
A food) which they tak«. Men do not kuow the benefit 
<jf bringing water from w'ell or tank and giving the 
saiuo by way of charity. 



According tu Parasara, Dana (gift or charity) is the main 
Dliai'i-Mi for iliis KsJijngu — Food referred to in the text implies 
spiritual food, much as initiation, intellectual food, suchnsSastruic 
teaching, |md£c*kUHiu) food, such us irdustrial education and 
I'lytical f'uud, such as bread or vice. 

jynx.*a>i5Br Qaj-<i—if- iupl&tsu monpuStr 
ab(t£i£tu .cirsSp p@a>ry:<g) Q&tU'jS/'r 
cSuJ.'i M'(5^ QpejrQ&iusff'ir QsuihenLD ujib&i 
Ji if!* m-zii air QpJsrQ<r lad? QjTcni^Qs^ @Qj. 

Drmuguff impurities. till yourselves wit3i knowledge; 
du elm; ity alafc ii* the dnys in which it is your 

privelege to live. Ye poor souls, what avails ye all your - 
vigilance, as inspite thereof heat flies, off (from your 
body) and your eyes become fixed ? 


The impurities heroin referred to are Ahankara, Maya and Desire 
(«<^t!iii)l Prana is identified with heat (ride Pranagni hotro- 
paniefeed and also my contributions to the " Tfcmlfr" on the subject 
of Prana). The reference to heat flying off and the eyes becomirj 
Jjxed is a reference to the occurrence of death. 

^ssar&w ujfiSujirgi ^irorreuscir ©jrssrfflHfflei 
Qebanus lUfSmir fiBsrriuQjrebr G(ya<r£i 
euskentDuSsv eu/BJjglQmi a^jp/LO euQtjnp&n ezr ri 

Before death comes by foroe without your knowing 
when he comes, without any room for denying your 
identity, without his regarding your poverty or youth, 
be good and perform Tapis. 

^pi&pirsbr suiplQppp &ppQp iBioSsv 
uSjus&tresr tmifilQp^ sSleinunp iM&Zso 

ewpi&pir esrpliLj i&Grrsupl euirQir. (^^ 

No relation from the line of him who has renoun- 
ced the world ; no pleasure from the line of him 
who is dead ; no grace shown by God to him who 
practices what ia non-Dharaa (what is not virtuous). 
Charity or to Dharma is the measure of knowledge. 


Renunciation is a consequence of spiritual perception that God 
is all and all is God. In the case of a person renouncing the 
world, the nation of Duality as a relative and a person rela- 
ted to hhn doee not arise and the question of Dharma or chari- 
ty as a duty does not arise in hie caso. 

Death is, as Slahopsniuliad says, death-birth. Birth is a round 
of sorrow— so no pleasure to him who dies. Disinterested clari- 
ty will put the doer in the way of God and eventually to im- 

Eeward is regulated by merit or virtue. Arbitrary reward 
irrespective of merit is hereby denied. Charity or Dharma is 
the measure of knowledge' "as real knowledge ia derived from 
a love of God which is established By a love of fellow creatures 
exhibited in the form of Dharma or' charity. 

pireirp<sutg>i Q&ajQtjtr^ Q&iupeup ^a/a/d3 
LutiasrQpiijea u>t<x to^S*^ u*e&pa& 
^eirQpiueu uura GyuSi&Qfsrp usufpuSfl 
m a ear Qp tit en Qmekjpt mt&msunx su/iQesr, (er) 

The man who practices Tapa3 ia reckoned as God 
by the world- Death will come unto them who 
worship their flesh as God, declaring himself as 
their God. 



According to a number of Upanishads, immortality it voueh- 
Mfed to him who perceives and knows ['nrnmatitiiin in all and 
all in Paramathtnn,, Death is a punishment inflicted on him who 
identifies hie self with bis. body. 

e33sird(&}i peutpp Qi£>Ljpi%s<m hjuQlc, (-^V) 

There are two ways of propelling without exhaus- 
tion, the boat which will take ns accross the Ocean 
of sorrow — giving Karma. Such helps are Tapas ami 
charity effected by the person of undying renown, tor 
himself and for all mankind. 

uppgs asfTtL&eirp up/S$%sstu \j#RUim& 
tupp QpwtttVLW mpQm/Pm sot ev&i 
u-fpjpxia eirnQ&oir&i^ e&i^jii Qsu^tSsvr 
t&ppeiflemw «n ei/ i5 f ,* eutS 1 " 'siren ;■&% izirwp.y </=,', 

Charity done with desire for worldly cousequen- 
ces or selfish attachments is conducive to sorrow. 
Whereas charity done for disinterested purposes ns 
a dedication unto God is conducive to upward spi- 
ritual march in the way appointed by God. 


The importance of dedicating all acts including clmrfinlilu Wfl« 
to God irrespective of consequences as a "menus of joining unt.n 
the Lord as one spirit" (I Corinthian* VII, 17) is rceoprnizedliy 
Bt. Paul in I Corinthians XI, 31 wherein he says -'whether tWn<- 
fore Ye eat or drink or whatsoever Yo do. do »1t tu the shity nt 
God" Interested charity is conducive to hodied existence w l.irth 
which is a source of Borrow. 

The Strength incase) or him who does no Chauitv. 

gj i_ tg- unppp eanhii^sitl satfii^eiissr 
OaiirL.rn.iu issus\>p^ Qtftuma psuAQ-rkajiii 
a(LLia.9t*iT6SJr i— it u. tp-Q iu Liaraisnsffew QpaiipjliiLL 
UL-t—U u&*iT uiussrpl iuhQii. (.t) 

What is the use of well-developed and ripe fruits 
falling from an Etti or Kangara tree? (these fruits 
are bitter and poisonous). The wealth of those who 
according to capacity do no charity is similar to Etti 
fruits. The benefit of charity, those day light sin- 
ners do not know, who exact usury (interest) and 
bury their wealth under ground. 


One of the duties attaching to wealth is doing charily accord 
init to capacitj to the needy nud the jjoor in the form or the 
way in which their want is felt. Usury is condemned in oil 
the loading religions of the world. 

G$i3 kjsssi 4/rsv/jj/<s fSjfit&aJfh (Suit ill fsi 
.ry^i^esr *pu<fasr i5<TQZff)W (&)jp>Slu 
t9tj$ikp^ (ourevfipLD QuBl^. jridaD* 
u.itfiiE&£i «6irarS tapu>p? urnQo'* \ •*-') 

People do not understand the necessity of Dharrua 
I charity) in spite of their knowledge that time is fled, 
that ihlnges are Jonp, that their ordained days arc- 
gone, chat their body lias become withered as if the 
essence is squeezed out from it, and that they see 
themselves or others- dying. 


In iliis vcl>e, even on pralil and km* considerations or commercial 
citli-idntiuiis, the necessity of charity is vindicated. I'crsuus 
living do nut curry a finale jjio with tlrfan. They have to term: 
their wealth behind for tan use i<r others sun ivin^ them, niietlioi 
/elated Mi' not. The related mill the non-rcluicd are all alike to 
them. In taut: charity l.riuL's no beuolii after death, the ilnpi 
loses within" ami lie is nm in a iv.h^i- posii h»ii i Uim k hum r ish. 
shown no charity whatsoever. In ciw it uriiiiVn l>onelit.-i a!i..-t 
death, tin- doer of 'hnrity ^,'iiinr- and the nuchai-it.ihle miser hlink- 
I'niiliei' the text luciiiir; that weak!) tvhich i* meant U» iho 
ll|>kci.'|i of thi« lunly IiukoiiIv a liuiituil se»]«- in iliai «ay, I'm- tlr 
lupdy is mortal and lis day* will ln> over snoner oV Inter. S» 
neeojtttng loeajiachy, i. c. uilhunt (n-ejniliee to wliat in needed I'.n 
the ttttsriinte necessity irf H-lf ur thitm' it-lying on sell' a portion er 
»enl til should be s)«irrd I'ov the use »F m.isc in ivin.t Th- 
(naetice "i' chnfi'i ihe lie-! means of Kell'-Jaerilie'- an" 


^SinjsS tuTT^'flu CeeuTj, /saitE^Lj 
Ljp.tLpS ujfftruevir OuiriiiQutiru) G*t_'S' 

Those wlio do not know the ways or the necessity 
of charity do not know how to think of the Feet ot 
God ; they do not know the. way to the city of God 
they listen to the false words of others and inctii 


Love of Liutl is impossible without love ot'oni' fellow creatures ami 
without self- saevi lice accordinu to capacity. Charity as Kui-uda- 
|jativiajvi|ponishQil saj-s secures the pood will and affection of all man- 
kind The reverse policy from a false sense of economy or front 
want ol belief in a future evidence is ointisiied in this "world bv 
the enmity of others. 

S*(5 LC Jll'S5 |J, ^ T; "J J | LC&Kr.tyui Qajutj.s 
&{<f)Wq$ Q -fiuiiJT,miir pmutsn ,* T (S 


Hiccup, bilious complaints, consumption, and heat 
afflict those who do not show charity- Lightning 
shock, serpent, disease called Koni Attended with in- 
flammation of the throat, and undue development of 
glands will not approach those who are charitable, 


In this vci4t>, ilic rrstilnnl siiflVriiiL's of these who are noi 
■fiftfitaWe'ln a »ulisei|iu'm birth, in otter words. ewtEtii diseases 
md ncciilcnts which arc tin; indices of iion-chnritahlc hard- 
icartediiess in a prior liirtli ni-e Mated. Hiccup, bilious complaints. 
-onsmnption and lieat aw all tin- rostill nf eitcessrra (tent due to 
cxmil exeesses &?. The Tliapa in- beat of in need alio were 
i-l'«scd help In- those win' wrre iii[<aWr> nf tsn iuj* them Iri'lp =i>ems 
e K' the nliluiatf rau*v<'f (lit; iut-uwiliU - fwim t«f hiccup, Sokn 
Mlions complaints attended with paleness, wim <>i' ilicesiiM- 
iwcr. bitterness nf luuijriip &i-,) and PuitgaiitpittoH lifiltcrinir tin: 
mei-in tlicir snbsei|iient birth. If lor example A sutlers from 
iiewable form of mnsnutpiinn in this generation, we infer that ho 
■as a lianl tniw who did m> charity in his prior birth though cap- 
ble of ioiuit ii. The charitable in their subsequent birth are not 
illert bv I»i*btiiiuir. serpent or other awidcutE mentioned in the text. 

U3SHL.1 u'SsiMT U'jLD&Sr Qni r $,-t :r 

f: j an sv i j. .?, * Sw i(J " a 1 .--in / f 'I ■' " *■ 
&tr.T£;Q ■£ ft r i lL f J. * A^s»>a; oiisttv /lsijit 

The worldly reputed or the worldly influential 
people) would not ador_e the Lord ; they would not 
ven pay the tax due to the king ; they would not 
■row shady groves, watering the plants from water- 
'Ots, (when difficult to grow them). Ye sucli good 
carted 'Ironical) people, will Ye' not suffer in Hell ? 


In this verse. lUJri-ailoratioti of fiml for four nf expense, non-pay - 
icnt i>f tax to Government mil id' miserliness or our attachment 

.> money, and not ltowihk dimly groves who".' mos: needed proves 
re ;ill declared iicts ptinwhrJile wirli punishment in IToll. 

eiitp-'Su.u u:iB/:j/'? cjfiQ^s) (i^TO^iu 
mLp&l—Li L/« TSi— m *i?-tnhLh ''if/ffj 

Qi- d ix/'C'_ t'j i.unrnSlfasr (2u_:triufili£ eir (n?Q s.(oi) 

Those wSiu do not, like the uncharitable, tread the 
rays (as a burden), who tread on the ways of those 
vhose acts lead the ill to heaven, avoiding the in- 
urious or the'evil or the kiss-bringing acts of even 
he latter, are the really great or glorious. 

jp&$m t £eti /pJ-rir jn/pr.&LO ^irsiraf/f 

Qu> Q i-sr _* p ^u sn s?Lp.iQ$irifli ,*rrG'j.() 

The sympathetic or the compassionate will see. the' 
feet of God ; the courageons or the strong hearted 
will reign over the world of the Devas. The miserly 
will, without help at the time of death, with faded 
mindj perish and disappear. 

$)is<u i£t—QiTsir pSlTGSinQp ss an fb ,« & 

iiti sir iS sv t.t friEin^ \LipiLijS uJirQtj. fjy) 

Happiness and misery are the results of acta done 
in prior birth. Witnessing the sight of happiness (some 
people being happy), they still do no charity. Such 
people are really without love and know no thought, 
no virtue (or they do not know the mighty effect or 
Dharraa of inward disposition). 

ivr 'J>: g\i sv e\) Q&tkiffieirii /5(tl!.l_su QuitlLl- it 
GiftQstigp lasting} Qlossst ctjitlS esBestuid 
u'S'su^ Q&iLntSir u-^-eUj^i eisirQiD. (a* 

Think of depositing for charity and of givinf 
chanty and do that which will give you bliss. To bi 
mined or to be prosperous depends on the Dharma yc 
do. He that will not observe in practice the mle o 
Golden middle and will not establish a course of His 
without gaining spotless reputation, is simply a Pas 
(an idiot or fool) or a creation in name. 


In tikis text, besides sundry charities done by delivering fro 
hand to hand substnntinl chnrities in the form of permanent invei 
ments, bequests and apportionments are advocated. 

The rule of the Golden middle is laid down. Charity for 
attended with a spotless reputation is countenanced and it iifnxth 
asserted chat a life without charity is a folly and a burden. 

Q&fveuii «rff|J»<iF Seoirueotr evirLpQ-eusguLci 
L/Gvsojd oirrsnetiirLj QuirjbjSu L/etiiiirQp 

sQeveGp QsutLip dipttjiS ivit'Sio, («c 

Without praising and serving men with limite 
knowledge for the sake of wealth, think of Heavei 
serve God and praise Him and like an unmiesin 
arrow darted from a bow, it will have the desired effect 

S. Hamabwami Aiyab, b, a., b. l. 







(Continued from page 5) 


Lbt my love to Him increase who has neither begin- 
ning nor middle nor end, who is Infinite Light, Grace 
and Wisdom, who unites Himself on the left side to 
Her who begot the world, who is praised by the world 
as the crowoje-wel . of the- celestials, who dances in 
that Spreading Light of Chitakas, with his coral 
braids adorned with the crescent moon falling behind 
him, and let me lift such lotus feet full with fragrant 
pollen on the crown of my head. 

She, who is the Lord's (Isa) Paraaakti, Ichcha Sakti, 
Kriya Sakti and Guana Sakti, and DroupaVa Sakti, 
who actuates all creation, snstcntation and resolution, 
who is form, and formless and neither,, who is the 
wife of the Lord in these Forms, who is all this world 
and all this wealth, who begets the whole world 
.Slid sustains them. The graeiotfs lotus Feet of This, 
our Mother who imparts bliss immortal to souls, and 
removes their bonds of birth, and who remains seated 
with our Father in the hearts of the freed, let me 
lift np my head. 

The Charvaka's Statement. 
1. Not having the intelligence nor the grace to 
understand the trick (real purpose) of the theory 
promulgated by Indra's Purohit, Brihaspathi, the 
Charvaka who is tied down to the pleasures of this 
sea-girt world, and whose person is tubbed with 
Sandal and adorned with festive wreaths (bases 
his own case on Brihaspathi'a authority) aud. states 
as follows. 

This describes the Supremo who is neither Rnpi nor Arupi nor 
Rnpa Hupi„ who is neither Sagiina nor Nirgnna, who transcends nil 
these, and the next Terse describes, how He ■Manifests liiiusclf 
to mankind. This gives His condition ns I"n«s Sot, and which could 
not be anything; unless it is Chit and Aua-nda ut the same lime. 

This shows How God us Light and Love diffuses in ull and 
in every ,tli ins. nud manifests Himself. 

1. Indi-n was disgusted with the pleasures of M* suite, mid 
aspired to KumrtliiHg holier and purer before his time and wished 
u> do tapas. His ncharv* BrihftSpatjKwishing bi tuftt him from his 
ibh-CT and in lead him into hi* former life, prenrfwa u> hint the 
t-calit ~nt lite wuirW* j<SY»m»l tin? falsity n( «» other hopes. Tins 
is voiii r arwl i» the uhjet >vilo which Sri Ki-M>n:> tried!s«itd>5 

2. The only measure of all things is by Perception 
alone. This perception when! united to miud &c, 
divides itself into six kinds. Inference and Agama 
are not correct methods of proof. The things proved 
by Perception arti the (four) elements and their inher- 
rent natures such as hardness, coldness, heat, and 

3. The names of the (four) elements are earth, 
water, fire and air; and the quality of the products of 
each of these respectively are smell, taste, form and 
touch. These are the great Eternal Entities ; aud 
these unite one with the other in regular order 

i- Just as you get various shaped utensils from 
clods of clay, so by the union of these elements, all 
forms are produced. Like the bubbles formed in 
water, Bvddhi aud other andakaranu, and senses and 
sensation arise ateo from the union of these elements. 

5. If one of the elements is separated trom the i-esc, 
the senses and sensations and intellect, &c. all die. 
So do all moveable and immoveable objects die, 
When the effects, as form, qualify &c. vanish, they 

apparently Arjunn from his resolution not to light and kill his near 
kith and kill. The arjfinin?nts are plausible enough and Arjnnai.s 
led on to commit what would he regarded by the world us a ,=fn. 
Hut neither Brihaspnthi nor Krishna wished to mislead really their 
pupils. They uiinpty wanted them by means of sophist* if neces- 
sary, to conttreoaeh to his station and thereby do his duly, whicT, 
it' ftiitlifullit and t\h*f1ridit\t Join: us dtttij will be anfficietrc for 
attaining all the Highest ends. It wns in the nature of the Highest 
crime which nothing can excuse that the man should forget the 
duties of his station. Their Highest ideal vraH Dnl;i. It is with 
this High Ideal, iiran is permitted to live his life in different «Wi, v.,,,,.-, 
and to work for virtue or wealth or pleasure, jitit if this ideal is hut 
kept iti view, these aspirations will surely degenerate into mere 
hypocrisy, earth-hanger uud grossOBt licentiousness, aud [he whole 
society unhinged. These masters were the builders of society. 
Not, undemanding Brihsspurlii, the Ixikayitha, despised every- 
thing else and took to indulging in grossest forms of pleasure, in the 
same way as false prophets I here are who seek to justify their 
drinking and gluttonon" irttt riotous nets from tTio maxims of *ri 
Krishna, Baying thai when they drink, they drink without any 
attachment ami us smb nu sin will attach to them. Siiell is tjie 
wav the noble traeliiiigs of noble masters are dragged to the dusi. 
alas ! alas ! 

2. Three ki mis o I' A"" iclu, are «£■■-*»• 3, doubtful perception; *■ 
*' — "*i perception by other senses than the eye j - ; - * - - ■• per- 
ception of a thing in it* relation to class, species and atrihuir.- and 
action ; Jt ' wr* » - a, pr 'ccptiou of tire by the presence of smoke ; 
/t-^-'**!"- 3 , perception of a |fioworfrom its smell; ££;- 'arc. 3 
wrong perception- Anvaya and Vytirckn are classed here as direct 
perception, as involving ' very little of real inference. The nanus 
of the elements believed in by the materialist are given in the next 

3. In Btansaa 2 to 6 the Ghnrvaka states his own theory and 
lie now proceeds to state tho other's case and criticise it and the 
peculiar note in bin maimer may better be observed, namely bis 
heart overflowing with pity ninl kindness for those deluded fools 
who would not readily appreciate the goods we have but go un 
hankering after mm ttn limbic fancies: and lie fails not to *'"W iv»?-.;j 
,r,i<l ii'lirnh; against bis .-inmgniiisn, iis all ftiNe reformers do, hue 
irony and ridicule have never been known to secure, one *iitgt.j 


art resolved into their «iu>»", these t*mr elements. 
Ami such U nowlodge constitutes the highest Wisdcflin 

0. Against this, there are those wild postulate fhc 
Stjmrale existence of Karma, and soul and (Jod. How 
iliil the people- <>f this earth ofetnl them They 
assert that that tliu incomparable sterile woman be- 
got a sun and the latter £Ot up an the horns of the 
Iraro ami plucked without fail the hWer bt the sjiy ! 

7 1 1 you assert that the ivarma effected in a tanner 
Snrtll attaches to one bis' present life, how is this 
possible, when we see all the Karma die with the 
death of the body- Oh, my good Sir. If you say that 
lists Karma lives in smh^humu (subtile form, then it 

like saying that tiamo enn burn apart from the 
wick of th" !:nup. 

S. If you compare the action of Karma, to the dead 
straw which rotting in the field comes forth again as 
fresh grass, this is possible wherever von manure the 
lield with the straw. .This will illustrate the case uf 
those who wish to derive the excreta of a man who 
coining tired and hungry was fed with food. 

y. U fool, if yoit say t! it id by this Karma, 
men's bodies ami tpuilities anl intelligence do not fit, 
I lieu, by what sort of Karnin, do not all the lingers on 
one's palm resemble each other. All these differences 
are due to the proportionate increase or decrease in 
the constituent element-. 

I li. If you say that it i- by the effect of Karma men 
endure pleasure and pain, then, tell me, by what sort 
t>f Karma, does the body feel pleasure when I am 
smeared withfragrani sandal water, and feel extreme 
discomfort when brought in contact with tire. All 
these are due to the nature of these things. 

II If you assert thero is a soul independent of 
the body, don't make a false 1 assertion. Hitch n soul 
must be .perceived by one of the six modes of pcr- 
i eptton. .Hie assertion against the pronf fumi-hed 
tjy perception is like statements about the length of 
the hare's horn in the world ! 

12- If yon say that God is Arupi, thin Jle is non- 
iuteliigent Hue the sky If He is a Uupi, theu He is 
one with the objects of tins" world. If you say Ho is 
Bupa Rupi, then tell me, can yon. suspend a stone in 
the sky, 

10. The last throo etau/.ns deny i he existence of Kunmi. The 
Buddhist (not Esoteric if you will have it) ^oes n wen higher 
than the PJiwwfas out! to the font elements unci iheii- products, 
lie adds K*rw. Karma in uijr capitals aA his fhnl virtual!* 
I hu eaiiM- ...I' it 1 1 t'vvHctiiv i. hit tvU'-ii veu kill thi* .■:.u.-.- \ ..l ......I- 

(. i\i>l, 

I". Oh ! Why should these people follow these 
various delusive paths, and fall into error and sorrow, 
when their own Yeda, asserts that the elements evobe 
into food and from food arises body, and from the 
latter mind and the rest and resolve into each other 
in the same order ''. 

11. ! These fools give up the pleasures to hand 
in this world, hanker after heavenly pleasures and 
drown themselves in sorrow. They are like those who 
feeling thirsty leave the water in their presence and fly 
after a beautiful mirage, only to die of great thirst. 

15. O hail to you, Vaini, give me your hand. 
You are my real imcoinpnr:ible friend, since yon 
pursue like myself the paths of murder and robbery 
ami vice which the cowards call evil and are the light 
of an admiring group of girls with lovely braids of 

Ifi, Isa, and l.h'ulnna, \ islam and India attained 
their greatness by having associated themselves with 
their goddesses. If you nlso wish to attain to such 
greatness, you will do welt also to enjoy life with 
beautiful women with fragrant locks. 

17, 13, 19 and 20. lusteudof deriving pleasure the 
society of women, people die by believing in the shams 
set up false systems of I'hilo-ophy. and by believing' 
in a future existence. 

21. Why do you get weary iu pursuit of Moksha? 
Show mi' one. who had pointed out this wav, or had 
seen it, or had heard of it ': "Willi transgressing the laws 
of the king, fci'i-n money and seek pleasure as well as 
you can, 

■1. U. X.Y1.T,\saWMV PlI.r.M, |r. |i. i.. 

[Tv he nutfUiimh 

1 1, f I elfin Uiiidienied the ahlumeiKe of all Lfn.,1 men mid into in 
retKitll 111 the :i il s llml pruclil-cs lit' I |n- YnllilU-hari jdhI h nil! uc m , 
;il.Minl caneanivenuil l.hisphciniiiKof real Hinduism to seek to iden- 
tify Vuiuucliur with Hinduism. Vim limy as well cull this 
l.iikiieitliu wiilldwiiiK in rln- luwvsi depths oi passion imcl vice, a 
follower t,f Hinduism I The liane ami curse of Hinduism luis been 
im so-called tulemnl spirit and spirit of compromise, to seek to 
siinetimi and clothe iviih its al.ju-e.enl, nil gens of opiui&na, low and 
talsc. nnil parity false. Could we eoneeive of any country where so 
niimy iiiyriiirds of divergent el' fail lis and inconsistent practises 
seek to live and propositi' 1 licmseh'.'s under a spirit of miscalled m»i- 
u*r«il ivtigfani and iiuireiunl tnu... '' 'nnh cnn'i he so hideous and 
fepellew ;i~ in ««uir ul' 1 liese FueiH*. 1 1. I'm- a day when truth will be 
i" i-.reil in ill l;-. t:l,.r, ;inil i ri ,,ll if, jteuuly"' 



(Continued from page 10.) 


^(y 4*11 iff fl^ QppfiuifB pa-1 ml& 

mia ao» i i t—prgt&r (if ips tf 

Q#6dU161)^Lu 'J* JO fiibSeJI^Cj^ *^fif! "- -1'." 1" 

&jpiBfiQf>f £(&?■$*• 

£ ia -tout K? *fO<*)Gt£-\ (?"*" 

God-head as tin-: Eternal Guru' who 1- 

l)ukahini">-M"rthij," OThe Eternnl t?Wi'H+ ivauHli 
knowledge and bliss, Thou liidst for the sake of souls 
manifest Thyself as such on tlie mount >Srr«; ! O 
The Absolute Giver of the Mokshu^ which is anuunu- 
ced in the $«filh«ii<«|| Philosophy ! Thou didst, Kitting 
on a priestly seat on the said mount under tin- 
Banyan tree, i*eveal iu one sacred word lite tvttv 
spiritual knowledge and Thou didst also show the 
Supreme Eternal Bliss to bo attained and enjoyed fitim 
such knowledge. 

Upon whom didst Thou deign to confer this boun 
Certainly upon those full-matured Muniv* , SuvnlnK 
&c, who most inquisitively stood worshipping before 
Thee. But, as for ray part, I doubt whether I tiui* 
ever be able 'to find shelter in the bounties of Tliv 
Grace : Because I have not yet made myself worthy Tin 

* Dikshina-ituitiiv irtcans rhc One Bitting with the (jit tutwtl 
to the South. 

f Gun — Spiritual Teacher. 

J The modem Tricuinopoly. This mount win once suirr I i.v 

one Tii'Tiai'm j hence the name probably. 

§ Mokgha means emancipation or liberation. 
Vide note to Dili -> erte flwprci. 

•' Muni — Yogi. 

S Sannka, Sananty. Swuitmni «nil Sauatfcnnmra an: the «ini- "l 
Brahm'nor llie Trinity ami nrr alwaya called the/-": •■'». 

blessings and I urn wanting iu that kind of einutiona! 
worship, which must plunge me iu Anauilet*, beiog at 
the ssiine time attended with my offering of flowers 
with my tears of Jove raining down and inv tongue 
blubbing "vith addresses directed to Thee such si« O 
fin 1 1 /.•f')-(!+! () Sn-aijanihhn\ ! Samhhu^ ! 

J^£mQiiatiti3fi*^ stun ■y. (-.aisffre Sffuip. 
. "j; g; w^i i. «£ if c£ or u i 

# 63T u. .7 ri 4 4 ix sv ev ay vsi iv M tp -j-.Gli ep: ^ff iise&a ti' 

#|T£ .7^ j*LJ r ;f?UipKtij 

c-s ujj,. -gluts- i^uziu tit 

i>. cj~'^^ atrtl (_(,•_£ Gutflcr uu,-em 

mil it? aS a* «i .7 i 1/ Ij g: >jf 

U Dnksfhiif'i-Mih-tluj, The Eternal (V«/vi who art 
knowledge and blisSj Thou didst for the sake ot souls 
inntiii^.st Tliyselt as such on the mount B/iw ! O The 
Absolute Giver of the Mohghu which is announced in 
the Sidithuitta Philosophy ! ilyjiuitv intelligence has 
ninclt relied on the durability of my body which ia 
rea)iy as infirm as the deluged river-bauk excavated 
beneath ■ su that any attempt on my part tov ards the 
u<.hrctitha\t state of the said Moleka will be as feeble 
us thut of a man dying for the moon. 

Now, then, what is the true path of attaining the 
i)i/i)iilr knowledge Even the sure appliances 1 have 
resorted to — namely — tia>iya, r KinyaH and Yuya** 
have uot produced any material effect upon me. Of 

*lM'l<i/!l — blias. 

i^Goil is beJicGi-cni ;nul lu-m-«' Mil- miuic thtuhti'tt, 

* i\i* is tt'lf -existent iilul heneu tfic Hume StctryuiHtrli t<_ 

i lie h beautiful to Uib tUni<tL't*i* nnd hence the intigC Hambiiv, 

IV' 1 uoli's to tin- 3rri veree. V t. the SuimV enhpiet «j :n»j 
/-.£*-* -~-t- »vi ■'*•*£ — -is '-^rf- .*$3"3t ■ 

* "i,r- " (11 foe ihe liny when I will be one with Sivy, the Per- 
fect Jutolli^rin-e, its 1 mil iiiiw wite wit|l ttitirrti] ; viiIq hIbo nutea 
Id the StJi vir.'.e. 

■ Se> i*ta uieuu« tmii iiiehuU-« a I i ^levuiitniul moral pmcticca — where 
the [iniei iscv atirreiitlcEii l>is bodv Iu God (Situ). 

s K-. ittf* meaun nitu iiu'ludes nil reli|iriou» rituals and woruhip of 
God wU-iy lie eorre)idet> his Indrij-a^ (or^ns of eeuse)to Ood. 

** i'iv" literally uie:tmf * XTiiipu* — ro.. L'hioii wit li the Divine and 
hlcWtv* nil pnyehti'ul in-netive* i-'Mdliu-tM- !<■ i.-iii[ti-ri(|il:Minii of liud 

».'■'' 'i, ^i.ili.'|-ii;.1 Miiiti' [p. Mini. 

. I .-v. 1... ^ui'l'i-LMk'lr 111. 


coarse, no schools of philosophy can hope or profess 
to succeed without "tfrese Badantts.*" 

0, then, for that day when with overwhelming joy, 
I will become absorbed by Thy Divine Grace in the. 
Eternal Happy Communion. With Thee !: — The Supreme 
state of Infinite knowledge and Bliss where even the 
best of religious c:uniot iva<h, its it is beyond all 
thought and description ; find where TJnm and Thou 
alone dost remain to me. everything else including 
* me' and * mine' being lost and beheld iu Thee nnd 
Thyself beheld in all. 

J^ SO t- i © (_L 1$L (J .* « (? 6» T LKfl 

©lduJ su £ <Bjb$ 3 « « 
dl&j$eO?ei>Qujrf>efiQaoii ijc GRtQfS gt<t,Qu\u it 
sSliFid S jv«g> B WW JpiQfi S" Of it 

^aJTLoiu.'fan'.s.a vj^G.i'. C 2 -^) 

O Daliskin'i-M'irlhy, O The Internal fTiwu who art 
kuowledse and bliss, Thou didst for the sake of souls 
manifest Thyself as such on tlio niouut Sim ! Tho 
Absolute Giver of the AToksfat whicli is announced in 
the Sitblhanta Philosophy ! Since, its a matter of fact, 
I sec myself not free from many evil (ju.ilitiessnch as 
egotism, envy, passions, desires, depravity &c, I am 
led to think that Thon act not dwelling in inc. Art 
Thou, therefore, to be called limited and not Omni- 
present ? Certainly not, 1 should say. Because, Thon 
being the only Sal and oil the rest a*at\ before Thee, 
nothing can over affect Thy being immanent in all 
and animating nil. And I know, indeed, that Thou 
art tlic transcendent motionless lord of the Moksha 
World and as such Thyself dost nnmifest and revivify 

* Tliu*<- It sadnnus I'lu-jctk't's) load the snnl id true Divine knew- 
lt«l}fu and dcvoiiunal love and, rlicu, Uod who is nll-Luva or Si vain 
Appears a* tiiii-n in die liinii:iii fornt iiiid imparts Gnanain, which 
i-i tl>i'/'"i'"i fwtlmm (step) mill eiintiti*s (lie s-oul l" give up itself to 
r i mil awl 1*'«-iiiih' ahsorberl in Him. Tims the ftiuf step.s ate Sariya, 
Kirivn- Viijja and fiiniiia. 

♦ As,"U I'leiiil-' ail'l invlmk'3 "'' <j(ii"|- ll llir S:IL (<ii>d). 

by Thy (hiana Sakti* the sonls languishing under the 
hardest nooserof pam.f 

s'icif *wv\G)ffii$ iu jir fair <5t! or §gs -seif & 
$ tenor g er»i,r£«*«J&«<7ltJfr 

u HiL ifilei IT Qin lUlL D$€& p 
Guit^uSls g fvtr ei * «ijw m. $ * s tr e wit <Lu 


QgtL&iwshiDQpm. tunas iSs^FSuQ^nmiSduj 

SeirwiLnlsrihjff^rijGoi. f 3 -*) 

Q- Dakshina-M firthy , O' The Eternal Gitru who art 
knowledge and bliss, Thou didst for the sake of souls 
manifest Thyself as sneh on the momvt Sira ! O The 
Absolute Giver of the Moksha which is announced in 
the Siddhanta Philosophy I Thou hast produced the 
five elements and from the five elements Thou hast 
created the objects of the universe both animate and 
inanimate. And to all creatures Thou hast thus im- 
parted consciousness and revealed the Vedas and the 
like SastrasJ and hast also appointed many religions 
systems, the Saivaixm§ &c And beyond the reach of 
all religions controversies. Thou hast fixed the blissful 
*tate of JLTo«a||, where reigns supreme the conciliatory 

How is it, then, Thou hast not bestowed Thy Grace 
upon me so as to enable me to approach Thee ? 

Thon Infinite Lord of eternal entirety, whose 
form is known to be the Prunrtra^f the real end of the 
Vedas, I do understand Thy real Provident Design : 
Thon wilt only reveal Thyself in full to true profound 

* GnauK-Eakti menus Divine Intelligence (the power of Chit), 
t ("Mc note to the fi tli vci'se. 
jSnstra menus science er philosophy. 

5 He liu'iitiniis Saiva reliirinn liciiiE the grant post to Moksha and 
as such the mother fthcwl. The Saint Inter on saya " ra»» «isuSu> 
»i/.ini" (The Sniva Iteti^inn and l'hilosophy ia the perfectest of all 
other systems). [It ivnulil appears, tlint the great Ramalingani 
Pillni of Vadalnr «getl to object to this Samarata Siddhanta as a 
Snififf yam, ne it meant a margn and n step merely. It should be 
merely called < Saivai»\ ' The lliirhest Anuhava.' Eo.]. 

i| Tide note to the Slid vers?. 

*f Vide note to the Oth vcrdr. 


while, on the other band, Thou dost never 
Jet. thyself be felt by the feigned devotees. 

fi«pnriai #'l Glow 
j,u>i%* p&Bjp3*>m *p0mrpQpdrm»*m 

Lifi0u>d&p^mr «®p0*iruu>*tuQp 

Quf*?Q*/BQ<u* pi <*,%<*?*• 
gr'uor*'* p(gmnvm04mipp*Bmmi 

*t*pftmGu&g» iif*s»i#<Ka**j«-«wa» 

Btsufiurmsp^f^Qai, (*>0) 

O DwJbfctflH-JMrtfcy, The Eternal GWu who art 
knowledge and bliss, Thon didst for the sake of souls 
manifest Thyself as such on the mount Sira .' The 
Absolute Gi*er of the Moktha which is announced io 
the 8iddhanta Philosophy ! All the time I was ignor- 
ant of the babble-like nature of my bod y, the product 
of the fire elements, the snratnnm boonm -of my life 
was merely tbe pleasures of food, clothing and the 

Bnt, the moment I was graciously blessed with Thy 
knowledge, all my epicurean thoughts and aspira- 
tions vanished ; my mind does ever since long after 
nothing else bnt Thee. 

And what is more surprising to me is that, at the 
very thought of my mortal condition, n>y heart shud- 
ders, my body wears oat like bees-wax exposed to fire, 
and, both night and day, I simply droop without 

**Jili_#«fT«w# m<*)miaip&mflm/pp 
Murrn**" i nfLpiDssHi. uQ utp 


Ou«i a •OaViL.' Qpp Qo iS. ttu 
QuMut4»mp0illmi- SuHflv) *jj*&iirp 

OuiurfltiufL ~i*pfliL 

Qt-*i^.p*+1$0 HftjfipCtSmrvhm+L. 

* \&01*i9*<-'p*» P 

* TUt hU ** ta* 4th new. 

§jmf»J>£> t9*Y3« itmnBOm mjgt 

$t3tigggrmMm,Q pLL&QQpip0Q*j 

Qanmuf^rip^^Gm, (**) 

O Dahthinu-MArthy, O Tbo Eternal ««r« who art 
knowledge and bliss, Thon didst for the sake of souls 
manifest Thyself as suoh on the mount StVti ! The 
Absolute Giver of the Moktha which is announced in 
tbe Siddhanta Philosophy ! Piaise be to Thy maternal 
love to as. Seeing that w<j fsotils) were Tying con-' 
coaled like an em foryo in the darkness of anava-nutla, * 
Thou didst benevolently take ns out aud set as to the 
cycle of re-births guarding ns at the same time with 
five kinds of pain''" and feeding and developing us 
with frnite of karma%. And thon didst, then, cause 
ns to play the part of re-inearnatioH in the worldly 
theatre and didst, rightly call as the characters of 
' Jivas* ; Thou didst also shew.os from the Veda* the 
rules of our play to be strictly observed and acted 
upon j if they be strictly followed by us, we would In: 
placed in the Mvktha of Eternal Light and Bliss 
Otherwise we rfonld be hurled down to, suffer undei 
the horrors of Tarna'f $ cruel pnnishtnent su as t< 
mend ourselves for the Eternal Liberation without 
eternal damnation. Lord, Thou art, thus, sl**» oni 
true Beloved Mother \\. 

irrLidgit/ £}'■*•/•> ar£»iI«,?K> 

uC r p mp Ou m Q * • trjvGm m 
JKStmaQu&H* <j.Qurf- G*p**f&jpt ip 

0t*,u>Qm;mhmi tm$.^SQfiemm- iSmp 

*)«*■*-<» < gv j.-r;i , fci.) 

* Vi4r auu* lu ill- Uh mil lib itnri 

t Th* Ira hind* of |win arr ifw |*in - (1) triainir fruni ;1 nm 
of «JJ nbrvo. (I) from Uinb (.11 »«*■ I it illnraa »d (5) dua'll 

I ¥id» not* to tfw 2fu| i ,,«' (KKt- uf thv »t« ranrtuu* u* tfrdf 
I* Io a— mi io eat the truitm <U inir Kimi (Jaa?r*l«) 

I Y»M u I be D«i» of Umh >vl Hall. 
•Xwim ta to tbr ■>.«*■-* lawai uT Cwl , ' Krvi «akii o/ li at). 


(i Dtik.-iltittti-Mi'vtIiif, The Eternal (finx who jti-t 
knowledge and bliss, Thou didst for the sake of souls 
manifest Thyself as such on the mount Sir/i .' O The 
Absolute tiiver of the Nvkxliti which is announced in 
the Sidillutitta Philosophy ! Grand vvai Thy 8tisp?WoH,« 
presence on the beautiful mount S/m under the 
B(t;> <f au tree ; grander still was that occasion when 
>;ieat emotion and solemnity were excited in the de- 
rotii-uiil hearts of the munis that stood then before 
Thee : and grandest was Thy sacred symbol, Thou 
didst respond to them, which at once signified the end 
nf nil cuds or tiitlux*, namely, Vedanta, Siddhanta &c. 

O iny "Master, boundless bath been Thy Grace to 
Seeing my intelligence rusted with ignorance 
like copper. Thou didst kindly put me in this carneous 
body and h&at ma with the fire ofGnana; and when 
[ attained the desired maturity, viz., m-ala-parihagam,f 
Thou didst touch me with Thy Grace, which at once 
like the alchemist's stone converted me into the finest 
vjold, i- e., realized divinity in me. Thou hast, indeed, 
made me Thy servant. 


izfftrsgs g £Hld pjpsS'ijD 

<cj if & (5 fiff 6BT|C5 ff air te p j& 
ajT® i ijuiiflfB,j8do Qgvij enrppptnai't—pjD: 

a, 1 it aj "> ® $ ^ sir i_ em e lc s iL j£ 

G&QjSgVwpmslii— (SSwQttJSW pQwGfiS&Qa? 

O Dahfhiiid-Hiirthy, O The Eternal Gum who art 
knowledge and bliss, Thou didst for the sake of souls 
manifest Thyself as such on the mount Sirii ! The 
Absolute Giver of the Hokzha which is announced in 

* Tin' rtiftue (ends) i me six in number, namely, (1) Vcda»ta, (2) 
^iiidliiin'", (3) Xiitha«(u {tlu> end of Nutham or pound), {*) Botha- 
,.;.i (eii<J ttf knowledge}, (">) Yogonta (end of Yoga), and (6) Kalanto 
.■■(id uf »ll sciences, philosophies, Acj c. f. The Saint's couplet 

< i t r tlie day when I will attain knowledge like those who knew 

ihc six tfiif»ii from Vedanfo to Knlanfc 
t The Tiunil is" j<Ku$u-t±". 

the Siddh mcta Philosophy ! As If menu Guru Thou 
didst instil into D3y heart that the Final Bliss of 
Mokshn, beyond which there is nothing to be attained, 
is where one overpowered with eternal joy becomes 
absorbed in Thee, tho All-filling ocean of Bliss, who 
art beyond the'eosmic condition and above sutta naya* 
and: yet inseparably connected with all so as not to be 
knowable either as monistic or as duabstic ; who art the 
Nhimalai Being of changeless, entirety begin ningles* 
or endless and hast neither cpality nor name nor form 
nor an upper nor an under nor sides ; who hast no 
such tatwas X like mind, tongue, &c. and consequently 
neither £uy purpose nor wearisomeness, nor pleasure 
nor pain ; and- who art neither the knowledge nor the 

X. B. — The Saint means to give us to understand by this vera* 
(•13) that the nature of Bmhman can, in no manner, be determined 
except by stating that event attribute it denied of Him. c. f. rhe 
18th terse fupm. 

pmntpeuq^Qstrsniti £.is;(iijeirQLCsrrai)<tiiriup 
<$3i> 0(yjf-fl'«irQt_g3LDa) ^"i*" 1 — '•) 

cj eSQiu at affjpesr it ®\(iip tup 
ultB aglUflAuuGp QtLtgs&ilfiajiLopp 

umQueiriitaBti£j£aj_g)uitllt! ujeviiSatu 
u(gl & f-iSavtjifi&ttB- mi ft <g 

O Dajcshind-Murlhy, The Eternal Ghiru who art 
knowledge and bliss, Thou didst for the sake of souls 
manifest Thyself as such on the mount Situ •-! O The 
Absolute Giver of the Moksha which ie announced in 
the Siddhanta Philosopliy ! With true motherly love 
and unlimited flow of Thy bountiful Grace, Thou didst 

•Sutta means pure or clear, as in undifferentiated original 

t Ninmala=not subject to main or pasn or imparity ; pure, un- 

J Tntwae. Vide note to 11th verse. 

5 The words in the test are Qnuthuru and Qiiniin which mean 
the knower and the knowledge respectively. Along with these 
words ' Cneya' which means ' knowable' will be used by the Saim 
later on. 



•**•**- Gam appear to me sod pbcinr Thy sae«d I *,„„* therefore, pretend (4 posset* an indepeod- 
foot easy band, didst infnseioto ay miud that the eat power of knowledge. Blceeod with Thy Ami* 
a* Sad***** of the «pwn» w t Blissful I .bell fan no more ignorance, .ad no more M 

efTwts and do more embodiments, end, id short, bo 

more *ftUiM of my owu. 

Tlioti alone most grant hjo Thy knowledge and make 
w Thine eternal slave f rc*d from hatnanit\ . 

QmmcmhI t-00* «-**.*•© 

Get v*A«s«v(y>.* «■*{*! *», ui i_* M0utt**r 

U I>9i-**;iw?-Jf»W*iy, U Tin Eternal f*er* aho art 
knowledge and bliu, Thee) d»d*t for the sake *»f suals 
uanifeM fl»ysrtf si mcI ob the mount Sirti O Th<* 
Absolute (iirer of (he JbV-*« wbk-h m sjmonsrrd in 
(at Bt*Mk«*l« Philosophy f TV- Highest «J ef 
Mohsha can never be attainable *J Asriea, 
eJW, i e . either by doiag bhahfi gmaf oa a 
tuagi- nil over the nine* continents and to all 
bathing piaci*, i>r by »tri*-t ob-rrraae* <d the rwr of 
-ilews curing the pniii of hunger with dry leave* or 
walt'i W nit, or keeping tfcv stomach em pry wilbal if* 
ftrej of drgvrtioe arising ia seven Samp- J 

Km can tta lhY»ne End be rva*-li«] h_v the men 
•chiw* of Yoga, »a rW pradw* of ■ hn-h ..or Htctag 
witkta a awaaUia — can eejojs *be »w**»est neater 

of eternal and iaioire Waro it to m-diUh 
m l%g Dinar Arntf j without erer thinking of the 
■aw Yog*>ki* w wiedge being the Highest End; or 
without eaiploynigniyndf in trying to nuder*t*nd the 
natare of the JUhIsIb'^ anion in ltok*i,a$ usilltev a* 
one nor as two, neither as Al-nt nor ax aoiuul, mid 
neither tm light nor as somethiug po«ao*»nl id a fwna. 
O, then, ay Lord, it is by' the help of Thy Ami 8*kH 
alone that I oau erer think of rtwehiitg Hit supreme 
end of the ancifnt sages, 

H t00i»*JJ at«*r ttiL u 

QumJtQ* § af &i* f *•- u>*i:£-t&. ^J* 

u t aw i£M aafi_ie# *»' 
j^r^aar'u « , ,'4hr»«j/'uu^« 

jj^5<.'. ii«-t5te,Wrfar«au6jr»/ 
M£+0#Sfm<S «F9«rreTQe*«aV9**> 

wjt wmi g jm mm Q mij aVnar9..^efaw/«ri 


fl|/aa-«. gp<e> nimtfi w 

$0m- 9 ^Qmnim+.dlim*i0£ »i-'ta -■*»«* Sf* # 

a*eW^«r«r«*(a 0tia&,Qp40J0Q*j 

O IWbAea>^ af •? rthy , The Internal (•>.« who art. 
knowledge and btiat, Thou didxt for the sake of seal.- 
manifest Thyself an swrb an the otoont S«*»; ! O The 
AbeoJote Giver of the IM«aa which i* snnoani«d in 
the SiddAuuta Philosophy ! Thou art the l*crfeet lord 
of souls showing theui Tliy merry aud bestuwtnr on 
them Eternal Heavenly Bliu. It is bat Thy an -re? 
that makes a* 1 eat the fruits of my Karma aaft,tni\ - 
ed and, when wy ge«d »t«d t-vil sfaouU kace snt bahui- 
end, that wtTJ raahla uu» to Li«m Tuct-, inditd. 8« the 
naivemml sanctuary aff<jfdiag r\crtnatia^ rv-t vi 

| r^U wc taSStt w in ■«•*. 

*. Tas nsm.-ii » tsfc ewe— w *• i»tw swi s et ii« I i»niw> 

f fiii ■■■ntjr fa ' n p«» »■< j«>r»*i. 

r fin i_i iniin.V ^* " i gwrn it- 1 m^ -•i.-.^ «i 

iU> Sm ik«- Mao 

* .1 ,' 1 * am l« Ult 'tnr 
rf .WVlk »n» —K* ■a* •**** »**•«•■«"•* ••'■» 

♦ TL. »TBW»wt*irt>l t«««l»M» rf lt< »<■•** i«n«t» MM) I 
ITS.- *»> »!**■•■«*«••»• <•« »t«J ••» r»ttn* a^»-»' « 

..,..,»{!, nnm»u4 .ti^jit.- -.•-• »••»" * »•»•• •*»! -imni. If. 
k ih> iionr* 'Ml ■> hKi«« » "■ 

. ufatiiHftl »» i>* »M«^»W'' r*2" 
•S«4 t-fi t.S. M«J ■««**« H (k> S a»»-f • HwS H» ) WHi SM 
toanuniunirir-H > St* S>U»ia ak.t »k— f»M» aari M*> 
««»■ I p u ll (■<«•' 

f tV» -^im. »■ — « ■»» l*» |l 1 I— ■ •* ■•"• *••*. ' '•»■"* "*"* 
lW I MM*, IS* ( mtmi !«•«■• »»J !•» •«*•*■ TW *«» *4 4l^-» 


produced by cleasing his ten veins* and controlling 
and uniting' in the Soma^t orb the vital spirit and 
the fire in his body, or he acquires the super human 
power of preserving hig body for many a Kalpa % 

How then, can the final liberation of bliss be at- 
tained * Certainly only by hwiving and uniting my- 
self in love to Tliee, is the Pathi-Gnana§ the 
end and aim of all Gn.ana. 

R-. Shfnmcgam Mcn-ittAR. 
(To be continued) 


Three Hints. — Be content to do the things you. can, 
and fret not because you cannot do everything. 

Never reply in a like manner to a sharp or angry word; 
it is the second word that makes the quarrel. Slake the 
best of what 3-011 have, and do not make yourself miser- 
able by wishing/or what yon hare not. 

Gvvd for criL — Let us be like trees, that yield their fruit 
to tkos" who throw .stones at them. 

Ar.tfiHOL Axrt AitcHERy. — Expert testimony against al- 
cohol receives added evidence from professor Heiu, of 
Zurich, who says, '~ The Swiss excel as archers. I had 
occasion to speak with one of these famed huntsmen. This 
clever marksman assured mc that all who attain, skill in 
shooting are strictly temperate or abstainers. They live 
upon milk, butter, -cheese, and eggs, and never touch 
alcohol. Many do not smoke, and they also go early to. bed." 

SELf-Ruj.TA.vcT-: of the right kind should grow side by 
side with dependence upon (.rod and His providence. 

* Tin- 10 veins or ^j-j«^ (Dasn-nadi) are: — I dell Kala tlir 
canal which passea from tins end of ;hfl spinal column to the 
head through the left nostril; (2) Plflgfala, the canal 
which passes as tuc above through the right nostril ; (3) 
SuShumna the canal which passes straight through the six 
centres the anui, the private part, the nnvol, the henrr, the uvula, 
and the fore-head -, (4) Kartdharl, the canal ilivMlil£ itself 
iiitii seven passages for rhe seven kinds of tintham or Ennnil being 
produced and located in the neck; (S) and (6), AttI and SIKu- 
vai dividing themselves into ten lirnntlu-ft in all occupy the eyes- 
(71 and (8) Alampudal and PurilSha ncrtipj- the ears! 
(9) KukU which connects the navel and the generic Organ ; and 
(1(1) Satlkini which occupies the organ of generation. 

t Soma is the inoon which ia said to remain in our fnvivlicd for 
Our benefit. 

J Kalpa is the cosmic period from the renovation to the des- 
truction of the worlds. 

§ Patlii=Lord; Gnana-=tr»e knowledge; true knowledge of the 
supreme Lord (God). 

II (5 nana are of three kinds in general, vir... Pasa-Gnana (know- 
ledge of Prapancha), Pasu-Gnsna (knowledge of self), and Pathi- 
Gnana (knowledge of the Lard.) 

Some good klle.s. 

1. Fresh air is the best tonic a nerrous person can 
have ; so never be indoors if yon can get out. 

2. Sunshine means life and strength. 

3. A cold bath every morning before breakfast, if once 
begun, is the best strengthens!" of the nerves I have ever 
known, and any day I would sooner want my breakfast 
than my bath. 

4. Food in moderation. Fruit in the morning, and all 
the milk you can take, but he sparing with tea and coffee. 
Take cocoa instead. 

Medicine. Leave that to the Doetor. 

Lt>'E PnnsPKCT*. — According to the statistics of the life 
insurance authorities, an babitnal drunkard of forty has 
nu expectancy of eleven years of life, while a sober main 
of that age is likely to live twenty-nine years. 

KxowiNt. use's sKi.ji'. — Goeth once answered the question 
How can we learn to know ourselves ?" thus : " By 
reflection never, but by our actions. Attempt to do your 
duty, and you will immediately find what is in you " 
Actions speak louder than words, just as example is ever 
better than precept. 

To JIaki: a Home Hat-i'v. — Beware of the first disagree- 

,2. Learn to speak in a gentle tone of voice. 

3. Study the characters of each, 'and sympathise with 
all in their troubles, however small. 

4. Learn to say kind and pleasant things whenever 

opportmrity offers. 

5. Remember that, valuable as is the gift of speech, 
silence is often more valuable. 

6. Beware of meddlers and tale-bearers. 

7. Never change a bad motive if a good one is conceiv- 

8. Be gentle and firm witrf children. 

9. Learn to govern yourselves, and to be gentle and 

10. Never speak or ast in angei until yon have prayed 
over your words or acts, and concluded that Christ would 
have done so in your place. 

11. Do not expect too much from others, but remember 
that all have an evil nature whose presencewe must expect 
and that we should forbear and forgive, as we often 
desire forbearencc and forgiveness ourselves. 

12. Be an example of courtesy and tore. 





Siddhanta Beepika. 



The number four is not so mystical looking as fchh 
number three or five or. seven, yet it has a certain soli- 
dity, strength, broadness, and completeness attached 
to its signification. It expresses anything secure in 
ita foundation, complete in its structure and universal 
in its influence, and transcending in its authority. In 
the common wisdom of the people linger such maxims, 

' When four meet, they constitute an assembly. ' 

' straisuii entity Qfiaii cjad'g ' 
' The testimony of four person^ lias tire authority 
of a divine oracle.' 

' Are they the four or are they celestials: 

As such, the word plays an important part in the 
philosophy, religion and sociology of the Indian People, 
and all division and classification proceed on a four- 
fold basis. To begin with, we have the four Vedas. 
They represent the collective knowledge of man- 
kind in every department. The Hindus will not 
admit that there ia to be found any knowledge of 
any kind outside the Vedas, which is not to be found 
therein. It is their great treasure house, where every 
man can come aud take whatever and only so much 
as he requires. They adapt .themselves to the need 
and capacity of every one. The Veda is compared 
to the mirror, which every man can look into and 
see his own reflection. Hence its claim to be 
as Universal Book. Dividing all mankind into those 
who seek wealth or pleasure or virtue or Divine uni- 
on, the four great purnshathamas, the Vedas point 
out the means for attaining these ends; aud those who 
do not bear this four-fold end of the Vedas are no 

doubt at a loss to understand how in the Rig Veda, 
for instance, the only cry and the oft-repeated cry 
by the singer is for geld and silver, cattle and rain, 
food and drink, wife and children, health and victory 
&c. In every healthy society, the majority must care 
for such things, and all cannot become Yogis and 
Giymis- But in pointing out the means for seeking 
such purely material ends, precautions are taken, 
to thattho individual may not concentrate and subju- 
gate everything to his own selfish ends and to look 
on his* own self as the be-all and end-all of existence. 
Even here, he is trained inrthe path of virtue, he has 
so practise some kind of altruism, he has to sacrifice 
to the (iods and distribute alms to the poor. The 
wicked and the miserly and the ignoble could not 
hone to gain these end*. The id<?a of riebrith *o 
fully believed in by every body, acts a 

cheek to sejeial excess. Herein is the diflVn-'ici 
between the Indian and European material civilisa- 
tion. The religious authority in Europe is too weak 
to control all these different and cenflk'tins* elements 
and ideals in Society, and us such. Self, in the biggest 
capitals, is the label to be marked on the material 
civilization of Europe; and the consequent abuses are 
Hooding all the countries touched by Europeans and 
even in Indian Society, they arc slowly and sure- 
ly creeping into, and undermining those foundation* 
built on charity and good will and morality and con- 
tentment. We were almost inclined to strike out this 
sentence, when we remembered how many great men 
and great women have led the van in the greatest phi- 
lanthropic movements of the day ; but we are speaking 
of national characteristics and tendencies, and not those 
of individuals. The fourth pursharthaiu ;u-iii:>-"rl 
generally as the highest end, and the in*. fur at- 

taining the first three ends, the rituals of the Karma 
Kan da are more or less relegated to a subordinate 
position and the (j nana Kanda doctrines slowly assert 
themselves. And there is a fmtr-fuld division of this 
Gnana Kanda. After a man has ceased to care fur 
wealth or pleasure and has attained t'i a well-r*'gnJ; 
ted and balanced mind, some of the questions inspect- 
ing the nature of his higher powers and the higher 
ends begin to trouble him, and he begins to enquire 
into the proof of thing", tLeir nature, the end be is 
fitted for, and the means for securing this end. 
These constitute the Prainana, Lakshnna, Sadana 
and Palanndhyaya ill Vedantic enquiry. It is not 
generally remembered that lteligion and Philosophy 
are not things to be meddled with by every body 



aud any body; bnt the qualifications of the uilhikari 
are fully defined, and these include a perfect rigidity 
id moral conduct. Iq fact, the course of study pres- 
cribed for the Indian, insist on a preliminary course 
iu Ethics and Dharina Saatras, before he can proceed 
up to Logic and mental philosophy The oniis-' 
sion of ethics in treatise* and discourses dealing 
with leligion and philosophy alone should not be 
misunderstood. But what lias come upon the pre- 
sent day civilization that it tolerates so little refer- 
ence to Ethics ia public platforms and discussions 
and in print.. The man who would deliver a lecture 
on the whole dutios of man will be now felt an awful 
bore ? Is it because that it is always distasteful 
to hear of advice which we feel wc cannot follow? 
We have described the present day civilisation as 
'selfish' above, and we have to add to it that if. is 
hypocritical and insincere, :ilas ! alas !• 

Pursuing our orginal dissertation, in the chapter on 
Prrtmana, we postulate/oar things or fmr planes of 
existence. Maya, or matter or the animal plane, Anda- 
karna or thf* mental plane, Atma or .miritiisl plane, 
God or the Highest existence. These ium hove a sort 
of relation, of the one below to the one higher, 
inter-dependent and inter-wovou. whieh is called 
'adwaith*'. There are four andakarna, Manas, Chitta, 
Ahankiira and Buddhi. There are four avasthas, 
Jagra.Swapna, Suslmpti and Dmiyam. and four bodies 
Sthula, Sukshuma, Karaua and Sutta according Lo 
some- Then in regard to Sadauas, there are four paths 
or Margas, called Dasamarga Satputramp.rga, Saha- 
marga and Sanmarya, called otherwise Sariya, Kiriya, 
Yoga and Guana and a Religion which claims to bo 
universal must contain these four paths. These arc 
means provided to men, and adapted to each one's 
capacity to astabiish a relation between himself and 
the most High either as servant and niastei, son and 
fatter, friend and friend or as Self. We had four pupils 
who sat under the feet of the first Guru, who after- 
wards became the four great teacher*, kanaka, Sanat- 
ku'r.aia, Sanandana ami Sanatin.i. In niodt-rn 
days, wo had four great teachers to illustrate the 
four great margas, Appar or Aludaya Adigal (Dasa- 
marga), Gnanasambantha or Aludaya Fillayar 
(Satputramarga), Sundarar or Aludaya Aiasu (Saha- 
marga) and Manickavachaku. or Aludava NnmLi 
(Sanmarga). We only siid that these came to illus- 
trate theae Morgan, bxitthey were no margif themselves. 
They were true Gnanis and Bhaktaa and we find as 

such, the highest philosophy in Appar's poems, and 
the highest love poured forth in Manickavachaka'a. 
To the four margis are provided the four states of 
bliss, Saloka, Samipa, Stirupya and Saynjya. The 
Vedantis also postulate a /bur-fold Sadana Sathushta- 
yam such as Nityanitya, Vasthuvivekam, &c. Then 
in regard to our conception of the most High, we 
regard Him as the Trimurthies in the material plane 
but in the highest plane where the senses, and speech 
and thought cease to penetrate, He is the fourth, 
ChaVtiiirtham. He is the ' Thuriya Padartha' ; and 
wc arc frequently warned in our sacred writings 
not to mistake this ' fourth' with anything lower. 

In our sociology, we have the/our castes and four 


The Adharvasikha Upanishad adapts a four-fold 
division of the Pianava and proceeds to give various 
meanings to each syllable. And the following hymn 
iu tho Mahiuinastntra" a most interesting aud 
elevating song, surns-up many of these thoughts:— 
*' The mystical and immutable one which being com- 
posed of the three letters a, u, m, signify successively 
the three vedas — the three states of life (awaking, 
dreaming and sleeping — the three worlds heaven, 
earth aud hell, — the three Gnds (Brahma, Vishnu 
and Hiidia) — and which by its nu.*ai sound is indi- 
cative of thy, fourth office, as supreme Lord of all^ 
ever expresses and sets forth ttiy collective and single 

Wo will elaborate some of these subjects, explain 
inn 11 v of these terms in our future articles. 

Ru-Cfti fc.At Spfki". — The superiority of electricity in 
attaining speed is shown by the following analogies. A 
horse can make twenty miles au hour, a steam boat 
eighteen, a sailing vessel ten, a storm moves at the rate 
of thirty-six miles an hour, hurricane at seventy, a rifle 
hall at one thousand : hut electricity geta over two hand- 
led and eighty-eight thousand miles an hour. By this 
we sec that it travels faster than either soaud, which 
make* eight hundred and forty-two miles an hour, or 
light, which comes to us at the rate of one hundred, and 
ninety-two thousand miles an Itnur, 

Speak Kindly! — Harsh words have power to read in 
teuaiu. The dearest kindred ties of ear*h. And sever 
friendship's sacred chain. Iu woven even from childhood's 




Kural, iavTuuiilji signifies a couplet of a. peculiar 
uigtre. As the work is composed of &uch couplets, it 
posses by the name of Tirukkural, by synecdoche, 
Tim (IS®; denoting Iiolv The author goes by the 
.aino of Tirbvatlitrit Nai/anur. i Those are the pupular 
names by which the work smil tlie author pass current 
Tamil Literature and among Tamil scholars. There 
are otlicr Iiouorific designations for the anchor, sach 
■is Saint, Fust Poet, Divine Poet, Brahma and Great 
scholar -, and fm tlie work, such as the work of three 
books, Modern Veda, Divine Work, Faultless word, 
Tamil Veda and Universal Veda. 

Those of yon, who wish to have our idea of the 

personal appearance of the sage, may proceed w his 

shrine at Mylapore, a minute's walk from tlie Barber's 

Bridge, and witness the statue of the canonized saint. 

The folded knot of his lock, the bushy moustache and 

beard sweeping over his breast, the gravity ot the 

forehead, the broad eyes revealing his noble heart, 

and the grace of his majestic frame are such as 

remind one of Plato and docrates. Add to the^e, the 

beads in hie right and the moral code in the left hand, 

the saint in a sitting poeture on a raised seat, seeming 

to impart instruction to his disciples, yoa will verily 

believe that hp is a Tumil Rishi next to Agasthya. He 

is in fact said to be the great grandson oi Agaathya. 

At least the genealogy framed by the pandits stateB 


Modern researches of Tamil scholars of critical 
tollmen, and also internal evidence of two of the live 
G reat Tamil Epics, go 'to establish, that Tiruvaltuva 
Nayaiiar lived in the fivst century of the Christian 
era, if not earlier. At any .ate, the Dark Ages of 
Europe had not entirely passed away, the Middle Ages 
had not yet dawned, the Mohametan caliphate there 
was not, and Christendom was just in its seed-pot, 
wheu our moralist was planning his work, and bending 
over bis loom for his daily bread, in the great historical 
city of Mylapore. Most of the great Champions and 
Leaders of Hinduism, in its various aspects of Sivaism, 
Vaishnavism, and Adwaitism, made their avatar* a 
considerably long time after our great Eclectic. 
Nevertheless it was an age when the Tamil country 
was, within historical periods, for the first time, in its 
zenith of power and fame. The Tamil country was a 

* A pftper i*=il hofwe the Young Men's Hindu Association, 

great eomiuemal Emporium between the Last and the 
West. The Aryan Brahman? had !ung ago coh'tfixed 
the D1avidia.11 country, and secured, to some extent, 
ministerial ;ind spiritual otliccs under the Three Great 
Tamil sovereigns. The third and lust Tamil College 
of tlie Pimdiyns in Madura — the then groat Univer- 
sity of Southern India — was in u flourishing statu. 
At the metropolitan seats, we iindeiManil ln»n 
contemporary literature, there were Buddhist ami -Jain 
rilm rats side by side with Vai.4uj»va Mid Saiva .eniph-s, 
There were temples dedicated tu Indnt and Braliutn. 
r.ow forgotten deities. U Kevins to have liecn an ugu 
of Re'iqious tnleration. ll wu% an jigi.j when learned 
scholars were patronized by gentlemen, heroes and 
iriugs.. It was nil age of wide poetical creation. It 
was also an age, when otliur fine arts received princely 
patronage. It was the Eli&ibethan and the Angii*- 
tan age, as it were, of the Tamils. Rxeepling the 
iimdei'ii wonders of the Press, steam and oleetriril v, 
the uge seemed to l)e an archCM pe ul' the. enligl>l»u)»'d 
current century. 

Jn such an age, and such a country, anJ amidst 
such classical sarvorundiag?, was born, at Mylapore 
the Socrates of Southern India — the last oi tae sevea 
issues of the intermarriage of a Brahman ami an out- 
caste, aa tradition would have it. It is not our pur- 
pose here to eke out truth, by analysing the myths 
and legends in the crucible of modern scholarly criti- 
cism. That there was such a personage who produced 
the great work is sufficient for our present purposes, 
Nor need we expatiate upon the spotless and un- 
sullied lifo said to have been led by this Solo Gnanion 
of the Tamils. 

His work is one of the two oldest works now extant 
in Tamil Literature in their entirety, the other being 
the grea '. grammar of Tolkapp'yanar. Thaf this work 
has been preserved these 1800 years and more, without 
tlie least addition or omission, is a lasting evidence 
of the greatness and immortality o* the work. Manv 
subsequent works of even a later production have 
undergone such multifarious te.tnai variations that it 
is imppossihle in many passages to find the real 
author. The Tamils regard the Tirukkural of Tiru- 
valhtva Nayanar in such high veneration, that they 
believe the author to be an incarnation of the creator of 
the universe — the great Brahma, and have canonized 
this paragon as a literary saint. Kura! is to the 
Tamils whattheHoly Bible is to Christendom, the Koran 
to the followers of the Prophet, aud the divine Vedas 


to the Brahmaos. And its unique feature is that it is 
not ar'mixtured with any mythology or auy special 
theology. Let us now analyse the contents of this 
great moral code — ' the master-piece of Tamil Liter- 

Tamil Literature is bused from very remote times 
on a peculiar philosophical classification. Subject 
matter of the domain of literature relates to either 
internal or external phenomena, matter intmyr {jfa 
uQuxqw) or extrrivr (^uOuj^ot). The former dealt; 
of the passions anil affections of the mind which act 
on man internally -, and the latter of things exter- 
nal t<> man. The former treats especially of clan- 
destine ami wedded love ; and the latter of the ways 
of living anil thriving in the world, i. e. of virtue and 
■sr.ii'ih. VnftftP, wealth and love lire «U held assebser- 
vient to, and as means of,' obtaining Eternal Blis-', 
which is not discussed in books, as it. is incomprehen- 
sible and indescribable. It' is now clear that the 
iBmhnVui classification of the objects of humanity 
into Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksha is well in- 
volved in a highly philosophic form in the Tamil 
classification. TirnvuUuca Nayanar, in the large- 
ness of hij heart, has imposed upon himself a buina- 
ni/.ing task of leaving to the world a work which forms 
as it were a ladder to Eternal Bliss. Auy genins 
even of the first class, can add no more to his work 
complete in itself. He discusses at large Virtue, 
Wealth and Love, leaving his readers to infer that 
one who passes safely through these three ordeals is 
a welcome guest in Heaven. 

In the Third Book of 25 chapters, on clandestine aud 
wedded love, will be found the various shades of 
niceties in (:m growth and fruition of Love, . better 
than you can trace them in the plot of a well-develop- 
ed English or French novel. There are also u number 
of other works in Tamil which elaborate Love in 
all its traits. They seem to uph"ld an imaginary and 
airy ideal of L>vp. Some of these traits are embodi- 
ed even in purely religious hymns and sonnets. 
Manickavasagnr a veriest ascetic — has written a work 
detailing these traits in praise of Siva at Chidamba- 
ram, And it stems a, paradox that there should be a 
Book on Love at the end of our profound moral code. 
This ideal is explained by a great scholar and poet of 
the Madura College in the following manner: — One 
who is initiated into this ideal of love will ask his 
reverend master "what, sir ! is the way of enjoying 
this love impossible for mortals ? " The reverend sage 

answers the question — " You will have, my dear son, 
before you enjoy this divine love, to perform austere 
penance", and initiates his willing disciple into the. 
mysteries of penance. 

The disciple after passing through the ordeal of 
penance penetrates into himself, and begins to abhor 
the burden of his flesh and its meanness, to depre- 
ciate the lusty love which opened bis way to penance 
and to see divine light. This divine light leads him 
unto heaven and perennial bliss even unto eternity. 
This is the philosophy of the Love of Tamil Literature. 
And it is a matter of gilding the pill. To those who 
have not a lesson of this philosophy of Love, one half 
of .Tamil Literature is but a lusty lore. You now see 
that there is Ethics, why even divine Ftliics too, in 
this Third Book of Kural. 

Passing over the first four chapters of the work, 
which form only a kind of introduction to it, we will 
take a pleasant walk through an avenue of 104 chap- 
ters, which are distributed between virtue and wealth, 
S-t for the former and 70 for the latter. Of the 34 
chapters on virtue, 20 are devoted to Domestic virtue, 
and 14 to Ascetic virtue. This is the First Book. Ab 
for the Second Book on Wealth, it should be hers 
observed parenthetically that Tamil scholars are of 
opinion that a delineation ol the virtue and policy of 
the sovereign involves all that* should be said on 
Wealth. Of the 70 chapters on wealth, 25 chapters 
are devoted to Royalty, 10 to Ministers of State, 22 to 
essentials of a state. The remaining 13 chapters form 
an appendix to this Book or rather. to the first two 
books. The earthly Ethics of Kural must therefore 
be evolved from the first two books. 

These first two Books draw the, attention of every 
foreigner who begins and likes to have auy acquaint- 
ance with Tamil Literature. The extreme exagger- 
ations and hyperbolical language of the Epics repel 
him. But he pauses over these two Books, and 
admires tho logical order of the subjects discussed, 
tic pithy moral enigmas, and the sublime tone of 
morality inculcated therein. He who first despised 
the Tamils as half clad heathens and semi -barbarians- 
now admires them for the valuable treasure locked np 
in their language. These two books are an eye iore 
to the Christian missionary who always comes to tie 
east pnfft-d np with the so-called sublimity of Christian 
morality. He can deprecate any other thing in Tamil 
Literature. But this ancient and splendid monument, 



ha dares not slander. This ia a stumbling block 
which can brow-beat the moat sublime ideas of Chris- 
tian morality. The Christian missionary, under the 
impression that our author lived between 800 and 
1000 A. D. bas attempted to establish, that the Chris- 
tian scriptures were among the sources from which 
the poet derived his inspiration, as in that time 
Mylapore was a centre of Christian asylum on the 
Coromandal coast after the advent of St. Thome after 
whom the place is now called by Europeans.. But this 
statement of the missionary is an absurd literary an- 
achronism. Our friend does not give his reasons; but 
that it is correct there can he no doubt. Prof. Seshagiri 
Sastriyar, v> a., states some of them in his new pam- 
phlet "Essay on Tamil .Literature" which will be 
noticed more fully in our neat. 

Except iu the appendix we can only glean morals 
incidentally here and there from the Second Book. 
The appendix has some chapters 6n affirmative mora- 
lity Buch as Honor, Greatness, Perfection, Courtesy 
and self-reprobation ; and also some on negative mora- 
lity such as Dread of Poverty, Mendicancy, Dread of 
mendicancy and Vileness. The general drift of the 
appendix is that one should by dint of perseverances 
and. industry try to raise his social status, and pre- 
serve his self-respect and independence. The author 
advocates Agriculture as the best of professions, 
This appendix in short reveals the ideal citizen who 
instead of being a drone feeding on the product of 
others 1 labour should be an ornament of society by 
exhibiting traits of nobility, honor, greatness, and 
perfection, at the same time relieving the indigent, and 
sustaining the prestige of the family. 

The first part of the Secoud Book on Royalty ex- 
plains the ideal sovereign. He should be well read, 
and keep befitting company. He should not let 
opportunities slide. He should use Ms discretion in 
the choice of civil and military servants. His sceptre 
shoaldbe of gold firm yet popular nnd not of irun. lie 
should ever be active without any lospair in affliction. 

The second part on ministers of state discusses 
their qualifications, and their conduct in the royal 
court and while on embassy. JJii-o the author 
shows such minute observation and study of political 
mauounjes that he is really Baoouian in his discussion. 

The third part on the Essentials of a state explains 
the necessaries of a kingdom, policy to be observed 
in international relationships and the tactics of war- 


fare This part . also forbids Uxoriousness and 
Harlotry, Intoxication aud Gambling. The last chap- 
ter explains a very simple practical art of prolonging 
life and health. 

The last chapter of the First Book discusses the 
Force of Destiny which is all powerful. The second 
part of the First Book on Ascetic Virtue teaches 
mercy to animals and forbids Animal food ; insists on 
Penitence and protests against the Inconsistent con- 
duct of Ascetics; discourages Fraud, Wrath, Giving 
pain to others and killing; aud encourages Truth- 
fulness. This part also commends Wisdom, Know- 
ledge of Truth, Renunciation and Extirpation of desire, 
and reveals the Instability of earthly things. This 
part might well have found a place at the eud of the 
volume, but the author's plan justifies its present place. 

The first part of the First Book depicts Domestic 
Virtue, and it is this part which upholds the model 
man aud householder. The author finds that Domes- 
tic Virtue preponderates iu the balance, and gives 
his palm to it. 

" The ideal householder leads on earth a co.iseeraU 
ed life, not unmindful of any duty to the Jiving 
or to the departed, His wife — the glory of his 
house — is modest and irugal; adores her husbncoV 
guards herself, and is tho guardian of his how;?'? 
fame. His children are his choicest treasures; their 
babhliug voices are his music; and his one, aim is 
to make Hiera worthier than himself. Affection is 
tho very life of his soul; ot all hi.s virtues tho first 
and greatest. The sum and source of all is LovL. 
His house is open to every guest, whom ho wel- 
comes with smiling face and pleasant word, and 
with whom he shares his meal. Courteous in .speed;, 
grateful for every kindness, just in all his dealing.:, 
master uf himself in perfect self-control, strict 
ihe performance of every assigned duty, pt?rs\ 
putielit and forbearing, with a heart free frf.iu 
envy, modest hi desires, speaking no evil of other.-- , 
retraining from unprofitable words, dreading the 
touch of evil, diligent in the discharge of all the 
duties of his position, and liberal in his benefactions, 
he is one whom all unite to praise" Rev. Dr. Fum~ 

We have giant- -A over the contents of the 
volume. We are not in I Utopia. The work propounds 
an ideal monarchy with meal householders and 
citizens and truo ascetic*, all enjoying the sweets of 
the world unsullied, aud attaining Divine Bliss. 


Those who can command leisure can make a com- 
parative study of Valluvar's Kural aud Plato's Re- 
public. I am sine Valluvar's monarchy will out do 
Plato's Republic. 

Having gained a comprehensive view of the author 
and his work, we may now recount tbe Ethics of 
Kami, We have here no scope for a psychological 
study of the work. An Ethical and ^Esthetical 
study of it can very well be made, ethical in as 
much ay we have a system of rules for regulating tbe 
actions of men, and Kstbetieal in so far the author 
conveys his ideas in a beautiful and attractive manner. 

Domestic Virtue is based on affection. Devoid of 
affection, one's body is but a bony frame clad in 
skin. Body is the seat of life only when love resides 
within. Hospitality is the essence of domestic virtue. 
The guest at your gate is as delicate as Amelia 
flower. It withers with a smell, and the guest is 
abashed with but one cold look. Sweet words ac- 
company Hospitality. 

Who sees the pleasure kindly speech affords* 
Why makes lie use of harsh repellent words ? 
When pleasant words are easy, bitter ivortid to u>e. 
■la teai-iny eweet ripe fruit, the sour unripe to choose. 

Gratitude [comes next. To be grateful, one need 
not return a good done to him. Feel the benevolence 
of it, enough. It is so strong thaj the mere thought 
of one good effaces the deadliest injury done you by 
the self same person. Gratitude is not measure for 
measure and weight for weight. It is here that yon 
should make a mountain of a mole-hill, a palmyra 
of a millet seed. It does not become you to forget a 
good done : iU is very good to forget an evil done yon. 
In his Sermon on the mount Jesus said '"If yejorgiw 
men their trespasses, your heavenly Father will also 
forgive you" But our author advises you to forget 
trespasses, and he is only in the positive degree. 
In his chapter on Patience he is in the comparative 

With overweening pride \vhc .1 men with injuries assail 
By thine own righteous dealing shalt thou prevail. 

In another place where he would have you " shame 

your enemies by returning kindly benefits and pass 

unheeded the evil done by them", he is surely in the 

superlative decree. And yet he does not fall short of 

Jesus who preached in the above said reseimon " Love 

your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to 

them that hate you". But in advising you to forget 

•These verses are quoted from the excellent Oxford edition of 
Bev. Dr. G. M, Pope, u. a., d.d. 

other's trespasses, Valluvar really really transcends 
Jesus who only wants to forgive other's trespasses. 

Though our author is peculiarly strong on gratitude, 
yet he would uot let you for its sake be impartial in 
your dealings. 

T11 stand, like Imhiuce roil tlisil level limits mill rightly weigh*, 
With calm unljhifcieil ei|uity of soul, is sage's praise. 

The author then admonishes us to guard our tongue 
that unruly member of our body r — 

Whatever ihcy fnil to guuiil, over lips men guard -houkl keep; 
If not, through fault ci( tongue, tlo'y hitter tear "all weep. 
Tin- sove in ttntnc-cl liy lire may heal, not so 
The sure inhumed bj- tongue. 

Those who soil the sanctity of the conjugal bed are 
numbered with the dead by the author. He would 
count with ascetics those who endure with patience 
the eVil words of transgressors, and would place even 
ascetics in tho lower grade for the sake of these 
men. Then Envy cause of all ruin. 

Knvy they Inivt' within ! KuuHgli to «f»l their fate 
Though fueinen trill , envy fail rain < oiisutmnntc- 

A word of warning against Coveting: — 

What saves prosperity from swifL iletline. * 

Absence of best to m.-.ko another's ehcriscd riehea thine. 

And then against Back-biting ; — 

In presence, though uuk'udtj' wwttlsyuti spcuk, any not 

In tthsence wunts U'hose ill result e\eeuils yout I hull "lit 

It is greater jiaiii id virtuous j^nod for miiu 10 ilie 

Than live 111 shunter aliseiit friend uud falsely praise when nigh 

The chapter on stu^Bi^.i, which can only be very 
meagrely rendered in English as knowing what befits 
a man's position, reminds us of Goldsmith's line. 

" Even his failings lenued to virtue's side " 

A chapter on Giving next. " what ia given to tho 
needy deserves the name of gift ; all else has in view 
recompense". " To receive is'bad though good it be 
said. To give is virtue though you gain no heaven". 
The goal of the householder is renown. Without this 
life loses its charms- Even the ideal presented by 
the great peasant-poet of Scotland in Cottar's Saturday 
Night does not excel our ideal. 

Ascetic virtue is based on Grace, as Domestic 
virtue on Affection, Grace is interpreted as the 
renunciation of flesh eating. When there is no one 
who would eat flesh, there will be no one who would 
sell flesh. 

Thau Ten thousand rich oblations, with libations rare. 
Better tho fleiJi of slaughtered beings not to share. 

Then are rebuked those who hood-wink the world 

under the cloak of asceticism. These are wolves in 

sheep's .clothing. 

If you. shun what all the world condemns as wrong. 
What's the worth of shaven head or tresses long? 


Fraud is then condemned— i 

'Til «i» if in the mind man but the thought conceive 
JBy fraud I will cny neighbour of fail wealth berca»-«\ 

Then the author upholds Truth which he explains 

m speech free from all taint of Pvjl. If you utter 

what you know to be false as true, your owu hei-rt 

brands job. It matters not. if you may leave other 

sets of virtue undone, if you bat uphold the cause of 


Oatward purity «wier will bestow 
Inward purity from Truth alutiu will rtou 

In this chapter on Truth, t .ho ant lior gives a plain 

practical advice, which rigid moralists may not allow. 

Falsehood nay take the place ol' truthful tyartl, 
If ■biCTadr.p, free from fnolt, it run Kfforcl. 

This m that part of the book which pvea-hes uu 
Ascetic virtue ! It is from thit, coutcxtunl position that 
the advice receives its striking sijrnificauei!. Our 
author is a humanitarian. He seems to belong tu tin- 
school of utilitarians who seek the .greatest good uf 
the greatest number. Truth is intended for the 
greatest good of the greatest number. If, at an 
exceptional moment, falsehood can do that office 'vhich 
Truth cannot do, of course without giving the least 
injury to any one, falsehood for the time being may 
(The words covey the idea that it is only n shift, like 
a gilt ornament for a really genuine gold one. It is no 
%truth) occupy the place of truth. It will neither chide 
aor brand you, because no one suffers. And yet this 
is no siu as there is no equivocation in it as in 
" Aswathama Athah KuDjiuah " of Krishna in the 
Bharata war. 

Then follows Suppression of Anger. Suppressing 

your anger is really so only when you can do it where 

you can exercise your power and authority. What 

matter, if yon check, or give it vent, where power yon 

hare none ? As anger begets an endless train of evil, 

quench it ; nip it in the bud. He who guards not 

against wrath, him his wrath shall slay. The drift of 

the chapter forbidding evil to others concurs with the 

great precept of Jeans " All things whatsoever Ye 

would that men .should do to yon, do Ye even so to 


Whose eoo.1 k*» **k the biucr aann of wm«f , how cat 
He wrong! inflict on ere' living eoul of man. 

Let us now proceed to gather some hints on mora- 
lity from the many chapter* of the Second Book on 

1. Be -w*n> that job m*j fuH or ftufc-w* ktnung feaiu; 
Ti*n in obedtarte net to t***>cj Letrut iniin. 

L J MTi?|itunifc nmnifohl jb mi*ii rut! fif rite mi urn 1 
Tin- vj.lui' 1 1 T llirj utjii by In- cr r |n|».HiH>|itrlfi}) U kliUVvn, 

ami tJiisiemnuls its of tho English saying 

**Ti'H mi- your c»ni|iiinin]irr mill I p. 1ml I tclt yon wtini yon nrv" 
it, Wi'iL'fi np.v-11 rjio jiitfM of rucli, his failing c lowly acorn. 

A" iIk'm 1 ...| - ihofu- ipi'OvuM, mto cutiuiuir the nwn'i, 

r. OF fctTUtJieHS A nil Iff DH'HIIWPb tOti 

Tin' <:j-"*Is iif iiith aro Niiii-hnfoFiP tmr 
wVlil*fr«*vi r yua |HHj(M |- Li vuur ;tini hr lofty Mill. 
fcutt fii|.i*ftl ljinJi v ,-!uriH - thvuH V*»U .x* \\ will. 
B, Bis fiiiiiHi- fl(-i';t\-. in,<: I" j 1 1 r 1 1. - 'ii-ln-. .!f-| (liri'.r. 
U'hn. hMiiti in v'ipiIi, r*ij- imiUi- oi>|"i-t (tt«t-~i iti'Hi *tri*"»* 

Tbeu on tlie Why ut hurniii^ Wtaitli. 

lli'-ir Wi'iilrlr, wlm Mniu^-l'--- hk-hi^ mn dm r : '_ r hf 

U &OUPCV It! l'H%Hf ;j||i[ ■■!" clLfiitC tU'M^'hl- 

wVcmU.Ii i^HiLfil \, t . In** uT h>\t< -,\i,t\ uttjiw* 

Let II iViii- r«M '-IT lityii} hi- 'ihIh:uv. 

W© tli e u uj>[>roucli tli** rliapli rs on lVientlshi|j 

1, U"h)*' »mj Imnl I'm- nun if ».*it. :i- JYii-iri|>lii)r I w ' 
tt'Iin i so mii*.- lluPrtllt' ■•j.iihj'i iill lhi%% Itifl- u*i)» <!<■ ' 
Ii i- not fni- l.iujflit' r Jjik fur li*|«ntHt nln-n 
N'ou rtlfHj- frirtn riiilii limi }ini U'fri*'ii*l. 

S. Mi. in is llil' frfSJirl>ttE|l pfirii M«Z< !■ Tnl-Tii 

111" *H ( II Uf) I II II H* ;U1'1 Ml'" It t id |tJ:ltl »iV H nil I: 

I ., Am Lam I lit hi in vt In*-' 1 iiMnri' flip* n«i'n>' 
Ki : ■_- 1 * 1. 1 — 1 1 i | ■ ill ui-o 1 iif ri'initi'/ yrrr-f v ill >*..v 
liny m nil i-y*t i In' I'm" <i i|.i •»; **«■ tft»*ft. 

At "I trw-H r'tt'WV IfVf'ti ill -L I'lJV I 'j"i r "f I Pi'... 1 Iril"l . 

Tlicro un- niiiiv utlier flue ifayiDg. on Pvv .nJ>Iu|» 
But thero ittv two f:oujj|*l- ivlirft*!* sulilimit^ t vt-U JlaCot. 
trill fidtniru. 

1. X*fl fijlij MPfily. Iml f:tn^iri;u' «■«*»• I* •**liw*»« 

KjsU'^m it, Mrj'.-u yinir tiii-i.-ts turttiw tji-trviia 
S. Tfi liilu wliu ran ih^I .!■■ r r- •« -• 'i - r.- 
(he injujv : uilir»'-t| U\ -,■> lYii ii« 

Will 4L|i]Jt.':u- :i ii oi' l;I ■■ >- 

Whoredom, Intuxic*#itH>n hikI L-auibliu^ ;»n- cot: 
demneii whoiesuto. 

1. A* uhm- lm\%rVv\'fi j-1'ii'i *•••!( .•■^i-i t-nr|»H* i»j ;mn-. 
N lit who seek* ■ ■ ■ - 1 i »_; I j l i-. ww ttw*i*iiiy »»mtii'n etsunti.* 

2. TUo drauksYnl's ju^ ii -<>rn^ h> In* iJifHlii-f'^vyin 
What mnBt H Imbi i^r- 1 «.- M#tV' »**ifr wi**. 

•J. GuinPikiiiff w iniHf^rf mn ',< i«tl**i n^itji . u*i v 1^ ii 
her evil 
'I'ltcy ftiiffvr jL'iii \ ■-if- -1 i*j 

We havu tlii'n uf iir^'attic^ — 

■ tn-i riHi>rcii«- ;«ji w 
• tliii '»:" frivirU rilTi- 


All inni ilirtt Ii 
Oiri'iTtitkb <>r v 


T1j^ r L a ptt- r 01 . tV rt l -■ : 1 u- - * - 
morality deserves special Jittviition. 

I All «tx;-i!l\ 111 hilt" urv ilutlt e-tirtUv Ifti'll, ikrj, tut; 

W'Lv >v( ilii-Hi^Jr^*, (i.i v*;ilk kirtrt"*'* p- rft'Vl Wi*i 
Z. Tin* Bftw*i| of iii uu ill f\( i'lh '■* - ilm-i i.LiijtiL 

\'\m |ierfct.'L ImJII, ull ntlj^'f -'■.xl I" r»f|l_* JfBHl in tm nu- 
ll. La-v,.^ UHjak-fcrtJ", IiTIK TIOIHT. I<»t (TT"^. 

lVktli truih, tsn j ] tit Li m ri\r uf nrrfVil vinuf'i icjtliii^ jrJaoj 
4. TliC (;y|w of us-nitt'in-i; irf * irt»uUn ui**l il'«t mkUiih^ nUy<-. 

lo ijAAk uu ill uf other hh'ii ii p-rtn-t vinife>'« |*r»»»r 
i WIlhI fruit Jfili v'jur p<.-rfi. , i;tlo«i j--ihl J ton, tut ' 

L'ulewJit* iiio»* ^ h« nutl wmi ill u 1 1 jp»«.| ri'|#H 
8. Colt ibi-tn uf pt-rfi-rt i irtui-% i^-iit'sii **h>ti 

M'i-.n, thuu'^li llir f*aU« *ii<Mi!d full fhil i*tA lur rv«'rm'H' 

t „! : 

* W'v- LJfy i*. ihi- III .[OhtLLin l>f t*l t».l!|.ll.t 1*5. liLFTftl t'J 



Notwithstanding all his sublime morals, the vener- 
able author would not revolutionize society. When, 
you arc at Rome, Ik- would hate you live as the 
Romans do. 

Ae dwells ilie wivylil. ■>-" Willi 'he world to dwell 
In linrmony tin's is in wimdv live aud well. 

Here is no danger, as in Tamil classics, world does 
not mean the masses, bnt denotes the iris*. 

From this rough bird's eye view of the Ethics of 
Kuril], we hud that the author is a cosmopolite — citi- 
zen o[ the world, except that he speaks and writes in 
Tamil.. His work is of universal interest. It has 
found a home i:i Klngluiid, France, Germany aod Italy. 
Every sectarian in India— at least in Southern India, 
claims kindred with the author. The christian mission- 
ary has gone so tar as to call this grand system of 
morals, an Echo oL' the Sermon on the llo-nt. The 
Hev Drew, however, u-role in ! ? 10 ihus :— " The Knral 
has a strong claim up"ii our attention., as a part of the 
literatim" of the Country, and as a work of intrinsic 
,Ncc!lcnco. The author, passing over what is peculiar 
to particular classes ot society, and introducing such 
ideas only as are common to all, has avoided the im- 
intercstiim details of observances found in Mann and 
the other sluistras ; and thus in general maintains a 
dignified style. It cannot be supposed necessary for 
the sulci' of (.'lirist sanity to deny to such works what- 
ever degree of merit they may possess. Christianity 
requires not the aid of falsehood or of concealment. 
Nor need we wish to blacken the systems and books 
of the country beyond what- truth will warrant. The 
Knral itself, esteemed the best book of morals written 
by a Hindu, is an illustration of this remark". And 
again 31- Ariel, tjitutctl in Hev. Pope's preface to his 
valuable Edition of The Kami, speaks of the work as 
* une of the highest and porosis expressions of human 
thought' and adds " That which above all is wonder- 
ful i?i the Knral is the fact that its author addresses 
himself, without regard to castes, peoples or beliefs, 
to the whole community of mankind; the fact that lie 
formulates sovereign morality and absolute reason ; 
that he proclaims iu their very essence, in their eter- 
nal abstractedness, virtue and truth ; that he presents 
as it were, in one group the highest laws of domestic 
and social life; that he is equally perfect in thought, 
in language and in poetry, in the austere metaphysical 
contemplation of the great mysteries of the Divine 
nature, as in the easy and graceful analysis of the 
tenderest emotions of the heart". Rev. Pope calls 

him " the greatest Tamil classic anthor, who sung of 
so many topics ' touching all things with poetic 
grace ' " and also asserts tbat " It is not probable that 
Tirnvalluvar translated a single sloka from Sanskrit. 
Kural is certainly not an anthology, but the perfect 
and most elaborate work of one master, The weaver 
of Mylapore was undoubtedly one of the great geniuses 
of the world. He is the venerated sage and lawgiver 
of the Tamil people of whom there are about ten 
millions inhabiting the central and southern carnatio", 
and sings of the author thus. 

"Sngc Vjiltnvnr, priest of thy lowly clan, 
Xo tongue repents, no speech reveals thy name; 
Vet, all tliiiis-s ehiuistiiip, dieth not thy fume, 
Fiw thou art IisitcI of universal man." 

The religion of Valluvar is a puzzle to this day. 
Every couplet of his work is tight enough for ela- 
boration into a sermon in any country for any religion. 
The author bases morality no doubt upon theology. A 
good or an evil action is a passport to heaven or hell. 
Even his invocation of the supreme Being does not 
give us a clue to his. religion. His theology mast, 
therefore, be only natural theology, and his religion 
only natural religion. Can it be otherwise with the 
bard who said that "Death is hut sleep and birth 
hut an awnkeninu from it" which reminds as of 
Words worth's line in his ode in Intimations of Im- 

Our liittU is bnt ;t Bleep una a forpeuins, 
The Soul flint rises with na, our life's SUnr, 
Path lmtl rleewhcre it* setting 
Ami comet h from n far; 
Not in entire forsctfuliipsa 
Anrl not in utter nakedness 
But triiitinjr clouds of jrloi'Y do wc Conic 
From God. who is our home. 

Gentlemen, I am not a student of the Theory of morals. 

I cannot tell yon precisely whether the author is an 

Intuitionist, Ferfectionist or Hedonist. I leave the 

precision for theorists, though T"am inclined to call 

the venerable snge a utilitarian — Perfectionist, on the 

whole, for he insists on the purity of mind, word and 

deed, for the happiness of all. Perfection of human 

nature is the he-all and end-all of Kural. 

'' In the world there is nothing great but man 
lit man there is nothing great bnt mind " 

said somebody. Our author would add 

In mind there is nothing great bnt moral perfection. 

Is there any body in the world who would raise fcis 
voice against the moral peneeiion of man ? What is 
any religion but a dull sermon on this perfection ? 
The lives of great men and saints are hut a common- ' 



« thsa. A parliament of religions cannot bare 
battel eabject for dkewrios. Tb« WMint tenae* 
aUnuatiuu cannot have any oUmt naptretion. Tbi» 
of perfection of heiaan nature •< the *•- 
of tin Ethics of Katml. "21 study of fiantbrit 
• big* road to the region of Philology. A 
of Kara) may open another to the region of 
morality, nod that pore a *ajr for the 
dreamed Universal brotherhood of etna. Before 
my seat let ate make one hauibte boa* to 
Prince of Moralists. 


Pkhesdtkci or Vikxactlam. 

" Ocas is ** the poor mu'i fiaj." It ia to really inch 
that the troth hu already passed into a proverb. 
The /eve hate and fear oa with aad enchant 
Let ■• than heed the enney tooaweeive* by 
of kngeage. Let a* Ftn meul m rw tm n t Um aad ear 
Imcrfados far their aad ear 

So aaya Mr. Hafaon, with wheat paper we bee* eat 
yet fieiftbed. The aiyiniww we •anaaarited ia oar 
laat number, related to what ta eeaamiaed ia his ant 
letter aad regard merely the faaetiMl aa to the rata* 
of commnnicmrin? knowledge m the Madia of the Wr* 
aaeeiar Jewpwaee. The second paper derote* tnaslf to 
eoavdertaw the rale* of the Veraaealar tittrmtwrr aa 
a maaaa of iatoBuwtt aad mnl traterag ; aad 
the following letten give edditieaal reason* fur the 
reforms prenwaad aad aa oatfcae of the reforms them- 
selves. Ia aba aarbar patt of tbeae paper*, he contro- 
vert* the lin, watch w now really antiquated, 
tea* the Vanmeaiar litetntnr* do net eoataia intnaieat 
a it to afford aaaraJ treintag, aad it reqairea 
i peeef that metal dtstanottoMs ar* tamtatable 

desired by the antes of afl 
and of aM team " Hare aot the meat of 
he sabs, « ta atl ages aad ceaafirte* by the 
an aea aj teeer a/ nWr lava* aaaaaaat*atad tbr ataatjml 
i of a»*rak?Cpa«r*aiitef Doe* it apaah 
i at Base res aad aaaabae at Caaterbary." 
Aad he farther parens oat that ia 
of is iie|iiVaibli it ehaeld aet 

aad ■beafal hare faOal "to 

ample material* for the jn«t iliastretieii ia tome wiy 
or other* of east, if not uf all pat* of the philosophy 
of hfe,^ teeing how high-dated aad literary •» the 
flhanetar of ladiaa Civilisation- Anglicists andaiy 
exaggerate the iarportaaea of the phfaaaal nrio nc o e 
and technical edacerion, ■■■tag what small pan aa 
aetaal life tbeae pursuit* will oeeaay aad to what a 
smelt fraction of the aociry, k will be coaaeed. Aad 
after all what ia the highest object aed end ia riew ia 
aeqniriag the knowledge of the physical scieeee*. It 
naaaet be denied that the modern cry ia India aad 
ehmtrhnre for acieace and atchoieal 
all baaed on that tiragg w fat 
the hare acqairiag of power aad paH Leaving thai 

people hare an all aaJkarat titeratare ia every 
reepeet and if ia uamay rc*pact«, a eaaage ia 
ideab and aeatiaamt*, aad way a of lif*-, ta tJ 
regarding law of popelatiua, the phikMophy ol araallh, 
tbegaBeralprinripleaof JaHasvadaaKvaiid of rrfomv 
atire pnboe are destraUc and mtuwr), then h* 
ooataadi that the beat aad •arcat uiavtt* of i>g«.-ttug 
thia needed ch*ng* in «"t by igaor tug tW<r ym*t l*lt 
aad peat litaratara whicli art iiuepantbly lututtwuu-J 
aad faAaarnflai t a V aot by dcetrojiaf the «arp aad 
of their national auuttrecr , bat by a p r o r ata of 
aoactliatwta and aaaprusiae, by finding 
•"of ekkMBg that ejaif which teparatea 
i ladiaa effertiea and intelkrt— -<* (*. 
auea/thal tiUftwn, tritUL, I aaall vuntate to aay, 
aaaaei h> digx»-d miik." Ha thmka that aay uther 
atteaapratereaaovetb* aoof aad varp of li*lm.a*oatty 
weald diaorganiae waciety aad * taaar* oar jii dan- 
Aad he tlmreUtv prupoaaa h> ate f he tat- 
literatar* tJnawJt «miuf. oy ui<UiuiBf iU 
eowateaaaot aad tapooft. real or •r*«Mu < r m rrgard 
to the new knoalcdf* aud rrfona* propoaaJ u* b» 
tarrodaaad.* Hare ana rUewbare, aa ia a iat« apuo vb* 
giaal n trait it j that «xi*u uu *v*ku*tf aad •aiwtiaa; 
tha ayp at aj— a fact by tha way which «•*•» aaitnrly 
aaeftaaea, raaea t areata vkarly 
i eaaitva of tha eoaatry, by laaratag 
a graat boaar to th*«*>elr«a m tha 
eye af the t Hiatal aa U amata oat— by apeahiag t« 
ewa V ar aa r aW, aad ha taataaeaa tha 
whieh hae atteaaVd ha> efotte aad the 
ef hta anaataaary fnaade w thai ajracttaa Aad 
an apology for «aotiagiat fwttowwa; '' V-a ' 



I have spent so many, many years,* daring which 
I solemnly declare that the only unequivocal volun- 
tary testimonies I bav« receive! of influence over 
thetr hearts or heads ot the people have been owing 
entirely to eome little knowledge on any part of their 
literature! With this Instrument I have wanned hearts 
and contro'led heads of tutit utterly impassive to 
kindness, to raason, and to bribery ; nut! deeply am 
I persuaded by experience and reflection, that the use 
of this instrument is indisjymsable in paving the way 
for any general, effective and safe measures of educational ration." 

' It is- a splendid compliment we pay to the people 
to master their difficult literature. The memory of 
better days connected with it elevates .their lowliness 
to something like a communicable distance from our 
loftiness. Their shy and shrinking affections, to which 
we have no direct access of any description, may be 
poured out to us through this indirect and modest 
channel which carries the whole waters of their hearts* 
reflecting from its tranquil bosom, every rite and 
custom, thought Had feeling of the laud ! Hence its 
influence with the many in our hands." 

And we nave already quoted the sentence which 
heads our article, to show its great importance, 
especially in view to passing events, which indicate 
conclusively what, little success the Government of out 
country has achieved in enlisting 'the sympathies of 
the masses ; and how the whole people look upon 
with suspicion and resent tho most innocuous reforms 
and regulations, however well meant and absolutely 
essential for their health and safety they might be ; 
aud especially in view to tho greatsnspicion with whtcn 
the English educated Indians and the Vernacular 
press is regarded by the Government. It is thought 
of in some quarters i.wc do not agree with this view in 
toto ; we only think that English education has made 
them unfit f>>v every thing, for nerve and for aciion 
and thvv have absolutely no control over the hearts and 
heads .if tho people who regard them as a mere 
travesty of the European) that English education for 
the list half of a century or more has not achieved 
the glorious results which were expected of it. If 
so, whose fault is it ? Oar anthor thinks that 
eouod knowledge may he accepted and taught and 
studied for ages witbout " awaking the strong man " — 
without strinirig the deep waters of a nation's intellect; 

•Alas! How soon our Europeans friends try to retire and fiy off 
to their Home, and how few trj to make this land their Home even 
in their short stay ! 

and that universal experience strongly indicates the 
entire dependence, in a national sense, of this vivifying 
power of knowledge upon that complete fusion of its 
precepts irith a nation's familiar experiences and wants* 
which neither hath been nor can be without a Verna- 
cular medium" /gain, "to enable the people to 
think, have not the great minds of Europe forced 
themselves to think with the people ? To induce 
them to think, have not thosa minds, in all ages, de- 
ferred to pr judice ? Christ Himself and His favourite 
disciples were "all things to all men." Aud finally 
''It (the use of the Vernacular literature) is necessary 
— it is indispensable ; it sways all interests ; it hallows 
all opinions ; and the Babel of 30 centuries resting 
upon its foundations will stand for ever, in despite 
of our knowledge unless that knowledge be worked 
into the People's hearts and understandings, with the 
precepts and examples of this omnipotent make way.*' 

In letter No. IV, he makes his suggestions for ihe 
end in view ; 

(1) to institute a Normal College, giving first aud 
second place to the mother tongues of the neople, and 
the third place to English, 

(2) to have the alumni equally well versed in both 

(3) to locate therein a set of able men from the 
West, who shall be competent to give to India, ' the 
essence of onr indisputable knowledge,' 

(4) to associate with them other men ef this land- 
English and Indian, who together with them, shall 

transfer this essence into the , ulgar tongues of India 
in the most attractive and efficient manner, 

{■>; while both classes, as professors and originators 
of a great change, shall havt n^de'r then.:, a Bet of 
prpilSj ch'sen from the best alumni of all our 
seminaries, for the express and perpetual purposes of 
diffusing the labours of the professors, in the capacities 
of teachers nnd of translators, and of replacing those 
professors gradually as heads of colleges, 

(6) these alumni to have scholarships and to be 
devoted for their lives as the pioneers of a new litera- 
ture ; bonnd to translating within the college and to 
teaching abroad'; giving their undivided time and 
talents to indigenate European lore'; and being to the 
usual educational establishments, a perpetual fount for 
the supply of good books and good teachers. 

• The italics are oars. 


These are his suggestions and valuable sugges- 
tions they are, and they stand good to-day as tbey 
stood 50 years ago; and he points to the absurdity of 
expecting from our ordinary alumni of oar colleges 
Bach v»ork, without furnishing them with the 
leisare and means of provision for life and to expect 
that such avocations (as translators &c,) will be 
remunerative without Government aid, until the pub- 
lic has become their patrons and he also points out 
that the public will never become so, " till a close 
reference to life and its active aims govern letters and 
education; * a result we are just (1848) reaching in 
Europe slowly and painfully- But yesterday, these 
men of letters and teachers were poor and despised ! " 
He, in another place, asks what is the use of turning 
out hundreds of graduates, for the sake of regene- 
rating their country and if it is expected that they 
should do this feeding on air. The struggle for bread 
occupies now the whole time and energy of our modem 
graduate, and yet it is complained that he does no 
good to his uneducated brethren, that he does not try 
to lift them frum their low position and that they do 
not engage themselves in original work ! Don't the 
few who have bo worked paid the penalty with their 
precious life and with their emptied purse. We heard 
from our publishers, how the only man who has done 
anything to improve the Vernacular literature by in- 
fusing into it all that is best and valuable in English, 
has to disburse largely from his own salary mo'ith 
after month, for his publisher's and printer's bills, 
here and in England. Since these letters were written, 
none of these proposals have been carried out, except 
by adopting the Vernacular in the curricula of Govern- 
ment and University studies and now even the liov- 
eminent examinations, solely in Vernacular which 
qualified men from entering Government posts some- 
time ago, has been done away with. In the matter of 
translations, little or nothing has been done ; except 
by producing a few Vernacular text books and readers • 
There are no foundations for Vernacular scholarship 
and no Professorial ehair, and the salaries paid the pan- 
dits are the lowest in scale and the few Vernacular Sup- 
reinteudautships here and there have been done away 
with. There are uu University honors for pure Verna- 
cular scholarship. The richer classes are quite unpro- 
gressi/eand illiterate and wanting iu public feeling 
and patriotism, and the rest of the people who care fur 

• Wc know what rap? there is now fur school liuuks nod anno- 
tations and Mr. H. 8. Shnimil, with till bis f:i!l : ujrs fjmov man) 
ujul Mr. R. Vmicaci -?nl)b;t Ri» :>f: t«t« ;■!■-■:- "I the »ttWisli*r«. 

education are extremely poor. Goddess Saraswathi 
is said not to dwell with Goddess Lakshmi, r-ing 
daughter-in-law and mother-in-law. Under these most 
discouraging circumstances, will it not be surprising 
if the Vernacular is not despised and dying out. AH 
things considered, it is fit that this question should 
occupy our minds and those of the respected head of 
the Educational Department and our foremost country- 
man. We draw our reader's attention to the sugges- 
tions serially enumerated above and to consider its 
adoption in its entirety or with modifications. It will 
be idle to expect our Government to embark on large 
schemes involving great financial expenditure in their 
present embarrassed condition. We would therefore 
make the following suggestions : — 

(1) For the University, to open an oriental faculty, 
admitting its alumni to High degrees in pure Verna- 
cular literature insisting on :i miniuuiu standard of 
knowledge in English, if necessary, you may call the 
degrees V, A., u. a., or any other two letters. To 
admit to University Honorary degrees, men of tin* 
doubted native scholarship, on whom the Government., 
is bestowing titles of honour. 

(2; For the colleges and schools to proviuo chair- 
in Vernacular languages with decent salaries attache" 
to them. 

'3; To provide scholarships and foundations in 
connection with particular colleges and schools, from 
Government, University and private sources, to enable 
the best of their alumni to turn out as teachers am! 
translators, providing them with work and means, as 
suon as their period of scholarship tenure L* over and 
they have fully qualified and equipped themselves. 

(4, To aid fully and partially, from any and all 
these sources, the work of translating and publishing 
iu Vernacular, approved books in English or on 
approved subjects, both original and otherwise* 

{OJ To add gradually such books into the Curricula 
for the higher degrees in the Vernacular. 

{ti} To admit to post of pandits, persons possessing 
such Vernacular degrees. 

(~) To make such degrees sufficient tor the entrain-, 
into Government service which are mostly clerical and 
up to a pay uf llupecs tifty. 

* It will be easy enough to find scholars co translate any lmt>y 
on a technical subject, hut wbo will buy cliom, i\ith ib'' \tm-i 
curricula nil in English. Hon' many books arc trury rtrry Iwihj 
translated into Enjlish from German and Fi-t-uch. by K'n^b-ii 
penile ilMjnraelfe*? HihI ther pay because uf in'.ii- imii- :-;i' 
Ni'.'.iium i^ Euirlblr and not Git!cfc and L;Ui*r. 



(S) To institute some of the examinations in special 
testa in the Vernacular as was done before. 

A friend of our9 asked us, that if these things are 
necessary and are carried out, what necessity there was 
for adding the Vernaculars to the ordinary University 
curricula, ar.d burdening the students with their special 
study. But this will be ignoring the whole line of our 
argument and the past history of Education in this 
country. We say that Vernacular education is abso- 
lutely essential for any and every one and we cannot 
afford to take away this instrument of knowledge, 
however imperfectly used, from the large class, of 
school-going population, having regard to the fact 
again, that all the reforms proposed now could not 
possibly be carried out all at once and they may not 
K-av fruit all so soon as we may desire, and that a 
very large class may not be attracted all at once by the 
inducements and facilities. Such a thing must all be 
;l work of time ; and as such, the question of doing 
avvjiy with Vernaculars from the ordinary curricula 
i:i'n; not be entertained for a moment for the present. 


{'Die Family "Friend). 

\_" TViW> Invc 

ilcsireih not. its own felicity, but tlim of its 

Ski ■ hud wept herself to sleep at last into that weary 
-lumber of exhaustion which follows a crushing sorrow 
I'm* the pair now -suddenly parted had been for many years 
luit one sonl in two bodies," and the bereaved wife 
km? w not how she could endure her life alone. And, as 
she slept, she " dreamt a dream." There stood before 
her an angle with mild, gentle countenance, who asked 
her the cause of her tears. 

I have loved— J have lost," sobbed the dreamer. 

Love, even for the creature, hath a wondrous power. 
-(,- it be wholly pure and unalloyed." said the Shining 
Or*, in gentle tones ; " and the might of such love will 
avail to win what it asketh." 

.She stretched out her arms with a glad smile. 

Then my prayer must surely be heard," she said, 
tor I loved my husband as my own soul, Give him 
buck to me." 

A. shadow fell on the Angle'a face. 

"Nay," he said sadly, " in pure love there is no thought 
of self. Wouid'st thou seek to recall him whom thou 
eayest thou loveat from the rest of Paradise to the trial* 
and woes of earth ? Not yet is thy love of such parity 
that it hath power to prevail on high." And sue awokr 

A year had passed by ; it was the anniversary of the 
day when her trial had fallen upon her. The months, 
which had flown had been fall of trouble and care ; and 
again and again had the mourner lenrnt to take comfort 
from the thought that he, her beloved, had been taken 
away ere these "evil days" came. And when, in her 
slumbers, she again beheld the Angel messenger, she 
whispered. — 

"I have learnt better now ; I no longer ask thai he, 

my heart's love, should be recalled to earth and its. 
sori'ows. Cut take me to him." 

The Angel looked on her with gentle gaze. 

•' He whom thou mom-nest," he said softly, ""was of as 
pure and saintly a nature as frail humanity may be- 
come in this Jife. Ou earth he trod closely in the foot- 
steps of the Master ; above, such as he, are called to an 
especial nearness to His presence. Not yet is thy soul 
meet to enter where thy loved one resteth (for there are 
many mansions in the Home above); bat it may one day 
be admitted there when purified and taught in the school 
of suffering. Be it thine to wait and endure yet a little 

Sire would not heed him. " The lowest place in- that 
Heavenly House must be ona of blessedness," she cried 
impatiently. Let my love and I be together now, if it 
be but at the very gate of the Golden City." 

The Angel sighed as he gazed sadly upon her. 

" Is f/usjlove ? " he asked, reproachfully — " to desire 
to withdraw thy lost one from the greater nearness to 
the King, the higher place in Bis presence ? Not such is 
the love which shall prevail with its prayers. 

And she awoke. 

Another anniversary was dawning; the lonely widow 
was lying weak and ill on a bed of sickness — very full 
of suffering, as of sorrow, had been the months which 
had gone by. But the sufferer had learnt many lessons 
in that school of affliction ; and when, in her dreams, she 
again beheld the angel visitant, she spoke in calm and 
patient tones. 

" I ask nothing now " she whisperea. " I am well 
content to leave all in the Father's hands. He, in His 
mere}-, has called away my beloved, and granted him a 
place in His Home on high, ; knowing (this, I can rest 
satisfied. I ask not that my husband should be given 


back to me, I ask not even to be near him in the here ■ 
•Iter ; enough for me to know that he is blessed ; mid 
to be permitted, though from one of the lowest seats in 
Heaven, to behold my heart's love rejoicing in the imme- 
diate presence of the Lord/' 

A bright smile came over the Angel's face as lie listen- 
ed to these heart-spoken words'. 

" Now at length has thy love become wholly purified 
and self less," he said, '■ and as such is it strong to pre- 
vail. Eater with me into the Golden City, to find again 
there him whom thou nioumost . and tu worship tvgttfti-r 
the King in His beauty throughout eternity." 

• *#*#* 

When they found her in the morning they said thai 
" ber sorrow had killed her at [*ht :" they knew not that 
her heart had broken under the weight of her great anil 
exceeding joy ! 

Livy H.viU'V 


Hek Gracious Majesty, The Queen Empress sent the 
following Message to His Excellency The Governor of 
Madras, on the Commemoration Day. 
'Tram my heart I thank my beloved people. Hay 3o4 bless them." 

Thereupon His Excellency replied to Her Majesty as 

" On behalf of the people of Madias, I offer Your 
Majesty, hnmble and grateful thanks for your Majesty's 
Gracious Message." 

* • 

A reviewer in the April number of the Asiatic Quarter- 
ly Review, on Dr. Dhalmanu's work on Nirvana, points 
out that according the learned Doctor, who is a great 
authority on Mahabharata, Nirvana is a pre-Bhuddistic 
idea, borrowed neither from the classical Yeditnta nor 
from the classical Sankliya but from an older system, in 
which Nirvana means Brahma-Nirvana, an entering into 
the Aaolute-Brahman and that this system is to be found 
in the Mahabharata and Gita. This is nu new news to the 
Siddhanti, who jubilantly sings". 

" eKBrO*tl®*S <fO*_ (Satrir&jQsLL Oi— era &.& svqjilijGui u 
EidrG*ili-aiS ua+p Q^aiGsr sanlQA-tili-nU loK.'' 


• • 

Dr. Dhalnmno's opinion is also that it is not correct .to 
assign different dates to different portions of the Mulm- 
bharata and that the whole must be considered as oimj 

piece. This fact has to be known much more largely 
than now. as there is evident inclination on the part of 
some persons to treat the Gita, without reference tu 
the rest of the Mahabharata and as though it is .some- 
thing transfixed into it and in indifferent company. 

Mies, Watts Hughes has made us familiar with her ex- 
periments as to tlic reproduction of musical note-, us visible 
faitns. The sound passed through a tube with a vibrating 
pin described figures of .stars and daisy shaped figures, &c. 
Mrs. Besunt records in (he yivty number of "Lucifer" cer- 
tain experiments of a New York Doctor by which he has 
photographed solid figures of flowers and animals Ac 
from t lie forms made by light ponders, when they are 
thrown up from a disk vibrating under the impact, of sound 
waves. Would such experiments eventually lead us to the 
(Hoof of the connection between our niantmnis and their 
chakrauis and the shape of the deities representing each 
uiantrams i 

* * 

W K cull the following sentence tioin the '"Lucifer", from 
[Jr. Well's article. We dare say many of our leaders will 
relish it as an argument against (lie Divinity o r Christ. 
But will Ihcy take il home much deeper and remember it 
when among ouriekes there nrti those who do state similar 
tilings y 

'" Yon clu ii"»i mi-mi th;J ilic." Jesits Chrnil of tlic ftubnel was ilie 
Infinite, Eternal (foil in ivhoui ivt liotli believe. Tin- InHnitu 
enunot be eonliuncil in a human IhhIv You chy the If** was, in 
some mysterious "ay. UikVh Sim. f>u far, we are agreed. As St- 
I'aul says, wc all tire sons t.f (jot). Uin when yo« cimic tu identify 
this Jf.s-UB (if S-.iifli'cth with tine who is suuken uf in niuither place 
as iln: "Only B<?<;uU<-ii Sun or [lie Father; 1 ' to assort God 
line uo nttier Mills i uml. still farther, to imsueiatc thin relationship 
with tlic cii'CuinMuiiti'S uf Mis jiliysical hhtli in Palestine, I must 
anls yon to stop— ami think. If is, of course. lUK'lcits to ]ircss 
u[>uii ymi t lie metaphysical difficulties (anion iitinjr, indeed, io 
impusfsiliilitii'K) invulvcd in this view ; but thprc i.s out tiling I can. 
inn to volt. Do yon aeccnl tin- logical conclusion that His mother. 
Mary, the tlaiiBtmct" of Anim. m-;i^ motuiM" iif ti'ud' i'trti sny. " H' 1 
iwi6 conceived at ilw Huly (ili".~t. : ' you cannot mat;"' tln'st? wi>rit» 

signify anything less H t hat the, " hmiKtii beitii: like jom-scll. 

Mils Oud's wife, and lunthcr ■«! Jli< sun. 

W'liA'fCVKii might be said of vCi'uacular papers and 
magazines in otlier parts uf India, we might say that 
nearly all such papers in Southern India are thoroughly 
loynl and almost innocent of politics. E.\ct'pv a few. 
they aie all under the editorship of persons who are inno- 
cent of the English Language and they do not trouble 
themselves so much about their physical concerns, as 
about their spiritual welfare. On occasions nearly the 
whole of their space is devoted to discussing religious and 
philosophical questions, and controversies have waxed 
very hot over such matter*. .And the so-called educated 
Hindu aI>o vciy inuncent uT whal nerupies the 

thoughts and Li-pii-ation- '.'I his illiterate hictheicu and 


lit vBfv rarely condescends :o touch, much loss to read a 
vernacular newspaper. It must also be remembered that 
most of these magazines and papers have such an incon- 
ceivably limited circle of subscribers, they hardly pay 
their expenses, in spite of the cheapest paper anil cheapest 
printing and cheapest management and we dare say. not 
one pays its contributors, 

* # 

We have said thai most of these papers occupy them- 
selves mostly with religious and philosophical questions. 
As a result of each discussions in these papers, a goodly 
number of volumes have been brought out separately, and 
the greatest credit is due, in this respect, especially to one 
firm of publishers in Madras, tve mean, the Proprietors of 
the Ripon Press. They have sent us many of their pam- 
phlets and hooks dealing with such high topics as Dwaita 
and Adwaita, Jiva and Brahma. The names which figure 
most in these discussions are those of Srila Sri S. Sonia- 
sundara Nayagar, Srimath S. Scnthinatheir, Siila Sri 
Sabapathi Navalar, ' Kuhadas,' and Veukataraniaua Das 
A/*., on one side and th'e Editor of the 'Brahma Vidya", one 
'Aryan' on the other side. Both sides have displayed an 
amount cf learning and logic which will be surprising, if 
they arc duly appreciated. 'Aryan' has no necessity to 
conceal himself under an alias, and we will he glad 
to welcome him iu his own name. We are however bound 
(o remark that these discussions would acquire greater 
weight, if some one or other pays greater attention to the 
conclusions of European Scientists on such subjects as 
Physiology, Biology aud Physics Ac, We will notice these 

books at greater length iu some future issues. 


TtlKHi. is a most interesting article on ' Plants, Insects 
uud Birds,' aud their relation to man in the 'May* number 
nf "Lucifer." The conclusions of the writer, we here also 

I. All terrestrial life depends upon tlic coimen atiuii nud «tu- 
i'agE uf llic solar euerffy. Winci:il soil is sterile in itself. 

i. PlunU, especially the larger and more <'iidui'in<i'. arc tile ex- 
clusive u^eitts for this, tin-- aular energy being rendered latent in 
tlic form of carbon (carbonaceous, risanea mid compounds charcoal, 
mould, coul). Green foliage denotes conservation, bare urauiul 
dissipation uf solar energy. 

3. Tlie nitrogen required by plants is obtained from the aunos- 
pherc tlimu;,"li protozoic and other loner and lii^iicr animal life, 
lull cupeeially by worms, insects, So. 

4. Without a constant and abundant supply uf carbonaceous 
ami nitrogenous substances, tbc fertility becomes sooner or later 
ixhainsied, mineral soil iUelF bctajS! sterile. 

6. Inserts, &t"„ eouii'ul plant lite, and a.-=?ist mlicrwisc ntu'.i 
effectively in sustaining it, 

0. Uirdx. reptiles, and small mammals control chiefly tlic insect 
M'urld, and secondarily, tlic plants, while also greatly assisting in 
i lie distribution and protection of ihc latter. 

7. The larger mammals, and especially civilUed uiaii. ieml eous- 
t.iiilly to disturb the balance of nature, the latter most ..injuriously, 
even endangering thereby his u«u Future prosperity and existence; 
besides those of all other life. 

We deeply regret to record the death of Mr. 
P. V, Ramaswami ftaju, ft. a., Barrister-at-Law. He was 
a deeply read scholar aud poot both in Tamil and Sans- 
krit and the loss to both tongues, of such a rare specimen 
of our University Alumni and coming so soon after that 
of another great Tamil scholar is crushing indeed. Our 
personal acquaintance with him was indeed short — but it 
was sufficient to form an estimate of the man. ' To pur- 
sue with singleness of purpose and with thorough disin- 
terestedness, what he regarded as the highest aim of life of 
usefulness to his fellowmen, was his motto (his parting in- 
junction to ourselves, alas!) and he actually carried this 
maxim into practice, not like those who amass a fortune 
without having a thought for their kind, nor like those who 
with a desire to benefit others, yet are deterred by selfish 
calculations. He spent his life and fortune in going deep 
into studies which all regarded as profitless. He was a 
well-travelled man and a cosmopolitan free from prejudi- 
ces and yet his own land'and his own people and his own 
language was dear to him and when we parted from him 
last — to meet no more alas! — it was with the music of 

snug by his brother -in -law, ringing in our ears. May 
Saukara rest him under his Divine Foot ! 

* » 

Wt have seen Pandit V Swaminathiei of Knmbakonani 
at work. Every moment he could spare from his hard 
drudgery at College, he devotes to his labour of love in 
recovering long lost works from almost a. heap of debris 
of old cftdju,u leaves. The lines do not run together, the 
spelling is abominable, whole lines are wanting and to 
these, he is restoring sense aud order and life. He squats 
on the bare Moor over a simple stool of a desk and he is 
working away, day after day in a blazing atmosphere 
with no punkah overhead and with nO recreation and no 
enjoyment except those derived from his favourite task. 
Such a man in England would be honoured and respected ; 
he would be furnished a -inecure appointment or the 
generous public would reward.him with suitable encoura- 
gement He would command ease, leisure and, comfort to 
pursue his favourite study. Could not the Government 
raise his status at college, free him from his routine of 
work aud make him more useful to his pupils and the 
public at large Y 


Look fJrwA Kits. — People generally go in the direction 
they look. If they look upward, they are moving higher. 
If they continually see the lower and baser things of life, 
they tiro (ravelling in that direction. 



— OR 


A Monthly Journal Devoted to Religion, Philosophy, Literature, Science-, <&c. 

Commenced on the Queen's Commemoration Dap, 1897. 



MADRAS, 2 1 st AUGUST I8g 7 . i No. 3. 



A Hymn from Manikka Vasakae. 

A hthn 6aid to have been sung by the Saint 
Manikka Vasakar in tbe temple at Chidambaram, 
probably the most revered shrine in South India and 
unique in combining the exoteric and esoteric aspects 
of Saivam, The hymn i.; the one called GeiruSpfig 
ijup«u3 ('the holy chapter of the House of God') in the 
Tbruvasakam, the ancient and popular Psnlm-book of 

Temples and churches, usually regarded as Houses 
of God, are- but passages to the true House of 
God which is in man's heart " made beauteous by 
the flood of His Grace." When He has tnken his abode 
there, all distinctions of race, religion, caste, sex &c, 
disappear — " who here is my kin ? who is not' " — and 
there is naught save the splendour of the Lord. 

The experience here recorded is the goal of the 
Bhatyi-Yogi who seeks realization of God by the 

way of Love, increasing the circle of 'Love indefinitely 
till the One Universal Love is reached. This Yvf/u 
our temple- worship with its services and prayers is 
designed to foster, gradually purifying the heart and 
making it fit to be the " House of God", His "groat 
holy shrine" [Tirupjwvn-tvrai*), " the City of Siva"' 
or, in Christ's language, *'' the Kingdom of God' 1 , 
which, by the way, lie too said "Behold, the. Khigd"n> 
of God is within you" 

The hymns of the Tirnvtixfik'tm ;ire most dirtienlt 
translation. Their meaning often beyond tUi 

apprehension of tho mo-t kr.iriH.-d — which jji-rhsiiih 
the reason why explanations diseonrnuvd 

there is no commentary even in TmumI. The irare- 
lation here offered is necessarily tentative and 'w.k- 
to express the sense of (he hymn as faitlit'nllv 
I understand it, sacrificing elegance to fidelity ,\.. 
translation can convey the linked sweettic--. xl '!■ 
original or its wonderful religious w hirli 
carries one away like a torrent. 

* Alao chc name <>( tlto 
Saiiu'.s siiiriEiml history 

•«.Kiai-. I 



Loirp^iBeirOpdi Sssr ttHueSGitJcBi®? u 

^i^SiSafQjD^'Sfii Of(tf uPietfi&iijsl 

4/ eh ec at it 4 r saw &j >i & qj sn ,t tu 
G^p^sn QptfiGaj ffoiQt-iQLDiQ&r 

sSsbuGLD QojshgnsH-tueirGu. (<*) 

O Supreme Splendour that rises within me welling 

forth as ambrosia, 
Having blocked the ways of the five traitor senses 

that ever delude rae, 
Graciously show Thyself to me as Thou art. 
O Clearest of the clear, Lore! Siva, Dweller in the 

great holy shrine; 
Bliss transcending all states without end, my 

Love.! (1) 

.a swiS^sots-GJe.' gv)5$QtuiTi—!r&€s>s 

Qa siruirLoaleli! GSzkssrrT^^-kpn 

ujnefifipSeiO^ir m&tiii&irjp 
Qp ear q to (r ill UlS fir 4 (LpQggltJitituijuilisp 

(UlfijsG&S Qfilf- nS sW If Qp&Q 61) 

3 tsis!'2uQ2&_0>a>ptLi!itij QeuOu (i}ui.i Qsur 

ff(gan— J StBtLiirppsniTGf. (a.) 

With love T'-y servant's body and soul melting- in 

Sweet grace, by me not deserved, Tliou didst grant, 
For this I have naught to give in return. 
Thou that didst spread forth tvs all -before and all 

after, Free Que, Substance unwasteable. 
Dweller in the great southern shrine. Lord Siva, 

King of the beauteous city of Siva. (2) 

aiuuGan ujtis&G\u<Tt—<fs58>& 

fdsasQutr jrifto«jr@!i tzQpp &Q gusts ±l-Qjo 

^QuQuQ/i^emp iq snip Si ^G sir 
tLfQS>!!tL)Gzr<!mpfcjp<§sii 3s3BnfajG l 5ir(3sOTi , (i>''e! 

King, Father to me that am the slave of those that 

love Thee, 
Light of Truth that entering body and soul htta melted 

all faults and driven away the false darkness, 
Full, waveless, clear Ocean of ambrosia, Siva, 

Dweller in the great boly ahrine, 
Knowledge* known there where speech and 

knowledget are dead, 
Make known unto ine, how shall I speak of Thee. (3) 

Q^aaiisifaQS O p S w Qf,icQ u a (vj<? &r 
aSesmsiSeiiOujeieiiT s^uSffsiZfgQp-iSQff 

Quj^nTLJi3piJujpi(9j QwihwtTfpiQ^ 
^SaSi^G_fiirirl(!^eSp Qpe$iifi£rQeuerf>&cu 

pQuQuQi&eap tLjoapB^iGesr 
(gemmSL^irtl) a)Gi<r eS or uGunLjeni Surd 

(&,gs3Qttrp@efi QnjGBiesr(§es>pGtLl. (<9=) 

Thou that art not to be known by the intelligence 

of great sages, celestials and all others, 
O Life of all diverse living thiDgs, Medicine that 

cures me of rebirth, 
Pare Space that came forth from the dense 

Siva, Dweller in the great holy shrine, Character-less 

What now is lacking to me who have neared Thee ? 

(^SBpsSeaaSsspGai Q? u^eoireuQpG p 
:jS/S jd jriQs n (^j® 3?t—iia,{g s 6>ftQp 
LL-enpajiDiriutLieapaSei' Ow^^^mriL&iQ^ek 

LDBffi0S&t— LDSBTB&HJl&ZJS'Qail 

£&>pQu(api§rtQLj!rp &isea^aitiiiuut%fii 

fiJQLJQuQ/kjpenip 'j-i eap Sen Qss 
<iiaDpeuQari§Quj;iv ^L^eSt—mQ^nsnu—n 

uSsjfliL/ajf&wQiLiW 3$ ti sQ-nQ&s. (@) 

O perfect Fulness, flawless Ambrosia, Mountain of 
endless, flaming Light, 

O King that earnest unto me as the Vedas and the 
meaning of the Vedas and didst fill my mind, 

Siva that, like torrent brookiDg not banks, rushest 
into the mouth of my heart, Dweller in the 
great holy shrine, 

Sovereign Lord, Thou hast made thy abode in my 

What more can I ask Thee ? (5) 

* Pure Intelligence, the Absolute, where there is no conscious 
differentiation 01 subject and object. 

t Impure Intelligence or differentiating consciousness. 



QvQfSspp'jfitfiQiLi aSenLcQturrr 

ettiUmBai ajoiSscujgiuirisiQ s, 
as &p*piQ(ri)Q&> a eS^ jf cm jgn fi< dm ^ 

Spleudour that rises in my heart as asking, asking 

I melt, 
Thou whose lotas-feet grace the crowns of celestials, 

Sirs, Dweller in the great holy shrine, 
Who art all-pervading space and water and earth and 

fire and air, 
Who art other than tliey, Whose form in then) is 


1 rejoice, having seen Thee this day. (6/ 

<§} sn Qp ear & * ra, sifi ciJ© rfe * to- r->,j, 

iB sir p/Seirper stun Sfartji-ipiQSsarrsQf 

fJflUt»llptSlS^! UtpplztGIDU) 

(3* air l j>0*sBragB'a-jri; M (?aJJ<i J>C3 ■ftumQ0n g& p»& 

^(WuOujTj'S fiesp Hftfp&cvGeir 
Qujir eht «mMuj -vflw ujn"jfititLj!> sir fi-h^st 

tu ij QGk Sen tufla. Spun 1 ? r . ^©) 

This day in Thy mercy unto me Thou did*t drive 
away tlie darkness and stand in my heart us 
the rising San. 

Of this Thy way of rising — there heiog naught else 
but Thou, — 1 thought without thought. 

I drew nearer and nearer to Thee, weaving away 
atom by atom, till I was One with TUee, 
O Siva, Dweller in the givut holy ■shiiiii- 

Thou art not aught in the universe Viiiighl then- 
save Thou. 

Who can know Thee ? I" 1 

UfjffJ^'JJflW*— ^fe* $J5>ia!t.L rtp'iW j £u 
i'_ijjn$^iu £&rrsjQjs»tiiLi 

9 (5 j» 3* sb> ,* Qiu<t$istGf«iQ&Gssr 

&Tr t u l 3u{£m&st>p mmp&iuGer 
'ijir^pQ^jof^Sw sit niLtjgmtrir 

li!fvrfipt&ti£(gQiaevQ0tt& I jh) 

Thou that, sprouting as the; earth and all the 
spheres, spreadest as Ukaiciiless expanse of i^ght, 

Fire water-laden, Puru One that art beyond. the 
1 each of thought, 

Sweetness that wells forth in the heart mcjde 

beauteous by the flood of Thy grace, 
Siva, Dweller in the great holy shrine, — 
Who here is my kin ? who is not r Splendour that 
makes me bliss ! (8,1^aiQsm Q&it&. jg&^p&ifluj 
sv<r@G<tj.f(£Geu aitbpQtLuidp 

ibgs&^asassi up wti&c~Ga> 
S^gtn&GJrcEiuijg $ (J ej(tj C (cj sisrQp 

^QjuQu^is^etap njjupSsiiQsir 
iL'ir^SGuxeL'Gpnir &iis&&Qmeat&r(t£e<:nu_' 

Form of splendour, Formless One, ineffable Begin- 
ning, Middle and End, 

Great Ocean of Miss that destroys bondage, 

Mountain of holy grace ami goodness, Siva, Dwellei 
in the great holy shriue, 

Graciously come, show me a way, 

Give me the refuge of Thy feet. (9) 

& fjf JP«W iBiSf SW * O t .7 KTT l—Qffpiir Sbl* It 

a i g, Qui hsb fi son sun^r tsfi J. 'j>up Gp . 
SjCif Jlf »Ll r ! p r J f a fir- Q pzp w 
. ZKjfSojQai'ijS-x Queerer i_ Qainc 'iwr- 'jr.irer 
<$ ] (!^uQ u (W & g p 'J-i€f>.r &40.Q. em 

h w«? Tbyaelf Tli JirM ami TUmu d-i.l-f 

B^nelifr&fH l,crd, who is Ui^ g»innT v 
Endless lili e .= hu%v I gsMtitstl What Imsi Tkou gsurtpd 

Frnm me " 
O Lirii tljal lai-l. mihHc ih_> I it-Krt Thy leinplr, Siva, 

Dweller in tlit- grt'al Imlv shrine, 
FaCl'i^r. ^o/Prui^n, Tlini ln-t made Tliy abode m 

it i v b<iHy I'or it I btiru naught tu give in return 

P A 






Lokavitha — Its Hefftation, 

4. Besides, we have seen that the statements con- 
tained in the Vedss and other treatises prove true. 
For instance, we find the remote calculations of 
Astronomers and Astrologers verified in doe time. 
Besides, Persons are able to discover buried 1 treasure 
by following the directions giveil in certain books 

{Continued from page 28) 

1. Lofcayitha ! Why do yen hold that whatever 
is seen oy direct perception rt tme and whatever is 
inferred is false ? Tell me, how yon know that yon 
had a fatlier and mother, when your father had died 
before your birth and your mother after giving birth 
to you f It could only be by iufer.ence and not by 
direct perception. 

2. When you assert that when it begins to lighten 
t.ud thunder and the heavens darken with clouds, it 
will snrfly vain, and when you assert that, when the 
river flood dafhes down Sandal and A'gil trees, it had 
surely rained on the mountain ghauts, your knowledge 
is derived from inference and not by direct perception. 

3. It you assert that even such inference is only 
perception as it is derived from our knowledge of pre- 
vious direct perception (oF observed instances), then, 
how do you know that intelligence arises from the 
body composed of the four elements And if not by 
inference, -how d>i you know/ that yonr intelligence 
perceives sensations ny means of the senses ? How 
do yon derive this visible body by the anion of in- 
visible elements ? 

1 2 and 3. These stanzas shuw how the world's knowledge is 
built on testimony ami inference and Hint without these two ins- 
truments of knowledge, it will ho impossible to know anything. 
The Lnfcayitlia's sphere of logic is indeed too narrow nud Iris 
modem representative lias certainly advanced beyond ftlni, in this 
as in not stopping short of only four elements. And he accepts 
now a fifth element, an ether, and i Iccfricity, A r c. And the modern 
materialist lias discovered several spores of elements and has re- 
duced the fouror five so-called elements into much simpler elements 
called giisoMiicli as iiitmgen.oxygcii and hydrogen and carbonic acid 
gas, &c. ; Mid as such the nUl Tndtau chtssifientiofi of elements into 
four or five will therefore seem incorrect. But not so necessarily. 
The Indians recognize liner conditions of matter; and if wo 
translate the term y<»_ (which does not necessarily convey au 
idea, of a simple substance) Into merely a condition or state of 
-matter, then the division of gnhidances into 5 yj.i (Butha), 
states of matter, will stand good :mtl they will be, the solids, the 
liquids, tlic gaseous, heat and electricity. The Lokayitha hos, 
however, very tew vbo follow his scientific investigation, so far, 
chough the Germ-plasm theory holds sway still among a small 
section of European Materialist* and so-called Idealists. The 
more, respectable of the modern rlnv materialists go by the mime 
of agnostics, mid positivists and litniniiitarinns. poBtnl?.t« 
a mind and matter so far as they jire within our cognition and 
no farther ; Mid they nvn not able tonsscrc positively whether mind 
is derived from matter or matter is a product of mind. And 
a* regards a future or n past shmI anything higher than ti>ut 

own mind (plicnomenol), they plead complete ignorance; and 
iliese was eloquent however on duties to each other and to the 
whole race and the miseries of mankind and the means of relieving 
them i and they cry down all religions' and institution* m superati. 
tions and conventionalities and lies ,-as intended to cheat and 
deceive credulous mankind. And it is no wonder that tlteso modern 
ilny agnostics and there are ume among ua like Mr. fi. C. Dutt, 
among whom Buddhism is becoming fashionable. But there is a 
difference between these and Buddha, Buddha was a strict 
moralist and hishigh ideal was Duty and he believed in the darkest 
pessimism. But the modern day humanitarian believes that the 
world, arfl. ia, can he bettered and more pleasure .arid in course 
of time the highest pleasure can be introduced -into society, if 
only people will be induced, "to see" with Mas. Nardan, "the 
civilization of to-day, whose characteristics are pessimism, lyinjr 
and selfish egotism, followed by a civilization of truth, love of 
one's neighbour and cheerfulness." See how vivid is hip hope! 
" Humanity which is to-day an abstract idea, wil] then be a fact. 
Happy the later born generations, whose lot it will be. to Kre in 
tlio pure atmosphere of the future, flooded with its brighter sun- 
shine, in this perpctnnl fellowship; true, enlightened, good end 
free I" A noble ideal and noble future indeed, if it . could bo 
realised, by the methods he proposes ! How vain these hopes with 
the history of Buddhism before us. Thn Sinhalese disciples of 
the Renowned Buddha are tho grossest beef-eaters in Ceylon, and 
it is a horrible sight which meets one at every turn, these beef- 
stalls, The Sinhalese would argue, O the Renowned Buddha only 
enjoined us not to kill but rrat, to eat dead meat of any kind. 
And so wilt everything, the most glorions looking maxim and 
precipt be reduced to a mere letter and a sham, when yoq 
deprive one of any higher aspirations thau your present phase of 
existence 1 Why should I care for my neighbour or for She per- 
petuation of the race, if I am to be. no more to-morrow and 
why should I not take my utmost share of this world's pleasures, 
as our ancient Lokftyithu asks? If there is misery, tho best remedy 
would lie nut to undergo (ill this trouble and vexntion but to 
annihilate, tho whole World by thr most- deadly of human means, 
maxim gnus nntl torpedoes. " The weak should go to the wall " 
and ''the survival of ihe fittest" are their catch words. " Why 
should we allow the ignorant and weak nations and principalities 
of this earth any longer uny existence." Nihilism and the so-called 
Idealism and Positivism and hnmnnitarianisni all tend gradually 
or lower itself down to ,-innrchism. 

There is however a lesson which every one ought to loom even 
from a Lokayitha and which should not easily be forgotten. And 
that j's to learn to test ihe facts, or inferences or higher testimony, 
properly and scientifically and not to aerept them blind-fohl as 
facts, or inferences, tlipiuouicnt it is presented so before ns, however 
patent it might seem to be and however high the authoritv "of tho 
one wiiii appeals to us. There can bo no sin greater than credulity 
in scientific investigation and honest is essential to right 
understanding. There is the other extreme of turning denf to 
everything which may not seem to suit one's fancy nnd sniffing 
at well attested facts and we see to-day even Truth (of Mr. Labnti- 
chcre) asking for a fair hearing to Mr. Gataker, ' the expert water 
liuder' in these words. " What may be the explanation of his 
micecFs, mid that of other men who work iu the game Hue. I do not 
know ; but it seems to me, as 1 snid before that when a man cau 
show that what licit* doing is a commercial success, there rs prima 
fi'cic evidence that he is able to find it. Scientific men ought to be 
able to tell us how it is done ; and if it is nil trickery and imposture 
they ought- to be able tii show ub how the trickery and imposture 
are performed." And ns there is even a tendency in »ll people to 
believe j n the impossible and the marvellous, and we have reason 
to Biispect that this tc«idenc_ i.- growing more npo,n ng, following 
a blank Atheism and Nihilism, the caution conveyed above to test 
facta and inferences and experiences and not to swallow- them 
wholesale, may not be thought unwarranted, . 



b. Why dp you say that matter is imperishable and 
aDchottgettble ? As its form changes titers, mnst be one 
who oauses these changes, in the same way as we 
infer a potter when we see pots made out of clay. 
If yon say, these need no cause, as the babbles formed 
in water, theo even then, bubbles are formed by the 
agency of air and not without any cnnse. 

€. Ajid then, the babble formed of water and air 
is only of the B&me kind as its cause ; similarly the 
product of the body, will be similar to the body 
itself and not like mind whichTs of a different nature. 
Ybmnny.eay^hat the product is dissimilar like this 
red juice 'produced on chewing_ betel and nut; but 
then the colour is inseparable from the matter itself 
and on this analogy, the mind must be inseparable 
and concomitant with the functions of the body. But 
we see the life departing when the "body is left 
behind and hence what you say cannot be true. 

7. When Che~ betel and nut are chewed together, 
redness alone results. But by the union of different 
kinds of matter, senses and sensations and qualities 
of different grades and kinds result. How could this 
be ? And then, you will have to notice that irtf agefic 
is required tn bring together, beteltoidnnt ; and as 
such you will have to admit plainly that for bringing 
about material causation, an agent is also required. 

8. If you s"ay that the live, senses, hunger, sleep, 
fear and passions are produce! ' from the body, with- 
out any other first cause, like the web from the spider, 
then why don't you produce the web -from the sky ? 
As the elements unite only in one wny, then differences 
of sex ana gender Unci different orders of creations 
will become impossible. 

9. It yon deny Karuia, then the different orders 
of creition and their differeut senses, vmyingin num- 
ber and intelligence* from one to five cannot be. Then 
again, the mere uniou of matter, cannot produce lerttn- 
ing and enjoyment and qunlitie.-s. Kann-i alone can 
cause these differences. 

9. Single-sensed (touch, are trees ami pawn) and vc-.-oiabh' 
kingdom. Double-sensed (toiuli awl laste) ;uv of the mder uf tin; 
Molluscs., starfish, snails, oysters, Ax., t ri jdtt-soiimwl (t'nieti, taste 
and smell) are white-ants, ant*;. &t\; fouv-seused. (the ln.-.t three 
with sight) arc beetles, batlcvflies, Ac. five-seu'ed (Willi healing) 
are devas, wen, hettst and birds, i£c. To these live senses, Rurnpcnn 
scientists add the alimentary cuital and the ecuital ni-unuM awl 
the pleasures derived t'lercfrom but l hey may bo elapsed pri- 
marily as touch. These senses from touch to hearing .are^iu mi ti't- 
cendoisj scale of intelligence, the least iiit^lli-reiit beiris touch n\id 
tT» sense moat intelligent, the sense gf hearing i and tliit sen-- nf 
sight competing Tviflh. it for the first place utmost. Anil the orders 
of creation pw-aessinj^jmly one or more senses arc also placed in 

10. If you say that matter causes mind, then, we 
do not see any mind in earth, air or fire &c. If yon 
say that intelligence can only arise, after the body ia 
formed, then why is -there no mind, in the dead body * 
If you reply that is by the absence of Prana, breath, 
th^n why is there no consciousness in .sleep f 

lj. If you say that intelligence is a,product of the* 
body, then, in different orders of creation from a^t 
toelephant, intelligence must differ in equal proportion 
to the respective size of the body. On the other 
Wind, the animal with the bi^est body (elephant 
fdnnstance) is less intelligent than the animal (tnan y - 
with a small body. Explain this difference if you can', 

lowej- or higher order of development and intelligence. The lower 
orders simply live to propagate its species, with no higher purpss- 
(in itself the highest) and as the 1 SfTe>:'es are more anil moir 
developed they increase in usefulness. And if man in whom the 
senses arc must fully developed and highly intelligent, Uvea to eat 
and to procreate, we say-nf bini, that be is rcjfcjntiug and that he 
is leading nn animni life. Man's pursuits arc aeonrdingly high or 
low in ns much as he devotes himself to the purpose of one sense 
or other. And the man win* could use his eyes and ears most and 
and then think out the facts he baa observed : ml proceeds to hi'dier 
and higher views of life, ho alone cnuM ho said to have lived his 
life., The arts, gastronomy, horticulture, painting ami music follow 
the same law of tcthotics in the matter of their appreciation ; 
gastronomy, ibe lowest its nmsie is t he highest. A »*ngfe morsel 
ran only anpeliz" one man, but a siHjjk" flower, a single picture, 
a KingI" note of music, what a Inrgc and spreading circle of human 
beings, ii can attract and Influence. And one Jirineipfe derived 
from tlicsa- lias its bearing on BtWcs. Tho highest intelligence is the 
bi;_'hest Morality and the highest Hi'iiovulonce. Xo mini can 
claim tunny iutclleiiiiality if his ci induct i.s not consistent with his 
professions; ice iMtc .1 mnst reamed man's worth at tern, when 
he does not give the hcnetil uT hi<< learning to his fellow men and 
is not useful tn them. The; greater the mail's learning the greater 
is his sphere tit' tlreat men and true ait? the most 
benevolent ; tlicy are the e.-ilt of tile earth; tliev lifts the world's 
luminaries. They Jilts not fur tw country nor for one age. Groat 
musicians, anil grcaL saves have hi'cathcd their harmony and pi ver 
their thoughts which live for all time to come and like pollen of 
dowers leave one brain, and fasten on tn another, vivifying and 
fertilizing and fructifying this other. 

iio ! The man of learning pnffed up with bis own lenminjr and 
importance, and looking dosvn upon others an beneath him ! A man 
might take the highest dogrt t-s. the Uuti ersity can offer hini, ami if 
in - the dados of liTe, set for liini, he docs not show honesty oi 
sympathy, remembering his sovenuiru and his God, of what use 
are his titles r .V man might be a great lawyer; what is tho tile of 
him, if be is cold and selfish and calculating, unless it be, by tin* 
hies ho amasses, he «ishos itr lice well and tD see others of his 
line behind bini live also? And unfortunately, this sense ol" 
livinc;' only becomes ton predominant in his descendants, and a. 
fortune acquired with so much sftitl and hair-Splitting is tsily 
cnoti'.'h dissipated. 

Men arc therefore given a choice, unlike other order? of Creation 
to S'.lci-I the lower or the htgfc-r ati'l in the vtisdum of his choice 
b"S his wlinh" future, 

11. }!iideiii materialist Ineate tint intelligence not in the body 
bttt in the brain. And the objection heroin pointed out is explained 
by the fact that the brain is divided into parts which have different 
rniie(ioii* to perform such n? ieitiu*::'id sensory, intellection and 
will Ate; and in laivt' aiiiinahi thii [ini't.on of the bmin (inednlhi 
obtt.ii'jata tind ceiobelbin. *■-. iiii'li ■> bieli 1:;^ to control the large 
lunacies are Inivelv ilecehipctl and Hie In-aiti proper (cerebrum) i.« 
least develoiied. In man. siz' l'"i fixe, the frontal brain ia larger 
and more folly develnpetl ami eeiicnlntjil. Xo doubt ther« iff fir 
considerable correlation tei'M the br;i:"ii ajjd man's iuteJIiifencc, 



12. If you say that -when the elements unite, 

iutelliffence preponderates when material components 
are less gross, and intelligence is less when the material 
components are more gross, tlu the respective 
bodies should neither grow larger nor smaller and 
they should be stationary as once formed. On the 
other hand, the bodies grow and decay with time 

13. If you. say all these are due to nature, then 
nature must be uniform and as such you should 
account for differences of persons being bom as male 
and female. And why should procreation be possible 
by means of male and female ? And as such it will 
falsify your theory that the natural body is caused by 
matter. Your theory is illusory. These differences 
nre reallvcaiwed by one ia accordance with each one's 

If. Yon say that forms are created ill this wise. 
Like pots made out of clay, male and female forms 
are produced from matter and these ia turn create 
forms. This we ufirte. The elements by their nature 
possess opposing qualities. You say these will uuite, 
thou tell me if you have seen fire kept unquenched in 
water '' 

Vk If you say that, bodies are formed by the 
union of different kinds of matter, then why is there 
:my necessity lor human love ? This human love 
-imply follows the universal law set by the Lord and 

10, You queried what Karma it was by. which 
initial water .was cool and heated water was not. 
From your own example, understand how one thing 
yvt possessed of two qualities. Ia like manner,- it is by 
Karma, liien derive Doth pleasure and pain. And 
then the sense of this pleasure or pain f>idy appertains 
r<> the soul and not to the tjudy 

1/ When enjoying ptetstire you would assert that 
all this is nature and not due to -Karma, then why 

!hil llir most riinliirr in\ eelijiilt inn (nils to t'&ttthlipfl aus- causal 
i-uiittrctiul! U'HWlm I lit' liui, i\\cf|ji a i-<jiTolnlinn. Ami this ia ijiliU' 
i iniifinH'Ul Willi llir Llirory til' Siililhiiiiihig. vt )m pustuliitL' an eternal 
iLiiniL-i'iiuii ami cnn't'laiiini Iji'l^'i'i'n muni and bully mill ivIio even 
(i-is^ilnii llcrt riv-n in 'ilnki i. ilir h, ■••Jtulluit al't urn annihilated 
, *._/ ,v. , »•- \, iIuti-U tliKmuir l'roin the idealist 

ni ill i- iiiitlmalisl iv I ii i piiMuIiiti* tmlj miml ni" mutter ns a snb- 
iinnrf Mini Imlil i lie i>i !iit ;i" a men- plicnniiieiml prnilnct or n 

- ! lild<i\l ill 1 ;\l\ illusion. 

17. Wlnil [lir iHilH*riulit»t I'nils in niT-miU I'm Im ivlei-riiiff all iinali- 
; iv* to am mv At'., i» the foi-ynn nf i-iiiitn.-iuiifiit'Bs, the thing which 
iwcutlUHj ciniseimis trfiiuaJilits anil i,l' pleiiMin: inul [ruin. This has 
i ii son nf siniiliiriry or innneiiiuii vi ii li I In- olijuetu perceived and 
tvln'ii vim tti'irin tu pirwlyw it, ii livs ni Uiv basis of yaur invest!- 

do you feel pain in the absence of pleasure. Tell me 
if you can, how this was derived. This is due to 
Karmfi already performed ■ (Pr&raptha) . Even Karma 
Cannot induce anything by itself. Ciod in hia infinite 
love, has to give to each according to his deserts. 
The soul, and its Katma are eternal and eternally 

18. If you object that no body need unite the two 
(Karmaand Soul,&c.)if they are eternal, then hear that 
Mala, Maya, Karmn, Soul and Stva are eternal. When 
souls perform ^arma Karma cannot of itself outiB- 
oiouoly give tiicro then- forms. The eternally caused 
bodies being finintelliyent cannot unite with the soul 
of itself. God therefore beings about these anions 
and enjoyment under an Eternal Law, 

19. If by reason ot our external senses not per- 
ceiving the soul, yon deny the soul's existeoce ; then, 
can the pot see the eye which saw it. It is the eye 
which sees it, without doubt. In like manner the 
soul which is conscious of objects and objective senses 
is similarly imperceptible to the eternal senses. The 
soul will perceive the senses and the senses will not 
perceive the soul ; from thence, you see the truth of the 
soul's existence. 

20. hire (oxygen) cannot burn and become ap- 
parent unless connected with some substance (carbon). 
The soul also cannot be active unless attached to a 
body. The light burns in a tamp tilled with oil and 
wick- So also, the 5>ul eats the Karma, and attaches 
to a body. 

21. Jf it is objected that the soul dying and being 
born in bodies and different from the bodies, should 
possess its intelligence intact,then, can you be conscioas 
in dreams, of dream as a dream and not a reality ? 
Then, is the intelligence of yourself 'the same as 
after yon are born? As such, puro intelligence cannot 
be postulated of the soul. 

22. If you say that it is impossible that the in- 
telligence which now decays should again be repro- 
duced, then, will you explain hjw in sleep you. are 
unconscious and in waking you become conscious. If 
you ask how one body goes and another body is got, 

19. External senses, internal senses und soul and God belong 
to different planes and ordci-B of intelligence. In the presence of 
the higher the lower is non-intelligent and non-apparent (Achit or 
Asat) and as Bitch it cannot perceive the higher. The eye is in- 
telligent, we might say and it 'perceives objects but what ia its 
intelligence when compared to mind j and the eye cannot see mind. 
And similarly mind is non-intelligent in comparison to the soul 
and cannot perceive the soul, and the soul cannot knew Qed. * 



lb«ft it is like the soul in sleep losing all cousciousness 
of ft body and regain ing it iu waking. 

23. If jou ask bow it is thHt the senses are lost in 
death, and are regained in rebirth, then it is like the 
man who losing all breath and consciousness all on a 
sadden regains them after a while. The world speak 
of the moon waniog and waxing as its death mid birth. 
Soul's death and rebirth are similar. 

24. my dear Sir, understand that there is an 
efficient canse, in as much as this material worm under- 
goes creation and destruction. If you say that the 
body formed like a pot from clay can. only be from 
matter, then even in a snch case, we require an efficient 
cause like the potter. 

25. The Lord who was difficult of knowledge by 
the Devas and the Vedns, walked with his footsteps 
as a mediator to the house of the beloved of his strong 
Devotee (ai^rO^eir^^ Saiut Sundara). As such, lie 
is easy to be approached by his devotees. Therefore 
approach hia Lotus-Feet without fail. He will confer 
on you even the blessings you desire in this Jtfe. 

26. I£'a rich golden, ornament, becomes covered 
with dirt we do not boat tj toueh it So, in hict, we 
most regard the sexual passion of women, as a thing 
fit for our giving it up. These females' bodies are 
composed of blood, urine which are ugly to be- 
hold- What benefit do you hope to derive by falling 
on their bodies ? 

25. To look up to the supreme and Co hold that all the benefits 
we derive are from him, even when we fully recognize that we will 
reap as we bow, ha-i a high ethical and spiritual value and tb the 
important step in one's ea dana of liberation. And then, when we 
wishing 1*> withdraw the man from indulging in the lowest 
pleasures, we. teach him to believe that he can get better benefit 
by following a better path, this is only following a well -recognized 
principle of education and must not be counted »n a deception 
The highest philosophy of duty and Nirvana will not have the 
slightest attraction for such a man iind cannot wean him for a 
moment from itis practices. The neit stanza contains n further 
step in hie conversion. 

36, You arc first taught to hope for these enjoyments by re- 
ferring yourself to a superior path; and t lien gi-adnally is in stilled' into 
your mind the uselessness of these pleasures- How many men wreck 
their whole life by neglecting even ordinary Banitary laws and "Tiy 
jnost heedlessly associating with the most abominable creatnres. 
And these in their turn cany their curse into other wombs and 
into other fenerations I How am multiplies itself and corrupts every- 
thing it touches not for oue ages but for ages together ! Do they 
who sin beer these things in their mind, or do they know one ins- 
tance, in which the sinner has come out unscathed t With poverty 
and want of education and copying of fashions, sexual immorality 
iB only too much on the increase ; and a gallant general iu his place, 
in the council would even hold that we have no seuee of seiual 
■totality ! for a tongue" and for a voice, that would stem this 
tide that is growing upon as ! ! \ 

27. O these women, who are praised Tor their eyes 
like fish ! What ;ire they ''. Their bodies are composed 
of .■•kin, blood, flesh, fat, bones and secretions They 
arc the urinepot wherein., dirt and worms and iiKne 
and phlegm only too well uru geneiatt-d ! Then' bodied 
are only a muss of dirt without doubt. 

28. One's indulging in low women is hke the pig 
wallowing in dirt and enjoying itself. The pleasure 
we derive by worship of Isn is the blemish lc:s and 

eternal and pure Ocean of B'iss. 

29. People in whom anger permanently dwells do 
not understand the benefit^ of Patience. People 
wallowing in passion do not know the pleasure derived 
from Passionlessness. Hold on to the Fecjt of the 
Supreme Lord of Lords, worshipped by l)eva=. Thsu 
instant, an inextinguishable Bliss will rise in your 
body. This is Truth. 

30. You have regarded passion and other viccss a 
pleasure. This is like seeking pleasure in smotheiing 
heat in time of winter and in cool water in summer. 
If yon reach the Godly path, you will obtain everlast- 
ing pleasure. 

81. We read the Sivagama, We declare the truth 
of the Three Padaitbas, Pathi, Pasu and Pasa. We 
ever praise and worship fsa's victorious Feet- We 
give up Kama and other low desires arid we hold fast 
to God's Grace. With this our f~ith, we hope to leave 
off the stains of the three mala and to unite with the 
Ninwala God iu Mulct i. 

Qf<ni£ Oct sir gill it. 

a9®^^®JX QutTQetr «f,'£0ic.7j@«»rr (?«,OTtf.3^) 
Ou!T(r^ srsnsn—^Jsrr 

J. M. Nallaswami PlLLA.1, U A., u. L 

(To be cvhttuwdj 




{Cotitinued fnm page 34) 

Q W SfT 63T (^ (TJ SU S5ST «« LD . 

^airSs erpfifar SAff^er^S u'—tujffi 
^msun QpfarsniLi QatpjB 

ijirffl^s^ ssisntaadju l^&&& SB*&rs$f*Q3 

'SSiJrQup fistlEUpg &4FQJ\$fJl B iE/^J}&& 

W^TTUJiUT SW.Ja^J O^ar^T!,'. U;o_ igl$BB 

a.'ffiSgO^K pjt^irp LSQ^arn&nr Qiunoj^iixi 
Lfi&fiSQQ Qixzgra- srn^&fflj 

wo i§Ji£U(i$ Oinai«r igjvjCJau. ( &ST ) 

Adoration to Hacna-Gceij (The Saixt's 
Smtnc.u, fjk). 

Milium (runt, the prince of Yogins, you are the 
preceptor of ilFasrra* as well as 2c*ft#r«+ being a 
follower of the school of 'firamfilav. Laudable has 
been your spiritual iitfection towards mc It has done, 
me not only the negative but also t!ie positive good. 
Negsith'c good, in that it has expelled from me the 
clcpluuit-like bea^tlinos's with the result that 1 have 
thrown off the chains of desire* and pulled off the peg 
of self-pride and, v'nttish with the- true advaita 
knowledge, I have drunk in as with the elephant's 

* Mantra is Veda ntul + 'l'oiiiva is Ajiamn. i-. f. Tii'iniirilni's 

f-TTCrfiA' .-, :JfS^li." 


(The Wda mill the Againa nr< 1 both of ilicm true, both being 
flu- tVordsof rhe Lord, tliiitlt .tllitt the lij-st id the jjfitwtll, and 
tlio scpuiirl is [In; ji[H.'fiiil lri':iiisr, ISntli bring i lit- Wonts of God, 
if you ask- why there i=* difference between them, the reply is thrtf 
llio i/rcat "ill perceive no dilTerence). This verse is I'nini the $;iijit" 
Tirtiwiilar's Kicrcd Poem called " Tifuiiintnram." lit- is *aid u, 
have unee sm i i l Votrio cniiU:mplatinH fnv 3.0OIJ veal's and sang hi.s 
■'Tirmiiaiiiruni : ' in 3,000 versos from what ho enjoyed in ilm*e 
i^'JOO ye:irs. The (rausiation of this worfc is being done in this 
journal. Viiil TliriyunimiBViii' etaims descent from 'J'ivn m li!;i j- 
i 1i i-r.i li li li l>is (iiirii Mourni Dt'sifcarl. 

proboscis the sweets of the fix alien systems* of 
Eflith ; and that, roaring and flying away from my own 
shudow of my ignorance, I swallowed up to my fill the 
wandering mind and stripped out, the front-let of may a 

When I was, thus, made fit to receive your Grace, 
yotx began to show me to my benefit the real positive 
aspect of your benevolence — that is — fixing me to the 
goal of your chin-mndrat and fostering me like an 
elephant whose rut is Guana§ in the province of your 
Grace, yon plunged me deep in the surpassing bliss 
of Divine Knowledge. || 

cgi^BBJeStS ILWS^TS L^gQpjl <W)JB(lpii> 

Qtiesyfiajp £ it>Q —* spi jn mutant d2(*2pfdGu>/b 

Q&tLi&iiV iR<i&as jtt&nesx 
Gffl/oir^if-iuT wzricStf Galons w^tftrrit 

Manna Guru, the prince of Yogihs, you are the 
preceptor of Mantra as well as Tantra being a follower 
of the .>eW./ of Tirnmulnr. Marvellous indeed, waa 
your favour done to nie. You raised ine to the great 
sage's .state of perfect consciousness where the mind 
was imule inactive and tranquil by the conquest of 

* Six nlk'ii systems arc : — 1. Lokayata (mnterialietn), 2. Budd- 
hism, a. Jainisui. Ir. .Mimainsaka (ihu doctrine holding that 
Kami a is tlio tirst vaaseX 5. P;hicli»rAti*ii (bif^oted Vishnuviem 
stojun'ti^ witli Mrila[n-ikriri), 6. Muii'iwthttM (Doctrine of Idealism). 
These <i\ selujuU are considered imperfect for their intolerance and 
bigotry in I. ,■ tiliii. 

+ J/<i»r> urti/ii us ln-r,. n-t^l includes Karma main that csknscs it. 

^ Cliiii-iuflt-it i^ tin' Holy Symbol formed of rlie thnmb and tlic 
fore-liiiiicr jniniil at tUeir ends eejiarating the ether 3 fingers. The 
Mvinbol ivill (-xjjJiun the iclation of God to the world ae well as 
m'.i's i'i tlie hitter's conditioned and unconditioned (niokelui) states. 

s i.;...nri unguis Hivim Kiioivledv'e, Vide note to 22nd verse, 

'i'lcc blissful oirtvt iJf initiation and *its consequent iiidiip«n> 
sability <<> Salvation :nr .-ni.'L.'esti'il ^n thisveree 37- 



the fafvet* from the five element! to the sound nod, 
therefore, I became overpowered end identified n»y- 
attf with the npreme Gnaiiat of bites. 

Venerable Teacher, you came and instructed the 
troth of unity between the Veda and the Agama so as 
to induce the bekrted disoiplee to send up appUu*e 
again to the stored Foot of oar Supreme GuruJ who 
' the Banyan tree in the North and also to the 
! of Naadi Dera § who unveiled this truth, for 
the world. 

O Silent Teacher, thus yon hare initiated ok- Jnto 
the main path of acquiring the Supreme 8iragmmn.\\ 

^fi** *4tStmrtu »*#*& u,imiu4l-Q*m 

jfmjriu i^a^u^m mtmitilm ^(gSier 

#•#? jftXIc* mGmr 
Gu*0f* Simmon wuMrQ/i uunn' 

<-!*$**) *8*0t ej**»*g 

p*0<$mm- C>0m& i^itcmitiLj 
rmnB0 m*0HjmQfxJb Ql0ik0$00kk0 

u.m0~t ',*,-»> QmtGtut* /i«>*&© G* &*»* 

ill J»*(3 Ourv 0|J0«i. (»«) 

Me*** Ijira, the prioc* of Yogias, you ere the 
preceptor of Mantra as well as Taut is being a follow - 
er of the echoed of Timmalar. Who gare Jfeeofi th>* 
wonderful power of faacinatioa? Has it bo other 
place in the Universe bat my intelligenc - " It be- 
witches me from the Holy End of your teaeliia* and 
makes this world appear to me to be eternal and 
unchangeable so as to preclude arte from obtaining tbt- 
Dirtas Ami.% 

• Th. Uiv« an them, «f ■»,' ri« ft •!*-*»»», ft «K*i.. -» 
Mini in n & obfccu of mi mi ravk. hm(J 4c, ftucyiM rf artaa>. 

.Ml, /_'.r, »r ■nsjtr-'-' ^->fc— «a -*«h tae * yatejm 

tatTM MlW| aatta or sirs **t*ai n4ba with • ■■»■*• *"' 
^Sa M tjuv.*. Thaw sat caOat IwimI tetam * •*■«*•(., 
11th rata*. 

t niui ■iinHiai af Gas. 

J dm fti-i TllLll.r The we— w » to Ik* w»|**«» 
Dakaklal HSrthj. 

!**•« Dm to lb* am sa aa a a at la* San 
aww— — mm fcaawMaa W BJra (GaT) 
Van mm I watlar Thai •**■ *a Cha twr. 
«ii4jM»MOia<a HI»ala>caBM*raluaa>M<>«»< 



Spiritual Teacher, may yon bleas nte with the 
firmness of thought to conquer this deceitful £fo*e ; 
because 1 do apprehend that nay more conceding to 
it ou my pnrt is as absurd an to aspire for the fair 
flowers or the sky of watur of the mirage. 

O reverence- to you, mv Guru, who let all the world 
know through my initintion the necessity of establish- 
ing the six* local *chor>1»of religion and the ccstacy 
of perceiving the "uprrtne stugct of unity between the 
Vedanta and the Biddhantn, 

Gum J 3 Q» it* 3d* j,u 

9liiu6**^ l& ?j*l ar_*ai> 

?uraaV«t Suae •*-!*> 
0mmt*S <J»-*L.r> u*jpi9u*. i3+i0\-.0 
01 miiBmr Qftti M0w 

<*«> <a*0*u»(5 3##^- .«i« S_ a>> l |9jf^'s«i.«' I S a ' 

m>*p^00 mjrm «:©(?* 
jiijUfiiS C »&'•,# s # i ^r,23 (7*ty>af«V 

O if on rt a Cr'uni, the prince of Yogius, >ou «jt- tbt 
preceptor of Miutrs u* well i.s Taotra bsinff a fullowet 
of tin- 8<(it«'fofTirtiuiul«r. t>Sfnriti|»H»urn, 1 jrrently 

(■• Vednnia HidUhanli ur »nll »«.n ■j.|.r-r.r,ai< ), SaVtVM Sld- 

dlsanU, i.e., the knowcr end embracer of 
the True tisd (of the Vedae) via. the true 
meaning that Ood In Stva or Love <■. 

(u-w ir Urn Fi'- n ii.r- irin.,1. .. Parabrhajnam devoid 
of form and attribute and beyond Use roach 
of tM Vodacaunaa and of the human Mind 
and tosafrve) n^inii n ■-.*..!-.» i.^ii,. .,i .i^tu,,. 

aaiva fcl«JwC InadJBa ^i •«*" t<* iIh- Tri" >JJ MHt.tU'-t, §(.. 

f 1 i*HJ H*S A JU | k *MI|l*«l 111 | L.T<J ■' ?*t>« i . ^ #■« ■!»',+ ,. .( !««. |. ^ 

IrtlV^' lrfn«l» ■»[ kinir -3 M il>i *r»l---«.i *m*Mfif\H4 fr«^ l« 

wdnntf ft n*H»»d "I l»t**t-. i Luvri i>f SnXta Vt.H..^ lil.u-. »w I ■! 
Klli NiU»>' ii*j--'«.ili I'iji "(>»«» »-MH- -(.-.. «. 4 U .da u< 
(TTMtlllKtLof tK**r t»l)i I (rttlr* ^4|» ^1 * ,(■ . i t,». *MT*'.i|- 
3ir» p uK i w uS^'^ m k*4*imn 'in fc1**l ■^ftrit.^ w i< .1 j|.»* ^.1 {|mi».^I 
lad m l«>»i lii< L.>i'' uf Hikii-k«l.i lll.uiii.j| (<ii Ulw<id . ■(<.-. 
«barOxl|l>ha)ii rr|w« .,l .<! .» Hs nfc.. ,. ! .>.i u ( T.»i»l»k. 
i1 In kt« ImhH sikd vi-vinntt «"Vli r»« * . *« u*- ii-v' 

t Tlw hpw Cm) "' il" ivuii- -■.i.u-i.ij ... ' i«,.: C n, ,4,. 
Uara . m Tr*t V »4iu»ta 



esteem Your Divine love in taking nae into your service 
and, ;n one word, inspiring me with the Supreme 
knowledge of unity between the Vedanta and the 

jSiddhantn. O, you h:ive tbns saved me, indeed, from 
being led away into the pandemonium of Lokayntn.''' 

Horrible are the evils of a LokAyata : His physi- 
cal hody, transient as it is like :i flash of lightning, is 
thesouietenialfor him. His .inmmunihonitm is the sen- 
sual pleasures of the society of women who can easily 
charm him with their black'-piiiuted eyes. His Sraryat 
is the high storied house to enjoy those pleasures in. 
To him the eternal Sat is the wealth that can procure 
him all these. 

Thus vainly indulging himself in the carnal plea- 
sures of this life be become*, of course, devoid of 
rood qualities pafi?uct>, pen-eptivity , renunciation and 
•haritij and possessed of tlie evil qualities lopa &c. 

uuuszr* iSfK,4G&Fp (Ftr&>«9eEi_ Qa,m(Biai 
l ^itsQc-S QfsiitLjQffi affilJ^ttjgj mnarQpfi^v 

t_ ir <w 3 ft;?? «jff(giffJ5aBuj uj nfiQ* is uims(ip^ 

Jt^.i^s errr Q;_/isj> Qpfbr gvlwin 
Xnmji sSxpuifT, "3bu sr jn vp ugdingi 

M unOuiis p uBm r#(^Ga> 
ifkpa (Wjiij QsuGiuts &i&oi§<S Ga-QpGiism 

Mauna Guru, the prince of Yogins, you are the 
preceptor of Mantra as well as Tantra being a follower 
of the school of Tirumular. You have well taught me 
the supreme universal nature* of ourSaiva Siddhanta 
Philosophy. That it teaches us that, as in a public 
kitchen, we can find all needful victuals to eat, so the 

• Lokayata it materialism. Vide note to 37th verse. 

f Svarga is' the Heaven which ia abode of Gods. This ie not 

\ The saint refers to the five evil qualities (1) Kama ( desire of 
tost), (2) Krodha (anger), (3) L&pa (covetousneae), Mada (pride) 
and (5) Mrtsara or Mlcbarya (envy). These five are the princi- 
ple had qualities giving birth to many sub-divisions. 

* c. f. last para of 39th verse (Translation) and notes. 

Ved'tgariKis* lay down the several aims of existence 
for man such as dharmat &c ; that Gnana-Marga% is 
the direct and immediate means for attaining the 
Highest End ; that we should, therefore, try to 
destroy our self-consciousness and, applying ourselves 
to such methods of reasoning as induction, analogy, 
nrgnmentfromsiglit&c,, weBhouldby Sadhana-chatu- 
shtaya^ discriminate ourselves from our Lord as well 
as this world of mnya aud get through the gradational 
steps of fiWya|| &c ; and that we can, then, reach the 
final ad^aita state of mok»ha (called Biva-sayu(jya§ in 
the Vedas) where we will be neither one or two with 
the Supreme Siva enjoying Him as All-love. 

*(jSs/^ Qpgi iSeieairi 
a-iCet.Ljiii Q sir ten a sirei] aCsnm i&ti.-SiiLir s 

Qi-ireiediJjg Quitu-'aQuiirySliLi msiei'Ji .feire&Lr.terr 

tui(jj #(giS3jr (fiojs u>/8Ga.eir 
i^(2aj.i7«ux aiB<C^ itieuentr^i stasSjftib 

Q '• & a- &i tm oat QpLj&j&tt e&GiLir 
£(n,ZiriitS(T$ Q err terpen lis Q$i:ai-ptr jsldQu&i 

* The \v.u-it ' Vcilti!:;iiii:is is the compound of vcila' nnd 'ij;nma.' 
+ W''. Here tlip reference is to the four puruehirthae (\) 
£i1ihi'mi» railed in Tamil 'Aram' (jf^ii) -means ' moral acts', (2) 
AreliR called in Tamil 'poru! ' (^v^^O means 'wealth,' (3) Eamya 
called in Tamil 'Jnbain' (g:«7-!-i) means 'pleasure*, (4) Moksha 
called in Tamil ' Vcedn ' {•=»$•) means 'emancipation." These 4 are 
also called 'purushirtha chatushtaya." 

I Gnana-niarga means path of knowledge of God- Tide also 
notes to i2nd and 37th Verses. fJhalrti-inarga or Karma-marga and 
Xoga -marga arc accessory to the guana-mar ga. 

% ' $«dhviin.c>iot\i*)ita\m are the four great. mean* or qualities for 
the Vedniuic diecipleship going by 4 technical names and meaning 
(1) discrimination of atma and anatmti, (2) a strong disregard for 
earthly and heavenly rewards, (3) qoieaeence (Sam*), Self-restraint 
(Dama), fKith (Sraddha), concentration of thongU: (Sathadbana), 
abstinence (Upaiathi), and endurance (TitikshaJ. These 6 are 
called angams or parts orprcccptB of the 3rd Sa)Shana and (4) 
an intense desire for emancipation and Salvation (ni'olsha). [Note 
how these Sndana chatushtaya have to be attained before following 
the Schrtmbnirana niarga of Sariya, Kriya Ac.} 

|| Vide notes to 27th verse for definition of Sariya, Kriya, Toga 

and Guana. 

S Siva-*ayuyij«. Lit. itit.iron.te onion wish Siva (in'JHis Absolute 
nature as Love.) This is the final Moksha or The Eternal Liberation 
mentioned in the Vedas and attainable by Gnuna alone. There are 
3 states below this, Via., (l).Sita Siloka means ' in the game world 
of Siva, and is «t taitittble by Sartya ; ' (2) Siva-Samipya means 
' in the vicinity of Siva and ie attainable by Kiriya;' (?) Sit*- 
Sarupya means 'getting likeness of the nature of EKva, and ia 
attainable by Yoga." So the True Vodantin whose end ia, "fltwanm- 
bhavaua," must have gone through the above 4 steps Sariya Sp. 
c. f- 36th verse, and end of 39th verse. [" In my Father's house, 
there are many mansions."] 



ui*4*®<3 G*G«-"« J<*/iiGS<5 <**g*>*'«* 

Afauna-ffwrtt, the prince of Yogins, you are the 
preceptor of Mantra as well as Tantrabeinga follower 
of the «eftoo2 of Tiramular. 

1 am fully convinced of the frailties of bare know- 
ledge : * I am in no - way much better than what I 
should have been, if I had not acquired this knowledge 
which I have, by learning aa well as hearing. For, 
I have oo*i yet imbibed the divine qualities like 
fellow-feeling &c, after giving np the low aspirations 
for lying, killing, pilfering, drinking and lust-fulness. 

my spiritual Guide, You know that I am simply 
bearing a human frame without ever trying to realize 
the true eod of my existence. And, you beiug the 
sole Lord of AU-powerfulnes9, 'I can never hope of 
reaching the Salvation except/ by the Light nf Tour 

May You, therefore, place me under your control 
and protect me. 

«o**/n_li_ ey Bro*a-/JT Qar Siq_4 OsaruOuSiu 

mlLox—lSs Qa/isfi &I($Gld 
Owrsf* wmtuii^Q^ssr qj«*tlo Q^.^.-'Binr 

LfaSrirggff *fifljrifggff ^£*l'urrg;. Oar sir gtte&u 
Quit jb$K<u Qt-in<BjS ©*'*W unir 

fifrili5&ff ^tq^ihijaiin b fr + flvuiio Q p£u!iQppx}i 
sutrar g(w LD6sw«ra'.i;ip-fi Su hQpfiir EytSKfi 3 'F'Qprzr 

* The Saint unravels in this verm. 1 (ho ixci-llonce of S"'c.' S.J. 
•Ikuiita School. Mere knowledge of "Sail liana elmttislttMysi ran- 
not procure tile Highest Goal ; but, trftitf ac<[nii-ina: it as a niattir 
of coarse, the pure eotil should, by miroesiVt: stub's nf Bariya, 
Kriya, Yon-' ftu^ G-imiia, rise and reach, llirimuh dial's Grace, the 
Moltshn, of SivoliamhhiU-Htm (the Sii]ii-oni<> Aillivrnirn End), c. 1 
list verse fln'l Mr. SiiLn Ron's " Discourses mi rlic Iiha«nvat-UiU" 
where against the Non-thciatic Saukhya Philosophy he oli*"rvca 
"While Parahrhamain remains passive, Pirn*i'«ft (,*« »n '.-reining 
the cosmos without it/ iutuffermtv. It is not possible (o pet rhl uf 
Pralriti or its Gititmit-- altofrethpr" i.e. (Carina which iis t lie nu'vi. 
table result of Prate-it i.' vide page 84. Edition uf KS. 

Mauna-Guru, the prince of Yogins, you are the 
preceptor of Mantra aa well as Tantra being a follower 
of the school of Tirnmular. 

Your glory surpasses the utmost stretch of expres- 
sion ; By virtue of your divine presence, the wild tiger 
is inspired to love and be sociable with the cow. 
Even the furious elephant obeys your beck and call 
and carries, aa it were, the fuel for your fire. Every 
thing is at your command ; why, the Kdma-dhenu* 
waits at your feet with readiness of will to proffer you 
any J'ood you like. 

Kings, scholars and great sages such as Suka, 
Vihna-Di'vat &c, do extol your supremacy, as the 
king of ascetics. Ycur gracious look can win the 
hearts of the niue SiddkasX of powers. 

In short it is -no wonder if both heavenly and 
earthly beings shrill come and prostrate before you. 

'(US** 5 -' u3Zif.ezst!& O sk it (t^G atr m. nieafuiip 

ps;tiri$sd ©«< 'II Q£ « tS rip ?■ IT SB s uj «w t—i$njir& 

psmitiiLBiv ffm&p Qm«i$. 
Jgjf^nASfew* etrpJjjaj u&Qsisari-i pjSujttp 

g)<afl uiSG&ani-iiLi irS&irtp. mudiitiiiptr &p$£2*> 

stiufd mriism Q^truf. {^yd 
^^LctrofJ uS*8>tpgjslL-i— Smalt par ppj&s d)ar>r 

(*iit5t-l'_ es.ipQpsRp Qfiethft—eX^. Q^£iunv s 

i£(7r,msi> Qjfi^^JsoflQ j it far uj if J SdaQet'Seer 

rL-ttQi^isiir _tj str> ip i 'i u Qg'6i<i>&r 
it. 'ivjvjQ CbiQiu.ih ^?/'^@(5 w« gosuejr 

wgiSsveuQ^ QiDzn&i cfr^Q en . (&^) 

Manna-Guru, tin. jirinee of Yogins, jou are the 
preceptor of Mniitra as well as Tantra being a follower 
of the acltsiol of Tinimijlav. 

If no '.voids of piaisc Ciin comprehend rlie .supreme 
limits jf yoni- glory, may 1 think of i-iijtnjim/' you in 
such gloriousniuKS : I ilu nrtlfiitly wish for the day 
when 1 will lie penniituil always tt> ofl'et- my revel - 
i;nti;il tvnrslti]! to yttur leet with trngfuut Bowers, 
vvtiileyoi! would be seated on the rich ornamental 

k Kaiuri'lll'i'iiii is th>- I i p'idy (•*>»' uf jileniy snjjjK'S'-'l >iij.-iv»- 

wh.iir'vrr ln-j- fjLrouriti' want*-, 

t Tin 1 ;-'- ^^l*_'■es l« v hiiijr li' tli* - irrroi}i nf nninis islmst- lJiiinU'f i* -ll 

j Tin- 'J siihllmS nf .~il]ii Tiintlirnl |"i« fl'.s, an- (1) .Sntynlnillia, 
t^^ukcxltintiMdn, (SJ Adlii-uAtlm, ( I J Vnkuli-iiwlin. tS)Jh«lhaukK. 
mitlui, (f'ij MnisViiiiidra'iiatli.i. ( 7) IJutaJndia-natliii ami (S) (ilunrnkti 

6 ijeeiti^ ; hat hi^ t;uvu'> m Uv\ is? ^ryianl nil desi'njit'nii. i lie taint 
ini'luki-a liirasi If I tic .'illii n:,l ;i i' of li'.ili/iiii,' it liy snli»>l rni..y- |ii"iyi.«l I'l-r, 



throne, surrounded by the various classes of ascetics — 
namely — those who cnn preserve their body by taking 
in dry leaves and water; and those who can do bo by 
feeding on the lunar beams like the Greek-partridge,* 
and those free from bondage of action and both day 
and night immersed in the eternal bliss of silent medi- 
tation in solitude ; and, above all, those incomparable 
Siddhas who are possessed of eight kinds of Siddhia 
or powers.t 

jy^oS&sr unuarfi® isQ)eej$iu QatitlLt—llfi 


{QpiuQevsM Qiudr*§sg>ih priraxns- isir<BQ*tu 
ernnhssct! evngip^ma Qunant— (jotf ljIili 
wi^ff^in, QaiGtun* i*'M ff (5C5 (fsuQftSvenr 

O Manna Guru, the prince of Yogins, you are the 
preceptor of Mantra ;is well as Tantra being a follower 
of the school of Tirumular. 

O my Divine Master, hard it is for ine to contend 
against the sinful Egotism : It is the fierce notion of 
self-pi opertv and as s>uch is worse than anava which 
is mere ignorance. Its evils are many and great: — 
It stupefies my intelligence and deprives it of its 
.Sidlvic'l rectitude, It does.. 1:1; i? the haughty Ravana,§ 
esteem itself as inferior to none else in the universe- 
not even to Triinnrti, i r , Brahma, Vishnu and Rudra. 

* The Greek-partridge ins called ' l'erdix nifa' said tu feed on the 
moon's beams. In the text, it is culled ' Snhora.' 

f The 8 siddhia are: — (1) itnim-< (minuteness) endowed with 
« hieh one can make hiB way into a solid rock. (3) huihimn (liftht- 
nets) endowed with which one cnn ussend lu the Solar Sphere 
■|)on a sun-beam, &c. (3) mnhimn (iiui^iiiiude) endowed witli which 
nijf cm expand himself to occupy all apace ; £4) Psupti (reach) 
endowed ivilli which one estn touch ihe moon with the tip of lin- 
ger (5) I'nibiutyi' (iinobsti-nctioii iif wish) endowed with which 
olio can, dive or float in earth as in water; (S) Vimitu (subjuga- 
tion of nature) is the power over the elements and elementary 
being); ; (7) I*ith {dominion) iu which inanimate things obey 
command; (S) I'ttls'thiimfnu'&gilit is obtaining any thing desired 
sut-li us con vi tip ne poison into ambioeia. e. f. notes to l: siddhas" 
under 21st Livid ttid vevsos. 

X Sattvic — referable to Satvit gim:i ((fondness). 

§ Bavaira is the ten-headed demon, chief of JlAkuhasas, King of 
Lanka, vanquished by Banut,- 

Heterodoxy is it* Orthodoxy and with tfata matim- 
it sits firm over my intelligence. 

upj»Q*t(g tH/tweS QmaterfrnpafrC QtL emfihlt Ct 

upftujipw SfjuS Qurenu 
up ifi®&am»f Qupp.vntir <3mtB<ut* Sskm^m 

u*Ai£iioj& Qnjtarjn tSpQunr 
Sippfioi pmtjBttj QiAaiQir&i OlojtjjOuwl^ 

QiiwpQftS ujit&GeL' uGDEtueBpaj m/ssOeui 

m.vrj»Qaiiir Qppji uxtiisto 

oij&eijQfu uia.iL/r aSgpui 
utpQpard «tD«ajjf Qf BmmQumvfr tu a if 4 &>? «S3w 

LoSbwS&a 0*«iisii tSQsa sh 
Loifit^Q GeuQiun * pips QTf, Cai^osew 

uJtrtSeoaiar, Owerer (gfTjCa/. t' 3 '*) 

O Mauna Gum, the prince of Yogina, you are the 
preceptor of , Mantra as well as Tantra being a follower 
of the school of Tirumular. • 

Being possessed of a restless mind* like a rambling 
maggot, I was not able to know the supreme effect of 
y oar grace on which I should be ever intent for my 
final liberation. And I can never expect to get it 
through the dvaitaf knowledge wht re the idea of ' I ' 
never dies out. 

If I should hear any sacred word uttered by any 
one casually, out of a pinching desire to grasp it I 
get myself into confusion and blab as in a state of 

How can I, therefore, hope to reach the true path 
of salvation after getting my good and bail karma 
equipoised ? 

But, however, Lord, I would never think of any 
thing else but that One Word which you taught me 
at my initiation. 


(To be continued). 

* Mind iB here used as representing • audakar&na ' . 

t Di«i7«=dua]istie. The dvaita achools hold that God is eter- 
nally separate from nature (mays) end' from the human soul. xThe 
dvaita practice or sadhanu a necessary unavoidable preliminiiry in 
all schools is to worship or contemplate God in the second person 
in any form. Tiiough the multitude of devotional practices failing 
under either Snriya, or Kriya or Toga are all dnaligtic? yet in tlra 
fonrth and ilolsha state of Divine Gnuna, the duality ceases and 
lapses into advaita or non-duality, since, then, the mutts lays 
down hiB Soul to and identifies himself with God. Vide note to 
27th verse. 






Siddhanta Deepika 

MADRAS, 2 1st AUGUST 18U7- 


"The author of the Tolkappij-am, Tifaivadumagni, is 
represented to have been the principal disciple of Agastya, 
deriving his name of Tolkappiyanar from his native 
place, which cunsed htm to employ it as the title of life 
great work. But it i», by no means, improbable that the 
Tolkappiyam is of oldei' origin and is a remnant of an 
earlier Dravidian literature that flourished before the 
immigration of the Erahmanical missionaries front the 
North. To thai case the Tolkappiyam, and other con- 
temporary srebaic writings, would furnish a valuable 
mine of classical and ethnological lore. 

And BY purpose in this communication is tu express a 
hope that some of the alumni of the Madras University 
may be induced to explore its recesses, in tin.- hope ol 
throwing light on the normal literature, manners, customs. 
&c, of their own land; following the example of their 
distinguished eonntrymeu in Bombay and Bonga I. 

" Attention is not now called to this object lor the lii'st 
time. Fifteen years ago Mr. Cover, supported by the 
authority of several competent Judges, pointed out how 
great is the mass of early Dravidian. especially Tamil 
literature upon which " total neglect has fallen. Over 
borne by Brabmanic legend, hated by the Brahmans, - it 
has not had a chance of obtaining the notice it so much 
deserves," "To raise tlwse hooks in prill ic estimation, 

to exhibit the true products of the Dravidian mind, would he a 
talk worthy of the ripest scholar and the mast enlightened 
Government. I would especially draw attention to the 
eighteen books that are said to have received the sanction 
of the Madura College, and are among the oldest specimen* 
of Pravidian literature. Any student of Dravidian 
writings would be able to add a score of equally valuable 
books. If these were carefully rdited they would form n body 
i,f Dmridiiot rfesff* <\f tk>> hi'dtr-rt rah'v." 

• Wedg not kuow what authority Wlins fw lUia ttureiiieiit. Slimy 
nl the clinsteet writers iu Tumil mv Bri'tnim<<i ■"■■! tl'i- l.mst Tiiunl 
Pautlit now ik a, Brulnmip. 


So wrote Sir Walter Elliot, it c. s. i , r. b. s , with 
almost hia dying breath, JO years ago, in a contribu- 
tion to the "Indian Antiquary," on "the Importance 
of Early Dravidian Literature " We dare say that when 
this lamented scholar wrote this, scarcely any people 
noticed it and pondered over it; and we quote this to- 
day,, as wa chanced on the paragraph only recently and 
to show that the work wc have set before ourselves, 
however unworthy we may be to fulfil it, is not an 
i^troble one and barren of results. The fulfilment 
will, however, depend upon what enthusiun these words 
will awaken in the hearts of every tine South Indian, 
and what an arnou nt of self-sacrifice, tli/jse few scholars 
able to do the work are able to undergo. In repudi- 
ation of the unfounded aspersion cast against Brah- 
mins, however, we need only point out the fact thai from 
Agastiya downward* tu the present time, there were 
no more great ami ardent scholars in Tamil than fc-w 
the ranks of Brahmins v and iu I li js prts-ent umh r- 
tnking of ours, "iir Brahmin friends fmve lent th 
strongest sympathy and encouragement frcin 
beginning, and it was only yesterday we heard h-jin 
valued H rain n in Friend to the following efTec". Wl 
have vast treasures of wisdom locked up in oar 
ancient Tamil Literature. I would ask yon to confine- 
your labour to translation Ac, from the Tamil litera- 
tim'. The glamour of the Sanscrit literature still 
holds sway of the public miod both Indian and foreign. 
The field of Tamil is completely neglected. The 
resources of money and labour one can secure should 
be entirely devoted towards the resurrection of the 
Tamil literature — especially on the philosophic and 
tbeos"iiIii.' side. I hope the first issue of your 
journal is hl augury of a bright future for the Tamil 
literature." We print also another such communi- 
cation elsewhere. The fact is that Brahmins did not 
neglect the Tamil at all, but the revival in all Indian 
learning, after a very dark age of somnolency and 
very nearly death, was solely due to the great efforts 
.made by a few noble European scholars, and those 
happening to be all living or connected with Northern 
India, Sanscrit learning attracted their attention, and 
its treasures were so vast as to absorb them altogether 
in the task ; and as such Tamil was hardly noticed 
and the cry of a few was a cry in the wilderness ; and 
the Rev. G. M. Cobb in writing to a friend of ours say-, 
that thuugh he called the attention of Prof. Max 
Midler I'«j some of thesj Tamil 1'liilosophic works aud 
pressed mi him to issue a translation ol .some of them 
in one of the Volumes of the sacred Books of the 



East, there was hardly any response ; and he observes 
with truth, " justice often seems to come late, but it 
does come; and these works winch are so dear to you 
will receive their meed of honor." We say ' Amen,' 
and our friends need no further assurance, ns they 
know fall well that our heart is in our task. 


TrVfi refer to an article entitled ' Wisdom and 
Worship' in an issue of the Brahmavadin dated 5th 
June 1397. The first paragraph is devoted to the 
statement and exposition of the two postulates of 
existence, according to t\w Sankhj-as, namely nature 
and souls and tho next paragraph shows how unten- 
able this theory is, in the view of the Vedanti. and the 
article proceeds in its first half to expound the view 
of the Vedanti, on the same subject- As the. article deals 
with some of the most fundamental questions connected 
with Hindu Philosophy we proceed to-day to examine 
some of yheso statements contained in the first part of 
the article only, leavingthfi question of worship to bo 
discussed hereafter. According to Sankhya there is 
nature (Pradana) which changes and manifests all 
phenomena and there arc an infinite, number of souls 
which being simple cannot chringe and must, therefore, 
be different from nature. Nature works out nil 
phenomena tor the liberation of tho soul, and libera- 
tion consists in the son] discriminating that it is not 
nature (Pradanah The soul is omnipresent also. 
The Vedanti answers that this is not a perfect system. 
If nature is simple, and tho soul is also a simple, 
there will ho two'simples, and Hie soul being omni- 
present, nature must lie omnipresent also and then 
nature will be beyond time and space and all causation 
and no change is possible as .such in nature. There 
is rims an impossibility of having two simples and 
two absolutes. How does the Vedantin solve this 
problem? His solution is this .■ — Because according 
l>> tho Sankhyas, there must bo a snul apart from 
nature, for the reason that nature in all its modifica- 
tions, from gross matter up to chitta, or the intellect, 
is simply insentient (even the mind-stuff is insentient), 
so there must be some sentient being as the motive 
power behi ud nature making the mind think and 
nature work. Now, says the Vedantist, this sentient 
being which is behind the whole universe is what we 
call God, and consequently this universe is not wholly 

(the italics are ours) different or apart from Him. It 
is but Himself, who has name how (the italics are ours) 
become this universe. He is notonly-tbe instrumental 
cause of the universe but is also the material onnae 
thereof. A cause is never altogether different from its- 
effect and an effect is but its own cause reproduced 
iimnother form." All Vedautiats accept these proposi- 
tions it is stated, namely first, that God is both the 
instrumental and material cause of this universe and 
that everything that exists is He j and seccnady, that 
souls are also part of God, sparks of that infinite 
fire, and an Upanishad text is quoted in proof of thie. 
No, it is said further down, it is no spark but the 
burning log itself, in as much as Biahman can have 
no parts. ' Then how Can there be so many souls.' 
We aie led into another simile, tho oft-repeated simile 
of the sun and its myriad reflections in different 
particles of water ; " so all these souls are but reflec- 
tions of the Brahman and are not real. They are not 
the real 'I,* the One undivided Being ; men, women 
brutes are mere reflections of him and are unreal. 
There is but one Infinite Being and he appears as 
' you ' and ' me ' and the appearance of distinctions 
is all delusion. " This apparent division of Him is 
caused by looking at Him through the net work of 
time and space and causation. The Ego is He, the 
Non-Ego is He. They are not part of Him, but the 
whole of Him. " It is the Eternal knower who stands 
behind all phenomena; He himself is the phenomena. 
He is both the subject and object, He is tho Ego and 
the Non-Ego." Here we might pause before we 
proceed to the rest of the paragraphs. 

In the first place, we must beg leave to state that 
the criticism of the Sankhya proceeds on a mere word- 
quibble; the word that is translated 'simple' is, we 
believe, 'Avyaktam,' that source of fruitful dis- 
pute between a number of learned heads, like the 
late Mr. T. Subba Kow, the Light of the East, the 
Thinker and the Brahmavadin itself <fcc, &c, i. e. 
where the word occurs in the Gita. The whole mis- 
take is, no doubt, due to Dot remembering that this 
word aud others like, Prana, Purusha, Atma, Kshotra 
&c. are used in the older works in a number of accept- 
ations and any argument based ou such a verbal re- 
semblance is sure to end in fatal error. Now in regard 
to this word ' Avyakta ' it is used in the 10th Sutra of 
Sankhya Karika, to distinguish mulaprakriti from its 
own products ; aud the commentator no doubt says 
that the distinction might apply to the soul also. 
The word might itself be applied to the soul but then 


iteoly means, ancaueed and causeless. And Oolbrooke 
translates it db undiscrete. The Srd sutra makes 
dear this distinction in the ve' >' beginning " Mature 
is no production ; seven principle* are production* and 
productive; sixteen are productions (unproductive). 
The rou\ is neither a production nor productive." 
Herein lies all the difference, between the soul as 
Avyakta and nature (Pradana) :<? Avyakta and the 
mental and sensory planes. Nature itself occupies a 
higher position, is more pervad Ing than the Intellect 
and Intellect is more pervading than the senses and so 
on. That is to say, Intellect is omnipresent and senses- 
are not when in relation to tlie senses themselves. But 
Intellect is not ; wheD in relative to Pradana, and Pra- 
dana js omnipresent so far as regards its own produc- 
tions bat its omnipresence is nothing when in the 
presence, of the soul, since the latter is the superinten- 
dent, the enjoyer, and the former cease to exist when 
the eonl i3 in a state of abstraction. As such, the word 
omnipresence, itself is a relative term, as space itself is, 
and it is absurd to conclude that nince both are called 
simple and omnipresent, ergo, they must be two 
absolutes and two such impossible thiugs. We will 
explain ourselves more fully. Take for instance tbe 
five senses, the eye, the ear &c- The eye covers a 
certain sphere in its operation but it is limited [ ft 
cannot comprehend what trie ear can perceive and 
the ear cannot do what the nose can ieel and bo on. 
Each sense in fact is limited and unpervading; but 
take the Intellect it connection with this. Tlie 
Intellect is omnipresent. It both sees mid hears and 
smells &o. It covers a greater sphere and all the 
spheres covered by its own productions-, the senses. 
Bat take the intellect ;Buddhi) itself in its relation 
to soul. The soul is sentient and Btiddhi is insentient. 
The latter is no where when the soul is in itself. As 
snch, soul is more and really omnipresent than Pr.i- 
dana or nature. That is to say, there are different 
planes of existence, and different grades of VijupSka 
Vyapti. The one lowest is Vyapti and the one higher 
is Vyapaka and this higher itself is Vyapti when com- 
pared with some thing higher than itself aud so on, 
till we arrive at n Being who is most omnipresent and 
beyond which our thought and mind cannot penetrate. 
This view of the Sankhja has no doubt not present- 
ed itself to the Vedanti and what the latter has 
however in his mind is the old riddle, how can two 
things coexist, and one be omnipresent. Like all such 
riddles, this is based on a fallacy, in not taking note 
of the facts above presented, about the essential differ- . 

eoce of Pradana and Soul The riddle supposes that 
two things are of the same kind, of the same quantity, 
length, breadth, width and of the same density or 
tenuity &c. If they are so, no doubt it will be an 
impossibility. But we contend that tilings of different 
densities and tenuities can fill and overlap one over 
the other and much more when one is sentient and 
Chit and the other is non-sentient and Achit. For 
instance, there can be no two things so contrary in 
nature as light and darkness, And do they coexist or 
not, or are they one and the same ? To the objection 
of the Vedanti, that darkness is no padartha, we have 
only to instance the recent discoveries by our own 
Indian Scientist, I mean Dr. Bose, who could demons- 
trate the. presence of invisible rays of light in a pitch 
dark room by means of his instrument. What does 
this mean ? TJie ray of light has been too thin as to 
be covered up by the more gross darkness. When a 
lamp is brought it could dispel the darkness itself. 
But only within a- certain radius. Then a bigger light 
a gas bght, an electric light of vast number of candle 
powers but all these pale away* before the brilliant 
light of the S '.in- There is thus such a merger of one, 
the less powerful, in one more tenuous : are not all 
these summed up in the simple sentence " Nachichcbit- 
sannithau/ ' u-i ■&>& j ^m ^swiuti tf^Q^fe'ij '. 'In the 
piesence of the Sat, every thing else is Sunynm (^non- 
existent — non-apparent ? 

Saint Meikanda Deva adds As before tlie Perfect 
:md Eternal Intelligence, the imperfect and acquired 
intelligence 1 (falsehood) is shorn of its light, it is there- 
fore established that in the presence of tho Sat, Asat 
loses its light." Aud the illustration implied in this is 
amplified in the following verse, " Evil Asat ceases 
to exist before Him, as docs darkness before the Sun." 
The term Asat has itself been the parent of many mis- 
conception^, in the east and the west, and different 
intrepreters of Sankara himself explain it in different 
ways Here is what a critic of Van I Deussen says. 
■' Kant is mostly credited with having proved that there 
is something behind or beneath the " reality " of our 
senses, which these cannot fathom. {Jtfjpfitut), 
The European scientists say suceringly What of that ; 
if we cannot get at it, let us ignyro it ! And on the 
other hand, the KWkantian Metaphysicians say : No, 
this is the only reality ; theiefore .ill the rest is useless 
rubbish, only fit for momentary amusement : aud that 
is all. 

"That is the western conception of the Indian term 
Maya (Asat) indeed a rubbish conception. And 



mistaken by this illusion, western philosophers have 
declared that Eastern philosophy and particularly 
Vedantism and Buddhism, are • Akoamism' i. e. that 
they deny the existence of the universe altogether. 
An incredible absurdity ! Is not the real meaning 
of Sankara easy enough to understand '■ Every our 
knows tliat there are different states of consciousness ; 
that of nn animal is different from that of ;i man, that 
of a savage different from that of a savant, that of a 
waking man different from that of a dreaming man, 
and all these are different from that of a sage in 
Samadhi. Now, it is a matter of course, that the 
'reality' of a waking mutt is different from that 
' reality ' which be conceives as such when he is 
dreaming, and both are very different from that 
'reality' or those different states of 'reality' of 
which ho becomes conscious when he enters Snshnpti 
and Turiya, and all I ltese are again other 'realities' 
than that as which the Mukta * realizes.' Atman 
viewed from the standpoint of any of these different 
states of consciousness' alt the other conceptions of 
'reality' appeal' as Maya, as illusion or as unreal. 
The material scientist, together with most European 
philosopher, would even not hesitate a minute to 
declare the alleged realisation of Atman an illusion, 
although ho would not deny that this might he 
some state of consciousness." 

And by the way, he objects to translating Avidyn as 
ignorance or nescience, bat as not Vidya or not yet 
wise or other than wise. That is, Asat does not mean 
non-existent, but not Bat or other than sat. This is 
Sankara's view according' to Dr. Hubbe Schleiden ; 
and this is tho view we hnvo taken trouble to expound 
above, and yet how many followers of Sankara 
hesitate before reading Maya as illusion and 
delusion, and A vidya as ignorance and nescience. In 
the very article under review, we read in one sentence 
that each soul is a spark, a part; in the nest sentence, 
no, it is not a part but the whole of the Brahman. 
In the very next sentence, all these souls are but 
rejie.rions of the Brahman, and are not real. '' Men, 
women and animals &c, are but reflections of Him, 
and aie unreal in thcniHclues." If they are mere 
reflections, and unreal, how is it reconcilable with 
the statement, that each soul is not even part but the 
whole of Brahman. The whole argument is made up 
by the use of similes and by not sticking to one, but 
by jumping from one into another, to meet the difficulty 
arising in the former. Either the argument must 
proceed an simple facts and inferences, and without 

the use of similes, but when it ie attempted to be 
proved solely from figures, then no apology should be 
presented that it is only a figure and it should not be 
strained. The simile was expressly used for demons- 
trating to the ignorant, how the thing is possible and 
conceivable and when the iguorant man following the 
simile, asks if the same antecedents are present in 
the thing compared to warrant the conclusion, what 
answer does the Vedanti give him ? "This apparent 
division of Him (as ' you ' and me and the dog) is 
caused by looking at Him, through the net work of 
time; space and causality." ' Looking at Him,' indeed ! 
"When ? And by whom ? How is this ' Looking at Him,* 
and this delusion possible, before the actuai division 
itself ? Tho operation of division of Him into ' you * 
and 'ine' and animal must precede, the operation 
of ' yon ' and • me ' ike., looking upon each other 
and Him delusively. Does the delusion come in 
before the evolution of ' Brahman ' into * you ' and 
' me ' and ' animal,' or after such evolution '( To any. 
thinking being, it must occur, that this -delusion must 
have occurred before and not sifter; and the Brahma- 
vadin sees this, and states below that there will be 
in the universe a final duality, Atman and delusion 
(mark here and elsewhere, the word delusion in simply 
used as a synonym for Maya) and this objection is 
brushed aside on the ground that delusion is no 
existence, and that to call otherwise, is idle sophistry ! 
And yet 'you ' and ' me' and others were all this 
while under a delusion ! Were we or were we not ? 
Is that fact or a delusion itself ? Is the evolution of 
God into men, women and animals, .is that a fact or 
not ? If a fact, is the questioa, ' how is this evolution 
brought about/ a possible question or an impassible 
question ' If not a fact, why is the statement made 
in another pnragiaph, that there are perfect men and 
imperfect men, men like Christ, Buddha and Krishna 
who have to be worshipped and men like' ourselves, 
who have to worship them. This evolution of God iuto 
man and animals is put in one place on a possible and 
rational basis, in that God wants to know himself, 
see Himself and realize Himself by means of His 
reflexions (why and wherefore it is not stated) in as 
much He cannot know and see himself otherwise, in 
the same way as we, on earth, cannot see our faoe ex- 
cept in a mirror ! A gain we ask, is the distinction 
between a perfect man and imperfect man real or not? 
And does our learned brother contemplate the pos- 
siblity of seeing his beautiful face distorted in a 
mirror ? Whose fault was this ? It was our brother's 


fcolt in not choosing a good mirror. And does he 
mean to attribute to the moat Intelligent such fault in 
not choosing euch a vessel in which He can see 
Himself and know himself to the beBt advantage ? The 
perfect cannot seek to know Himself io the imperfect 
and the ignorant and the wicked -and sinful and 
sorrowing and suffering. If all this is a play of His 
and no anoh distinction, as thesim perfect, the wicked 
and sinful and sorrowing and suffering, and all this is 
hallucination, myth, non-existence (we use his own 
choice words') why should nny man aspire to -be » 
good man, a perfect man, a JiVan mukta, why should 
be realize his identity with the absolute ? God in try- 
ing to realise Himself (for his sport or for what ?) 
He became man and woman and brute and look at the 
bflther, of thiB man, woman, or brute, doing good acts, 
acts without attachment, real tapns, yoga and. gnana 
to realise his identy with the Absolute! What guarantee 
is there that after all this bother, Jivan mukta may 
not again be differentiated from the Absolute into a 
man, woman or animal ? How senseless, and vain fill 
theseefforts seem, how ignoble the purpose of creation 
and evolution ? To the question why does the Perfect 
become the imperfect, which question, our brother 
states in all its various forms, vulgar and highly 
philosophic, our brother's answer is that this question 
is "an impossible one; it should not be put- at all ! 
We have already pointed out, how inconsequential 
this question and anwer is. But the same question 
has been put in and answers attempted by learned 
men who are of our brother's ilk ; and these answers 
are various and conflicting in themselves. Of these, 
Swmini Vivekananda gets most glory. His answer is 
* I do not know/ Mr. Mukopadhayaya replies that 
the Swami is wrong and that the Perfect does not 
become the imperfect, God does not become man. 
Man is only a reflection aud as such cannot be 
God. Accordingtothe'Brixftmai;«din.'manis a reflexion, 
is nnreal ; but the unreality itself is unreal and as such 
man is God. . And so no question nrises of the Perfect 
and the Imperfect. According to Paul Denssen, 
the answer is, 'The never ceasing new creation 
of the world is a moral necessity, connected with 
the doctrine of samsara. ' " A moral necessity for 
Atman ? What a contradictio in adjecb> V exclaims his 
critic* " Atman aa ire all agree is that which is be- 
yond all necessity, and necessity, that is, causality 
reigns or exists only in our manifested world, of iudi- 

• Dr. Rijttbe Bchlsiden. page 237, Juuunky 1H95 ' Thcoaopliiii.' 

■vidual consciousness of any sort;" And the critic's 
own explanation is that existence is the manifestation 
of the will to exist and this will is triahnu, tanha, the 
desire for enjoyment Well whose will we ask, who 
desires forenjoyment? The Absolute, the Satchidauanda, 
or any other? What, call this hell on earth an enjoyment 
for Him ? Wo leave our learned Doctor to fight out 
Professor Deu«sen by himself and proceed to state 
another learned lady's opinion. If we remember 
correctly, she said, Ishwara evolves into man and brute 
to gather experience, to improve himself by means of 
his animal sheaths and that there cotihl be no perfect 
Brahman, at one time ; it goes on improving itself. 
day after day. And that if the Veda repeats the cry 
that there is a bourne from which there is no return. nn 
return, it is a mere make believe. And all these arc 
learned expounder's of Sankara's school and who is 
right? Can we ask this question or is our question 
captious ? The Siddanti's answer is flint the question 
itself is based on a fallacy, an assumption. The far:t 
assumed is that the "Perfect becomes the Imperfect- 
Is this a fact proved ? Dor>= God really become man 
and brute ? what is the proof of this, let alone Yedie 
texts and the desire to reach a high sounding philoso- 
phic unity ? It is this fancied desire to generalize every 
thing into one, that led to the Greek philosophers to 
postulate number and water and lire as the final and 
ultimate cause of all things. Why not leave bad. good 
and evil as they are ? Why should jou refer the evil hi 
the good, impure to the pur« ? Will not silence in this 
respect be golden ? Will not Mowmuii in this case be 
real Gnannm ? 

Well, we will hero go back to our statement 
of what the Sankhya meant when lie postulated 
a Pradana and Soul or .SouU. (The learned Editor of 
the " Light tif the East " h;..s evidently fallen into 
an error where in his account "f Ancient, Rankhya 
system, he opines that according to Ancient "vmkliya 
and Gita, there only Purusha and not many" 

Puiushas. The laMak*" us due total; toft that, in the 
enumeration of the padai'tha*, the singula!- only i-s 
used a mere technical n.-sip' as in such phrase, -Jivesh- 
waia Jagat, Chit Achit Ishw;o.i, Pathi Pnsn and Pass. 
All the words used are in -onyalai" and it cannot mean 
that the respective belt' old mean to postulate only 
one Jiva or one Ch:E or one l*a«u. In e.\phiii»ng 
each, the explanation w- 111 br that the Jiva 

souls arc many. Jn tin- -j;iiiic way, (he earlier 
sutias of Sankhyus P«tint«ha the -1111.01 1;. -r 

used but the sitfewjiienl -ntrns proi'it'd r -tain 



mat tire Purusha are multitudinous' Prmbma is real 
:md*it is the cause, and its effect the phenomena aro 
jilso iml, as the effect subsists ai. .idy in the cause 
mid as POT learned brother approvingly puts it, an 
fffect i-s its own cause reproduced in another form, 
and we hope the following sentence from Dr. Bn. us 
lectures, will equally meet without- brothev's approval. 
"' That the form »f the body is only another name 
r>u- the relative position of the parts that constitute 
it Mid that the tonus of the hotly me nothing but 
the body itself." It' so, why should the cause be 
fuisidered real and the. effect nnreal, as against the 
view of Sauldiyas by Vedantis? If the Maya is pheno- 
mena, and effect, why should it be unreal, when the sub- 
f.iuce and cause is real ? The relation of cause avid 
effect has, however, to be kept separate* from the 
relation of substance and phenomena "and these two 
from the questions of rtj»]ity and delusion. In the 
second paragraph however, Our brother identities 
the Sankhya's -Pradana with his own Maya and the 
Sankhya's Purusha with bis own God or Brahman. 
If so, why attempt any criticism of the Sankhya. 
it is alf a quibble about words ? They practically 
postulate the same and mean the same things. Then 
why is it the Sankhya is called by Sankara 'Nivi- 
shwara Sankhya' ' Godless or Atheistic Sankhya' and 
the Philosophy of the Gita as Seshwara Sankhya or 
the Theistic Sankhya. The word Sankhya meaning 
primarily number meant with K&pila and Krishna 
a theory or philosophy. Compare for instance a 
similar chantre in the Tamil word 'gtgtot' meaning num- 
ber and in the distich " srsrorgpsti) er^m^w semQasTeur^ 
?r§w, t " ' srsror* meaning logic and philosophy. The 
following quotation from the Gita itself will explain 
the difference between the two schools. 

" There arc 'tiro Pnrushas' in this world t one des- 
tructible and one indestructible, the ctrxtrwUbts if 
S'ircfilhiithani Call things), $he indestructible is called 
ilm Kntastha." (Ck<q>trr XV Ki-J 

Well look how this verse runs ; it mentions onlv 
two pnrushas, instead of mentioning three, as arising 
from the next verso but there is a purpose in so 
mentioning two Pnrushas • it is seemingly to reiterate 
tilt; accepted postulate of the Parvapateha School to 
pliable it to state the Siddhant'i view in the next 
vpi*p which is 

" The ' Para ma Pttntsha ' i* verify unofhry declared 
»* the ' ParatwfiMn.' He who pcrrades and mHai)u4h 
tin- three worlds, the indent nutihh Ishwara." 

Look again the steps that follow one over the other 
in the next verse. 

" Since I exe.l the destructible, (first Purusha) and 
are more excellent than the indestructible (the second 
Purusha), inthe world and m the Veda, lam proclaim- 
ed Puntshothama " (third Purusha). 

Be it noted here that the word Purusha simply means 
a category, a Padavtha, as when we speak of the Thri- 
padarthaor Tatwatriyam. Note again how in verse 19, 
chapter I'd, the first two Purushas are mentioned as 
(by its more appropriate 1 names Prakriti and Purusha; 
and the same definition of these two is given in verses 
20 and 2 L as by the Sankhya ; and a further step 
beyond .Kapila is taken by Sri Krishna in postulating. 

" .4 spectator and jwrmitter, supporter and enjoyer, 
Maltettlnvara, thus is styled the Paramatman, in this 
body tht j Paramapurusha." 

And then a most beautiful passage about the dis- 
tinction of these three Padarthas and of different 
Gnaus, Pasagnan, Pasugnan, and Pathignan occurs' 
The Lokayatha only knows his body and has no 
knowledge of his own self or anything higher. 
According to the Nirishwaia Sankhya and the Vedau- 
tin, there are or seem to exist only two things Prakriti 
and Soul, Maya and Atman and the liberation consists 
m distinguishing his own self as different from the 
Prakriti or Maya, delusions. This is Pasugnan or 
Atinagnan. According to the Seshwara Sankhya, 
he sees and learns to distinguish Prakriti from 
his self and his self from the Highest one (verse 29), 
as AUni-thn and Xurtlin, and knowing the nature of this 
One, he reaches T! rah manhood. ( Verse 30 chapter 1 3). 
Tt is ;d>o to he remarked particularly that in the whole 
Gita, in innumerable p:isssiges,:isinthe one cited above, 
the knowledge ut the Supreme, the devotion whollv to 
him, is put forward as the highest path of attaining 
liberation, ami not the Atinagnan doctrine that 
tin- knowledge of the individual self as- implied 
in the phrase Know Thyself,' is the highest attain- 
ment. We Lteg leave again to quote Dr. Hubbe 
Srbleiibn. simply tn show how this latter theory is 
repttjrimn! In followers of Sankara. 'Indeed there 
eau hi' mi more fatal error than to believe with 
those further advanced Western philosophers that 
Jnutmin M'dishfi means nothing else but the intel- 
lectual conception, Mintifnu '.AJvaita), ittrthing else but 
the intellectual enjoyment of a pvond theory.'' 

\\ hat we hare aid fill now will convince om- 
reailers tlisir there is another wkle to these questions 



and that they do uot Btand alone where the SankyaB 
and Vednntis left. According to this view, the Sankyas 
are correct no doubt bo far as they go, in postulating, 
Prakrifci and Purusha and the Vedanti is quite correct 
in his identification of these two with' his Maya and 
Brahman. There is but a thin partition between the soul 
or man of the Sankhya and the letter's Brahman In 
fact man is God. In such indciitification of man with 
God. what results is that man's intelligence does not 
pass to the postulating and realizing a Higher Being 
than himself ; and the Brahman of the Vedanti is only 
so in name. The third school postulate? this third 
Pridartha, differing from the soul or Atman of either 
school, whom the latter cannot know except with the 
grace of the "!rd Padartha, and though it might Le 
correct to say that man cannot know himself, it will 
bo bhisphcm.His tn say that God cannot know himself. 
This will beattributing an human imperfection to the 
most High and to limit his nature. How do we know 
that He cannotknow Himself, when we cannot know our 
own selves nor Him without His Grace. Consider 
the following passage from Saint Meikimdn Deva. 
" When the soul unites itself to God and feels His 
Aral (Love), God covers ifr with His Supreme Bliss 
mi becomes ant with it. Witt fas not know Himself 
who is understood by the soul through the intelligence 
of the sovX?" The next passage we are going to quote 
will show clearly that God has not manifested His 
glorious Truth to one people and in one clime .ilonc. 
" Why may not the absolute Being be self-conscious V 
asks a Christian Divine in almost the saint* words. " To 
deny this to Him, would be to deny to Him one of the 
perfections which even finite beings may have,"* The 
question remains, what then is the necessity for all 
this evolution nnd resolution. The answer is con- 
tained in a simple sentence in the first sutra of 
Sivagnannbotka namely ' u>sf ■T 1 jfftep4ij>.'' The second 
Padartha in our categories aud n*.t the third, is im- 
perfect or more correctly is shrouded by tiroes, which 
has to be removed like the colors on a, crystal so 
that its own pristine purity may be apparent :md 
it can reflect and realize the Glory and Presence of 
God in all its brightest effulgence. This existence 
and resolution is due to the will of this lower being, 
Atman to perfect itself and the will of the Highest 
oomes into play to enable the soal to work out its 
own salvation. The Jchcha, Guana and Kriya Sakti 
of the Lerd induces the Ichcha, Onana and Kriya 

• Bar. J. Ivanafc'i ' la God knowtbie,' p*e» ■*•■ 

sakti of the individual soul and herein God's Grace 
and Lovo and omnipotence (is manifested- The 
exercise of the Divine Will is not for enabling itself 
to exist, free from Samssxa, not for perfecting itself, 
not for knowing, seeing or realizing itself, not Tor its 
sport or pleasure, not for no purpose, but it is simply 
to help and aid the poor soul in its attempt to effect 
all these things. How well does our Saint Thayuma- 
navar realize this conception of God's great Beneficence 
in the following line. 

This view postulates three Padarthas, ami it may be 
called Dualism or Dwaita or anything of the sort, 
but how this view is the strict Adwaitha also, true 
monism, we will demonstrate in afntm-e article. 


A HioHi.Axn Invi,r.. 

{Continued from Vatji 18). 

Tre maid continues her address to tli* mother and 
sets forth the purticnlais in the lore and courtship of 
her lady find her lover. 

" While we were standing so, the fields were entered 
by a Pugwe elephant, and were being laid waste 
through the negligence of the watchman, who had 
pono to sleep over his pot of date-toddv, verv con- 
siderately handed over to him by his wife with gazelle 
eyes, dwelling in the low hut thatched with millet 
stalks. The man got up with rage and aimlessly sped 
his fiery snakelike diirts and raised a halloo and 
whistle after it in which other* al*n joined, which 
became tremendous and shook the whole forest ; and 
the elephant driven O'lt from the fields, with rut and 
rage, snapping trees and branches and striking its 
majestic trunk on the ground, and raising a roar tike 
that of h Idtick cloud in tii« rainy sea^tin, came upon 
«s unawares and suddenly hkn the veritable Black 
Death. We were paralysed with fear aud did not know 
where to fly for life, aud forgetting oar modesty, more 
dear to »s than our life, we run to liiin (The lover oi 
of her lady) for protection, the brighr bells tinkling 

* daw, and - a >*^ « r out i»f tvhicli in tlrriyed tliawucd *_ 
whittle with lip* (*•--:- -■- -*#*',' 




roond onr feet, *nd stood shaking uith fear as tlie 
dancing peacock " l afreiuy* The young hero seeing 
our danger, most intrepidly aimed his unerring shaft 
at the beautiful forehead of the magnificent tusker, 
and the blocd flowed in torrents oyer that spotted face, 
like unto the ground where cattle are slaughtered in 
fulfilment of vows tr> God Mmmga; and the elephant 
not being able to bear the pain, turned its back on us 
and fled away. (This was the second rcusOn which 
linked both in love and we know what fruitful theme 
this is to European novelists to build love on gratitude 
for some act performed or benefit conferred!. 

" While we were standing-, we again jumped into 
the foaming torrent in play, with our fingers 
locked in each others palm, as in a garland of 
flowers ; but the current was too strong for us, and 
our lower limbs fell lifeless, and we were being 
carried down like the tender plantain trees, on tlie 
river bank uprooted by the dashing waves. When 
mv master, jumping into the stream took my lady 
in his arms and embraced her, assured her in sweet- 
tones that lie will not let her be carried down by 
the flood and that by, the same chance, ho will not 
let her go from him either, and wiped off her 
bright face with his hands and lookinjr at me, lie 
laughed, hinting that I should permit a long course 
of courtship so happily begun. My yonng mistress 
overcome with modesty and shame, struggled to get 
herself free from his embrace but he will not let 
her go, and pressed her only more closely to his 
bosom." This completes the last link in love. The 
chaste Indian woman will never allow herself to be 
touched by any male except her own husband and 
it is considered the highest offence for any to touch 
a female, and if an unmarried female comes to be 
touched by a male, it will become the subject of a 
qnarrel which could be set at rest only if the 
parties are marriageable relations, by actual marriage. 
Europeans could not possibly conceive and recog- 
nize how far and to what highest pitch of delicacy 
this sense oF modesty on the part of Indian women 
has been carried and to-day we can find in most 
women this sense as fresh as ever and a tremor will 

• Tiiis is a moet beautiful hv«re. We are all familiar with the 
aimih of peacocks and women; but this is new and beautiful and 
true We bam scon the beautiful peneoek in the seaffirj Temple 
a,t Tiruclitrutlnr, dance for hours together, and every few seconds, 
there in u tremor nnrt rustle heard (yor cannot see it) passing 
through it» whole plumage, which is moet beautiful and which is 
exactly tli" point herein noticed l>y the poet. £*'. a peculiar 
word inrimini; siiarh ur sudden. 

be seen to "pass through their whole frame, if 
another male comes to touch them even by accident. 
We dare say European ladies too could not be 
strangers to this feeling. It is all a matter of train- 
in g and habit Once a particular sense had been 
developed in a particular way, it will be too hazardous 
to-try to destroy it, by introducing what we might 
fnncy a* good by observing it to be fashionable among 
a differently constituted people'. The meaning of the 
phrase a»esmu}'-i lSi^^/tot- will disclose the facts as 
we set out above, and in this place in the idyll, the 
lover having touched her by sheer accident, she felt 
bound irrevocably to him and the maid therefore 
pleads for her mistress, that she was not at all 
responsible for having entered into this love. 

Here follows a description of the hill country of 
which this yonng hero is the chief j and tJiis des- 
cription contains in itself a iigure, called e-er.j^sw,© 
e_fi.<.oto (an implied or embedded simile) and we 
shall set forth the same.. '" The deep pool?, on these 
rocky sides strewn with black pepper, brimmed with 
the sweet juices from the ripe mango and jack-fruits 
and flowed ont drowning the bees and flies that 
swarmed to taste them ; and the peacock having 
partaken of it as fresh water and having got tipsy 
shook tho whole hill side with its dance, just as a dan- 
cing girl dancing in crowded arena on nfestive occasion, 
to the tune of sweet music, gets nervous by the sbaip 
sound of the cymbals " (The implied meaning is : the 
rocky sides strewn with pepper is the village with its 
inhabitants; and the pool is the habitation, of the_ 
chief ; and the juices of friuts is the young chief ; born 
of his parents ; and the peacock drinking the juice ia 
the young lady; and the joy of the peacock is her joy 
at this union of two hearts ; t^ud the shaking of the 
hill side is her sorrow at the approaching separation). 
Here follows another description which contains a 
similar implied figure. "He was the chief of the 
country where the hills are carpeted like an assembly 
room with the red and cool flowers of Senganthal 
thrown down from mountain heights reaching the skies, 
by playful nymphs, crushed a little and yet lovely. 
{Here the other meaning ih that the young hero born 
of superior lineage, ccn-descended to form this mes al- 
liance and gave joy anddignity to his lover) . " The chief 
of these beautiful highlands, this lovely hero, noticing 
that the shyness on my lady's part was due-to the fact 
thatshe desired legal marriage before the con summation 
of their love, praised the duties and joys of a wedded 



life, prayed to God if a ruga (Skanda) who presided on 
these giddy heights, and sworti before him that lie will 
never be unfaithful to his first love, and in ratification 
of bis oath drank the limpid water of the stream. And 
my yoaog lady was satisfied; and they spent tbe rest 
of the day enjoying themselves under the cool shade of 
deep caverns and flower laden sholas (There is a walk 
and shola called lover's retreat in Eodikunal) on these 
hills. The lovers saw the Sun, riding on his chariot 
drawn with seven horses, go behind the western hills, 
followed by eventide; and io !■ the antelopes gather- 
ed under the shade of trees, and the kine turned 
towards their paddock calling nfter their straggling 
calves; and the nightingale perched on the top of thu 
tall palmyra cooed after its absent mate, with its bill 
and thioat resonant and shaped like a blowing horn ; 
the snake left its gem and its lair in search of prey ; 
and the SOng and tbe piping of the shepherd boys, came 
floating aloft from all sides, and the water lily opened 
its petals wide ; and the brahmans began to perform 
their Sandyavandana : and the beautiful bangled girls 
lit their wealthy houses and set about their evening 
operations; and. the hill men who had to rest in their 
bamboo platforms erected on trees, also lit their night 
fires; and the clonds began to darken the mountain tops; 
the forest began to echo with the noises of its native 
dwellers, and the cry of the- birds rose higb. In such 
a fashion the evening came. And we turned our steps 
homeward and the young man follows J us like the bull 
after its mate, and assured my lady that he will 
surely marry her and till that is brought about, 
he begged her in graceful words to retain her 
love for him and thus tried to remove hei" sorrow and 
lighten the way and he thus followed us up to the very 
tank, where we get all our drinking water and situated 
near the fort gates in which the noises of big drums 
never cease, and took his leave of us. Since then, he 
would come to seek a secret interview with my lady 
at night. While on eueh errands, he will return home 
without seeing my lady, if the watchmen were about 
or the dogs barked or you were wakeful, or the moon 
appeared on the horizon. Sometime he would go 
away disappointed, but not with any offence, if we d id- 
no t keep his appointment through mistaking his 
signs- And after all, he is not old and he has not been 
led into any excesses forgetting the duties belonging 
to hia station, owing to the pride of his wealth ; and 
he is prepared to enter into lawful wedlock, knowing 
and fearing such scandals as would surely be created 

and spread by the people, by reason of Lis secret 
visits. And now look at the picture of your girl soi row- 
ing and shedding tears, shorn of her beanty like the 
dripping flowers after a heavy rainfall * And do you 
know the reason * Her heart sickens and her eyes fill 
with tears, whenever she think- of tbe dangers which 
possibly await her lover, when he seeks to come to her 
secretly from his mountain home ; of the dangers from 
wild beasts such a* tigers, bears, dangerous antelopes, 
elephants, and from big and fiery leeches, and from 
evil ■sprits and snakes, nnd from crocodili-s and 
alligators in crossing deep pools and from rob- 
bers, and slippery ground and difficult paths -, and 
of sncb and similar dangers." (And which tiue heart 
fails not to imagine dangers to her absent lord, how- 
ever safe he might consider himself to be and even 
when there can be .no possible dangers to her own 
knowledge. The "safest railway journey gives her 
fears, and she thinks of the K;naraad:ii disaster ; and 
the strongest escort gives her alarms which no amount 
of reasoning will free her from ! Ah 1 Those false men 
who will blaspheme the Indian women \), 



We have uo materials to prepare a biojjraphy of 
Kamban, nor have we materials to draw tbe biogra- 
phy of any old poet. In this country where custom 
decided every thing, there could be no real biography. 
That there was a poet and that he wrote a work or . 
some works is all the biography we can make- Every 
class of the population moved in such regular grooves 
that there were not many stirring incidents to mark 
out a special man. Tradition hands down some ex- 
ceptional events which bias cooks up into miraculous 
anecdotes. The Printing Press has been only a 
century old here. The hoard of Mackenzie ? inus- 
cripts upon which the Colonel had spent £ 1;>,0u0 and 
which the Government purchased for £ lU,000has* 
not cleaved the darkness eugttwsing scholars and poets. * 
Archaeologists who have consumed ;t great deal of ■ 
money from the Cifverninent Treasury for deciphering' 
and publishing some stone inscriptions have not yet 
framed any regnhir chronology of the old poets and 
other worthies. We do admit, however, that we 
Dot in the same position in which scholars and pandits 

• This ia mi exquisite simile. 



were in the beginning of the present century. Jt is 
pity that the author of the Tamil Pluntarch lived and 
died at an earliar date. The publications of the 
Arcbseologists and the rescuing of the old manus- 
cripts from the almiras of the jealous pandits, and the 
publication of many of the valuable classical works of 
antiquity arc beginning to throw glimpses of light 
ou the dark past Poets of old are beginning to move 
before our eyes in their chronological order. Our 
sons and our son's sons may see more of them perhaps. 
A study of the lives of the poets is a new thing here 
as well as reviewing an author. Cannons and standards 
of criticism we have not. To review a Tamil poet by 
the Knglisli Standard will be to judge a Hindu cri- 
minal by the English law. To review an old poet by 
; moderu cannons will be judging a modern case by an 
old precedent. We do not, therefore, piopose in this 
study of tvambau to sketch any regular and elaborate 
life of the poet, nor do we propose to review his works 
with the peneK'iiing eye of a modern German critic. 
We only mean to determine the relative position of 
Kara ban and his Kauinyan among the Poets and their 
works. We also mean to study briefly the genius of 
the poet, and the port as indicated by his great work, 
which is indeed a landmark in the history of Tamil, 
nay even Dravidian literature. 

A Bi.-ikt iSi;i;vi:y t>v Eric Poktey. 

A retrospect of Tamil Literates cannot extend 
( a rther tlm n the days of Agasthiya — the first systematic 
grammarian of the first Madura College. From the 
extant traditions and sutrams of bis treatise we under- 
stand that Tamil flourished in those days in its three- 
fold departments of Literature, Music and Drama. Of 
his twelve scholars, the first and foremost was Thol- 
kappiyan and his grammar of the then literature is 
the only treatise of those palmy days which has come 
down to us jn its entirety. This treatise— the mother 
of modem Tnmil grammars — besides dealing with 
Orthography and Etymology, expounds fully the 
subject of poetry, which forms the third and last 
book of the treatise. The first chapters of this book 
give us a clno to the subject matter of poetry of the 
hoary past It relates to either internal or extertial 
phenomena, matter interior (ji/tCiQ-xT^eb) or matter 
exterior (^uOu^ji). The former deals with the 
passions and affections of the mind which act on man 
internally ; and the hitter with things external to man. 
The former treats especially of clandestine and wedded 

love, and the latter of virtue and wealth and heroism. 
The special feature of the former is love, and that 
of the latter heroism. 

The old bards of the .Madura College sang of Lots 
and Heroism. The generic abstraction of Love was 
analysed into sevenfold elements, and every one of 
them was further split up into sab-elements until the 
jpecial ramifications approached the number four 
hundred. Purapporul had n corresponding annksis, 
and embraced all the then known arts and tactics of 
warfare. Love and Heroism had each its special poets 
and professors. Love songs and heroic panegyrics 
were composed in the most refined and polished lan- 
guage in honor and memory of kings and nobles, 
heros and commanders who showered their riches 
and valuables upon poets. 

Even after the age of Tholkappiyan, there were 
written treatises on the theory and art of um-ic and 
drama. But these gradually waned. 

In the time of th'e hist Madura College long and 
sustained poems of iudigr-uons srrowth such as Silap- 
pathilcaram and Manimekahsi, Vnlaiyapatliy and Knn- 
dulakesi, which combined in them the different phase* 
of Agapporul and Purapjxtrui,, were composed in a 
manner peculiar to the resources of the Tamil language 
£nd the Tamil country. The very name of Kariyaui 
was not as yet in vocrne. The Tholkappiyam has no 
rules on the epic. According to this grammar, long 
poems were either Q&irpQ&t-n S^iiOf-iLiLfe'i: — those 
which preserved continuity of words, or Out^.lOi^ir 
i_rf iBfa&Qfajin&T — those which preserved continuity of 
thought or subject matter-. The above mentioned 
works went under the latter designation. It may be 
parenthetically stated here that in Sanskrit too, in 
days of yore, Kaviyam was only a generic term and 
denoted any production of a Kavy (poet). This term 
came to be specialized in course of time and began to 
denote a peculiar class of poems — the Epic poem. Tin) 
first Sanskrit work which had the honor of this de- 
nomination was the Ramayan of the great Vahniki. 
' : Epic Poem", as stated in Scott's Essay on Romance 
(and which well suits our Indian Epics), "may be 
defined to be a fable related by a poet to excite ad- 
miration and inspire virtue, by representing the action 
of someone hero favoured by Heaven, who executes a 
great design in spite of all the obstacles fchftt oppose 

In the last Madura College, there began to grow s 
greater contact than before between Tamil and Sans 



krit scholars. Tamil scholars dived deep into the 
lores of Sanskrit, and Sanskrit scholars began to bring 
into prevalence, among the Tamils, doctrines peculiar 
to Sanskrit. It was chiefly the Buddhist and Jain scho- 
lars who first in fcermirjgled Tamil and Sanskrit thoughts 
in their Tamil works. The Tamil poets began to 
imitate Sanskrit models and borrowed the figures of 
speech and figures of thought of the Aryan Brahmins. 
The first Tamil poet who succeeded in this attempt 
and who consequently deviated the Tamil from their 
Idylls and moral treatises was that "Prince of 
Poets, " the famous author of Chintamany. 

T. Chelvakesavarota Mudaliar, ,m. a. 
(To be conti'iued) 


This hand-book and the other one by the late 
Professor P. Snndraoi Pillai, m. a., on ' Some mile- 
stones/ f are indispensable to every student of Tamil 
Literature. The dark horizon of the history of 
Ancient Tamil Literature is just now clearing a bit 
and these books mark and record the earliest rays of 
light that have been thrown on the subject. Professor 
Snndram Pillai's pamphlet dealt with the period from 
the great Gnana Sambantha down to the ! 4 century 
and was. confined mostly to the literary history of 
the Saiva Saints and writers. The present book 
glances a little at Gnana Saiubantha's period and 
the period of some of the Tamil Alwars and deals 
most with the period anterior to Gnana Sambantha. 
Onr Sastrigal fixed the period of Gnana Sambantha 
as anterior to 7th century, even before Professor 
Sundram Pillai. And though our Sastrigal claims 
precedence for some of his dates and fact, it may be 
that other scholars bad arrived at the same facts and 
figures independently. Our Sastrigal quotes by the 
way from the Tamil poetic translation of Soundrtya- 
lahiri, the stanza referring to ' Dravida Sisu ' and 
' Dravida Sisu' is rendered as meaning Gnana Sam- 
bantha of Kaundinya Gotra. This, at any rate, is the 
entire belief of the Saivite writers and in several 

* By Professor U. Seshagiri Saetri, m. a., Professor of Sanscrit 
and Cowpaiative Philology, Presidency College A-c, S. P C. K. 
Press, Madras, 1897. To be had of Messrs. Srinivasa Varadn Chnri 
& Co., Triplicane. Price 8 A dubs. 

t To be had or Messrs. Addison & Co.. Mount Boad. Pi 'k'C N 

books published by Sirla Sii Somasundara Nayagar 
several years ago, Sri Sankara's stanza is so under- 
stood- As bearing on Gnana Sambantha' h date aod 
on the alleged tradition of Tirumangai Atwai's contest 
with him, our Sastrigal argues well, that the preposte- 
rous claims to antiquity preferred for Vaishnava 
Alwars cannot be true. He points to the style of 
these Al war's works and such works as those of 
' Pattupattu ' as disclosing their modern origin. He 
should have drawn further attention to a comparison 
of Andal's Tiruppa (alleged to be composed before 
oOOo B. C.,) and Manicku- Vachaka's piece called 
' Tiruvempavai ' in * Tiruvachakam/ to elicit the fact 
which was composed first and which later. Professor 
Sundraui Pillai doubted the story of the alleged 
contest between Gmina Sambantha and Tirumangai 
Alwar and our Sastrigal brings greater proof to bear 
on the subject by giving the almost certain date of 
the Vaishnava Saint Tirumangai Alwarashe refers to 
Tondiar Kon in two places in hi.s-Prabandani and" the 
earliest Tondaiman was a son of Kjlottunga chola 
who reigned from 1064 to 1113. The first part of the 
book is, however, devoted to the discussion of the three 
Sangams and their probable existence. Our Professor 
marshalls his facts well enough to show the mythical 
character of these Sangams. ft may b& after all 
that these three Sangams do not actually represent 
three Colleges, but only a galaxy of poets belonging 
to three distinct periods in the history of the Tamil. 
The references to one or two deluges are too numerous 
to be untrue and this possibly accounts for the entire 
absence of any writings of the first two periods. At ' 
any rate we cannot be too dogmatic in these matters 
and some of the tests applied by the people of the 
new school of criticism are in themselves too artificial. 
It is better to keep an open mind iu these things 
and correct our knowledge from time to time as 
proofs of undoubted character actually torn up. In 
the meanwhile, we cannot but be too thankful for the 
labours of such of our scholars as our Professor 
Seshagiri Sastrigal and others. One tl ^g more. 
Our Sastrigal's opinion is that Tiruvalluvar was a 
jain. This is against the received tradition. And 
the language of Jains and Saivas, in the Tamil 
nomenclature is so very exact (almost all the names of 
Aruga are names of Siva) that it will be unsafe t« 
draw any conclusions from mere verbs! resemblance-'. 
The word ituta in ' umiiSane- 2 -l'*«bj3J ' is interpreted 
by Pariuielalagar as " ^j^u-losu''/ lotus of the hearf, 
but there is another meaning to it namely cfrntu.* r 


or water and Manickavactaaka alludes to an incident 
of * Midi ear ai^ii^fiu G^npfl' and the verbal resem- 
blance here too is very close. The phrase *er«ir 
mtm fipmm ' ia a well-known Dame of 8iva and all 
Saivite Saints have sung of hitn ns Bnch ; though 
this ie also a name of A rags, and Paiimelalagar 
(reputedly a Vaishnava) preFera the Saivite interpre- 
tation of the word to its Jain interpretation. We will 
discuss the religion of Tiruvalluvar in a separate 
paper, for which there ai e ample materials and the 
Rev. Dr. Pope's opinion too is that he follows the 
Saiva Philosophy. 


The eleventh session of The International Oriental 
Congress will be held from 5th to 12th of September next 
in Paris, the cradle of the meeting in 1873. In a paper 
contributed to the July number of the Asiatic Quarterly 
Rezimci Dr. R. N. Oust «ives a brief summary of the 
-doings of the past ten congresses held in various centres 
of Europe and personally testifies to the importance and 
usefulness of s"ich congresses to oriental learning and 
research aud says lie is ' deeply sensible of the interest 
they created, the information they collected, the new vistas 
that were opened, and the friendships (life-long) I hope, 
then formed with scholars, valued previously for their 
works only but now also esteemed for their personality. " 
The same number contains a paper from the Rev. Dr. G. U. 
Pope on ' the Poets of the Tamil lands' which- seems to be 
the first of a series, and we shall be glad to reprint this in 
our forthcoming number. 

• * 

The same number gives a paper of Mr. R. Sewell on 
India before the English," read before a meeting of the 
East India Association and the proceedings of the meeting. 
Several speakers laid stress on the great value of the 
study of Ancient History of India and Sir Raymond West 

' Wo should study the matter, not on the basis of the Epic 
I inertia, but by reference to monumsnts which though they contain 
many falsehoods, yet, necessarily, revealed many troths in 
characters comparatively imperishable. 1 He (Sir K.) hud oacoaion 
in the conree of his Indian service/ to look at many monuments, 
including inscriptions, and he thought there was a work cat out 
lor the scholars of India, working on each a basil as hie friend 
Itam Krishna Gopal, the great Paookrit scholar of Deccan, had 
dime with regard to the history of the Hubaruttas, nnd the early 
period of the northern Deccan. If gentlemen Hie Mr. Dutt would 
take up a work of that kind they might add very muoh to the 
interest of the history of their own country, and trace valuable 
Hources of information, and comparison ; for the history of 
t!io progress of mankind generally in thB manifold phases which 
it had gone through und.-? native Dynasties, presented, it pro- 
perly stndied, perhaps, the most instructive of the remaining 
volumes of human history open to the research of scholars. 
8ir B. commended very strongly to the numerous capable young 
Hindoo, and Mahomedan, gentlemen the acquisition of the criti- 
cal faculty, and the application of it to the development and 
history of their own country." 

Dr. Leitner corrected the notion that Epic poems and 
traditions ware quite useless and observed, 
" At the same time, he rather joined in the view expressed" by 

Bir Alfred Ly oil with" regard to the importance to be attached in 

historical research to matters that did not immediately com* with- 
in the methods of the mordern school of history. Mot to spade 
of court and family records, even Indian treatises on meAfetaa, 
certain handicrafts, music, and other subjects, away from curtefit 
politics, very often contained important historical inferences wbiah 
sbonld not be neglected. In the Dayannms, or directions in J$m 
worship to the various Deities on certain occasions, Instrucrjons 
were laid down which were sometimes not altogether without 
historical value. Rama had been referred to; well, in the ens* ef 
the monkey King Hanuman, really an aboriginal ruler, throwing 
the mountain into the sea, in order to facilitate the crossing «Hhe 
Aryan Rama to Ceylon, the Dayanam told them that the mountain 
mast always be coloured green as a method of conveying the idea 
that it was not the mountain that was thrown into the sea, bnt the 
trees of the mountain. In other words, the date and origin of 
navigation was thus sought to be indicated. By many suc'b 
devotional instructions had historical facts been sought to be 

And the Chairman Lord Reay agreed with Dr. Leitner 

that Indian legend ought not to be neglected in the study 

of Indian History. The lecturer by the way pointedly 

referred to the serious omissioa of Indian History (ancient 

and modern) in the arts curricula of the Madras University. 

* * 
A FBibsd writes to one oE our contributors : — 

*' Recently I got a new Ma^axine entitled ' Si'Jdhaiita D^gv^ka ' 
in which I was ?lad to find two articles from your pen. I ttpnk it 
is. a publication that seems to deserve encouragement and I mean 
to subscribe for it. I am plad to lind that yoa Have time and 
inclination to translate some of the great old Tamil books treating 
of the Hindu or Saivite pLilosophy and it is a pity that the matter 
has to bo translated into English to catch attention. It ocenrsio' 
me whether it is not possible and advantageous to a< company the 
English taan station with a running paraphrase and commentary in 
simple Tamil prose giving the drift of the stanzas and a Short Kfe 
oF the author. What appears to me desirable and necessary is to 
create good simple prose literature which ordinary peoplv can 
understand containing the sublime truths of our philosophy and 
religion, which unfortunately arc found in verse not easy to 
understand except by the learned in that literature who ore 
necessarily few and whose mimtier is decreasing. Tamil verse, .and 
Tamil poems, aro as much sealed bookE to the many as Bsnaorit 
and perhaps is ns difficult to understand. I make the suggestion 
because I have been' long of that opinion and T should like' to 
possess some Tamil works treating of our philosophy and I am 
prepared to make a flmnll collection of such books in course of 
time and I would be glad if yon can make eut a list for me and 
note where the best editions (that is those tree from blunders is 
printing) could be had." 

The difficulties felt by our friend are real and not 
imaginary. The journal is only intended for smoothenrng 
such difficulties in the way of persons wishing to stndy 
Tamil and the Tamil edition is also' intended to enpply 
the want felt by our friend. But many would feel it 
difficult to subscribe for both magazines, To! meet thie 
difficulty, we would suggest the following tp our subs- 
cribers. Where two or more subscribers are from one and 
the same place, each one might go in for the English or 
Tamil and they mignt be exchanged and hoth read by all 
of them. The English edition will smoothes their difficul- 
ties considerably and they might gradually learn to learn 
their Tamil better and better and to appreciate it more 
and more. 

Then again our friend feels difficulty in not knowing 
what books to buy and where to buy them. We bop* to 
supply both in course of time. Oar Tamil publishers do 
not know as yet the advantages of advertising. If 
only they will think of doing this, we will be glad to offer* 
~our space for almost nothing. We draw the attention of 
Tamil and Sanscrit publishing firms to this. 

* • 



OR — 


A Monthly Jvurnal Devoted to Religion, Philosophy, Literature, Science, &c. 

Commenced on the Queen's Commemoration Day, 1897. 

VOL. L } 


[ No. 4- 





(Continued from page 26). 

go* gd&n ^ pBsir ujH Sear np * p jsSstr 
«S is £& <s& sir th i9 mpQLjiigpfQuiiiSppistr 
mijSui*«irp$anr (eTj/raf'&QfBirqgiifiSsBru 
^«^u3wn aj,« pip. Quit pjpi Sea QpQesi 

I inwardly contemplate and .adore Him with five 
hands, face li kc tlyat of elephant, tooth like a young 
phase of the moon, who is the son of Nandi and the 
termination of ZSjan or knowledge. 


I'refat'H'y — Thero arc tww books in Tamil called Mantra, one is 
bv Daksliiuni-Mintbi anil [lie other by Thiratnoolar. The name 
Jim hi a in ascribed u> Vcdat alone. The fact that the work under 
tr.-uielatii.iii is called Mantra ie sufficiently indicative of the im- 
portance thereof, and it also shows that it in an attempt to repro- 
duce in Tamil the essence of our Tedas, especially the Upanishnda. 


Line for line in the work, vie can find exact equivalents in the 
opanishads in Sanscrit. The effect of a Mantra is practical and 
the reading and pondering over the work is enunciated as a 
merit by the authur himself in the end of the work, just in the 
same way as in our Sanskrit Upanishads. 

Now coming to the text, the propitiatory verse embodies the 
popular conception of Yinayaka, which is at the same time ay mbo- 
lical. He is called Vinayaka, as there ie no Nayaka or Lord over 
Him. In the words of Ganaptithy Upaniahad, Thou (Vinayaka) 
« ra^-°jti<ab -A co ;5-C l 1J';So-tJ- , e£&afcr*£ 1 ' Thou art the essence 

of Brahman, Sat, Chit and Anonds, (Reality, Njan and bliss) — Thus 
as the highest Paramatma, He is withont a Lord over Him. His 
five hands represent the five kinds of action ascribed to him, viz; 
creation, preservation, destruction, retention and grace. The said 
Upftuishftd addresses him thus " Thou art the doer or creator or 
worker f'^SooS'T'^) Tlioa art the preserver f^iiejof'n^wj 
Thou art the destroyer ( ^t5oo^»tr°SV In order to indicate 
the function of Thirobhavaui (Retention) the some Upanishad at 
once says « efr^SiSeJo^B^o ^DjiSo»^rt$" ("that is thou 

art all this universe Brahman). The function of grace consists 
in creation or reward according to merit, 80 this function can 
be brought under the first nnrt the second Function. As the 

functional Beinp of all these actions;, ' ^j oa 5^5 ' ( Thou art 

Brahma the creator) S-oD&n (Thou art Vishnu the preserver 

• (Scoc&bJs ' (Thou art Hudra- the destroyer). In order to 

indicate this function of, He is said to be Indra, Vayu Ac. 
implying thereby the various worlds where reward is enjoyed 
for good Karma done in this life. According to this Cpanisbad, 

Vinayaka has •JiftSotSo-rfSbSr- io, that is He has one tooth 

and 4 hands. The hinds are reduced to four instead of five in 



tie test h the function of gnwe, reducible to the function of 
creation and preservation, doe* not require a separate hand in 
exoteric tyvboUaaL He be* the face of an elephant, as he •■ •* 
(the same Upaniihad). Om when written is just like the head of 
the elepfcaat with its trash or hand. B& is the symbol for 
PianaTB containing in its** all the process of evolution and 

jk> Vinayaka u tb« Primordial Pranava Being. Some think 
iim elephant ii an embodiment of immense physical powers and 
wisdom. Tlu's sense in not improbable; but there is no authority 
in support of it. The letter && in other characters is not shaped 
like 8^> (for instance in Nagari). Bnt this means nothing. 
Nagari characters are but recent innovations. According to 
onr Saatrae the letter ©ii runl round over the head in the 
region of •.■ posted at and above the eyes, and is derived from a 
line drawn from the thick end of the left eye-brow round the 
bead up to the thick end of the right eye- brow and then extended 
over the whole length of the nose, then carried over the protruding 
surfaoe of the right nostril, and then bent within itself inwards, 
the cypher accompanying the said lines ami curvatureg represent- 
ing the spherical light appearing between the' eye brows. The 

figure fjuj has immense meaning iu KsolM'ic philosophy which it 
would be out of plate to enter into in this connection. 

The author speaks of His tusk in the singular in deference in the 
vedic authority above quoted. The tusk represents the line of 
evolution and involution which is only Om. According to Chandogya 
and other Up&mshads, creation, preservation and destruction take 
place by an act of chit which giving rise to force or energy (that is 
forward and backward motion) settles, itself into atomic and gross 
matter, into all anthakaiuna and in short all bodies. According to 
European physiology, tooth and hone are oil metamorphosed forms 
of primordial protaptaamic cells homogenous Tn nature. Tusk iu 
an elephant is the most hardened form of the original homogenous 
substance in the Elephantine body and Prithivi is the most harden- 
ed form iuthe cosmic creation, corresponding to the tusk, emanating 
from the original source, namely, the chit-given motion-form energy. 
As evolution is by chit, so is involution by -chit. So that the one 
line of action for evolution or involution is chit and thus the npa- 
nishad speaks of only one tusk in Vinayaka. Involution includes 
both individual involution by Yoga-practice or by divine grace as 
weli as cosmic involution, and so this interpretation of the tusk as 
representing ^rfiJ*m®p.*£ .that is salvation in non-dualistic 
nan is included in our interpretation. The tusk of an elephant iB 
his tooth extended and when the Upaniahad above named describes 
it as tooth it shows the accuracy of physiological knowledge which 
our ancients had. The tuak is said to be like a young phase of the 
moon. The description indicates the straight linear and curvelinear 
coarse which forward and backward motion takes in the course of 
evolution and involution. It also shows that evolution cannot be 
infinite and at certain point it should hcni. backward.and merge in 
«r is succeeded by, involution. 

The Parent stage being the primordial stage antecedent to the 
functional stage ih relation to creation, &c, the assumption of the 
functional stage is tantamount to a birth, and so Vinayaka becomes 
.the.aonof the Primordial Being, who ie called Nandi on account 
of his Being the fountain head of B lias or the giver of Bliss. Gana- 
nstby' Upanishad describes Vinayaka by 9Si»6g (the son of 
Siva which means the same thing as Nandi) SSTSstT'atfe? "3tf>]e'&ja 

Viiiayaks is calhsd the termination of Njan or knowledge. This 
description either means that the highest knowledge leads to the 
knowledge of Vinayaka in His non-functional primordial aspect or 
His functional aspect, or that in the course of individna) Psychic- 
involution, that is in the act of merging the self in Him, the act 
takes place in the form of knowledge which is Himself. According 

to the said Cpanishad "3co|f»;5s5«aT' a&*;Sti>3Sr' S " that is 

" Thou, Vinayaka art the essence of knowledge and superior know- 
ledge." According to Yoga Bikhopanishad, Katopanishad and a 
number of other vedic tests, salvation is effected by Njan or 
superior knowledge alone. Hence the justification for the des- 
cription in the text. The anther inwardly contemplates Vinayaka, 
as any outward act is incompetent to reach the knowledge of 

,|f f«ff«Nf 

Vinayaka. In the words of Thayumanar, u **'* 
««.Amlv, MituHi »t»u>«i5(5«'s 'J'" 1 '" 

He invokes the aid of the being as with His aid, every thing can 
bo done without obstacle or difficulty. Accordingly the said Dpa- 
nishad addresses Vinayaka ae Ci*> 3L Oir»*"43s6l and also assure* 
us that he who adores Him in the words of -the Upuushad 
;3<StfeO"y>l Jit- WW'S; that is he is not affected by any obstacle 
or difficulty. 

In short, the propitiatory verse is the sum and substance of 
Ganapathy Unaniuliad. 


QLEtb i (8en&* (^lLQi^ot jdaD&iQ&iTQij G&im^s 

«i_ p gu «d p <£ pncSmujfreir GtpQszr. (a) 

I speak of Him, the holy being, who fills all happy- 
souls, of Him who is the Lord of Her who begat 
everything in the four directions, and who kicked 
Yaina, the king of death and the master of the 
southern direction. 


This verse contains in part the popular conception of Siva — 
strictly speaking, iliero-is no substantia/ distinction between the 
conception of Vinayaka and that of Siva. The conception of Siva 
is just the conception, of the Parent, stage as referred to in my note 
on the preceding verse. He is replete with diverse lives aa bo many 
sparks in the atmosphere. This idea is found in Prasnopanishad 
Mahopauishad and Bhagavata. They are called, happy as they 
find happiness in their lot or as their end is in the beatitude of 
Siva. As Randolph observes in his Alchemy of Love, there is a 
she-side or mother-side of deity as well as -His he-side or father- 
side. The mother side of Siva is called Sakti or Parasakti — Vide 
Saktopaniehad on the point. This side is no move than the energy 
emanating from the Chit of Siva or Paramatma for purposes of 
creation, &c. In Rudrn Hahasyopanishad, Unui or sakti is said to 

be the whole of the definite, (^g Jfo;i85aV|& Sr^o MtS; S otfb 

A •T'S'oB'o) The same Cpanishad, a little before, says " doT'ds - 

sir-iin^dt&oDg) 6^gC;SiJ?j^&'-sV)i&»l'' that is, she who is 

Uma is Vishnu and Vishnu is Chandrama or cold. This is em- 
phatic in saying that Uma is cold form energy. The same Upa* 

nishad fnrther on says W^°0:3t>5»Tkr«flo£ft*»AN A? «&*SJf OWKS" 
that is, Budrn is the essence of Brahma and Vishnu, and the universe 
is made up of heat and cold. This tough subject is treated in my 
contribution on Hrana in the Taiitcer. The conclusion enunciated 

in this Upanishud is ox^OjI^^ S"5~ , ?iir'(;s«>52r°'^" , 3o'aoX'!£r*S 

JThe whole creation, movable and immovable is bnt the essence of 
Rudra and Uma). Rudra referred to in this vedic text is the He- 
side of the deity. Creation would be the off-spring of the father 
side and the mother-side, which are both capable of being desig- 
nated by the common term of sakti or goddess. Siva is said to have 
kicked >ut the king of death for the sake of Markanta, a sivtte 
devotee who was attacked by him in his sixteenth year. This is 
just a popular way of saying that within sixteen years, it is practi- 
cable to'attain yoga si«l hi and so attain physical immortality; or by 
the grace of Siva, physical death can be avoided through a life of 
devotion, for Siva oan make his devotees immortal. Individual 
immortality is subject to the process of destruction comprehensive 
and general, not limited and special. The incident of Markantft 
implies that mortal beings can make themselves immortal by devo- 
tion to fetva; Our Dpanishads identify Rudra with Yama, For a 
^full .discussion of the subject, vide my contributions in the Thinker 
on the subject of Fran a. 



Ho* is one and absolnte. Ho himself l>ecamc two 
in His Anil sakti, It is He that actuates the three 
and understood the four truths and conquered the 
five, and spread out as the six, and it is he who 
entering the seven celestial regions established them 
sn his eight fold Form. 


Tlii" w-rw ecinljlishi'-. Adnytn iml its manifestation into dilfl- 
eiiic» ihruujjh vnrimix ma>fOS. Jn mlicr uoiiti, this Trri* is useful 
in (lihrns^iiiK ihe i|<>CfctMin f»f evolution and iiiYolnrion. which can- 
not It aclicivod in the limited tpnee of a noic. Jt is iniorettiiiff lu 
note lliat the nmhor evolves hip work in [ Jif Ritme manner Rg Yoda- 
vynsn his Wdant.t sasira. T mean ilcYfjtiltg ;i £P|tfirnte volume foi" 
the M»l»ji'i( t''nnnim'f1 in 1 1 lis verv'. 

1 adore him who pervades everywhere all in all, 
whom the Devas without misery, daily adoring seek 
after with great desire, whom standing by, cannot 
know, and whom I retreating in myself, with thoughts 
concentrated, contemplate. 

The means of nttatiiinitf A! <ti for Devas in tin- intern; il DJ ynn 
method, which is declared ilie nii|Kn*Hir method in MandAlalirnhina- 
nopaiiitshnd mid some other VjmnitlintU. The hrst lint in the verso 

is tllO win) and si i] i cc. of EiieavnsynpanUliad. (&&* a*f)">. Oj 

yO(0SMij Viiramnima is mid in W ?Sj-» d 6~. » "1 (En.n»vasyo]m- 

iiirfisdi, lie bevnuira distant to those in w liam Ahankarn Egoism 
prcvm'is ; outward inenTiil activity would lead wo dnaKstic notion*, 
preventing perception oi' find, pervading everywhere and nmnifcM 
i]ig it wll' in- diverse fnniK. 

Lj&z&<—&Qp<JbQiii\ij:s%\LiL.i Qui ,*tifitl i_flaarLJ 

I have stood in this sinful world cleared of dark. 
ness, adoring day and night, Him, who is the Reality 
of those in the immense apace, who is the seed of the 
worlds, who is my only Refuge and who allowed me 
to go (wherever I desired). 


The clearing- of darkness is the mmu of ageing God near. 
Intense ocahempLation with sense* tad thought* bout inwards 
will alone enable a -person to see God within,"' all pervading. 
This is exactly what Katopaniahad says. *W 1 f^V*Pr , §'fi t> *yS 

Ji'eiiB im much ;i,h our U|»uiielmils »<lvoc»u- the cnutc of prayer 
always. To n Jivniimuktn. ilicre is nothing Lnt God wherever he 
*cps. 'I'liia in al»i> n Mnliomcilnn ilnctiinc. Accordina; to Annapor- 
nfjinnislnuJ. Ahi*ii'tti*nuhn (nijtlit in the air) that is wherever tin? 
Vn<;i iilriiaad. ig mi in(le\ tu the s-iihlhi of a Jivomukta X^tjs S"£ij 

Soti£ WT^s XjSj-^-.^S'o. The author tells ns that he wa« a Jivan 
nniktrt. Tin- just iticm ion for the addition of the words in rhe 

]>nreutliesis is- now clear. 

£&i(2.MB)(3t_ir«c5« QaiLieui Qptf-gti ifittSso 

Even on search, there is no deity wjuat to Siva. 

There is none here eqmil to Him, whose bright tufts 

of hair stream witb golden Light beyond all the 



This Verse sijwatp (.'luciilation. Se? sc[>ni&ic article in » forth 
coining niitnbev. 

jt/siiSnr QujiruSuj oju>o(^ iBesBsc 
u i eu sir an <S J Q&iLULj LO0.s^sav lSgoSs" 

ii.>siissribr;j$ ii^iiy^ tot vjS QiliOsbt, (*•! 

Without Him, there can be No Devas; without 
Him no tapas can be performed; without Him 
nothing is possible to even the Trinity. I do not know 
the path to enter within or retreat inwards withont 


Aceardvnjft.i lluliopaniehail. i '$?Sfp*&$&*&«>$ ; r>$p£b "Wllli- 

ont Him ovcu a icthss cannot move." Jeeua clearly admits this doctrine 
ivhcn he says that, of his own acenrd, ho ran do nothing. The 
Vahoinvdan doctrine of predestination combined with nr without 
the Doctrine of Anal Hat (1 am god. Sivnhaoi) point to the same 
conclusion. The tiuddiatic doctrine of Karma is just the same 
as that enunciated in our Upauishadg. 

/yjsir&wQiu.Tij uiriL/areir npeuir*^ ^s^^aueaT 
pentiorQiuirLj uirQiuirsiajpi tBsosoirp ^Ssomsesr 
jDSsrSenTtuu uitOsnasreSsouusf miriLfOieir 
QunenSB&QiLivu uw&tirp 8urp*p ptiQesf. 

He is prior to the Three He is the Highest Being, 
having none equal to him. He becomes father to 
those who call him father. He resides in the heart 
rwatmbbng a golden lotas. 


In this Tone He, Siva to the Fanbrajbrnain from wham the 
Trinity have been evoked and net » Member of the Trinity. 



gaS&ius Qmtdjuim LjssrSssui pmBfd&iu 

He is hotter than fire and cooler than water and yet 
none perceives His grace. He is better than Son. He 
is friend to those who love him. He is better than 
mother, He with hanging tufts of hair. 

Here the term hot or cool are used as indication of His power of 
punishments and his capacity .for grace. There is no harm hi 
taking them literally, aud giving tnem a scientific turn. hut the 
context would require the Bensc first given. 

&LnreiT(53)J& Ljrfr/sSi— t Our p& sm i_ (dmenrssi u 

Q<ueipm)<b Q(ayipuu(B Qt&ikiBanp tappeuekr 
p«ft&)p QflptpLii-i® aur/fffffSstt ptiQevr. ("9") 

His name is Nandi who sits streaming with golden 
hairs from behind His back. He is the Lord who is 
worshipped by Me and He worships none. 

jSfQ&a *©lde)S (Sjira9^K/B pe<£^/i 
pvQea ineoiflQiJirtfl &np\L!j$n uartuSpr^i 
pirQm pi—aienrp pe&smi— RW(<y;(»u>. (*°) 

He alone supports the two worlds and stands as 
Akas. It is He that forms the Sun and Moon and 
Agci. He is the maid who pours down rain. It is 
He that forms the huge monntains and the cold sea. 

This Terse is but an amplified form of a text from Katopanishad 
that ilg^al it6£#r>TXTT'W Sr^oXJ-sjo i^OSS-ia^a 

that is; 'the one Atma, controlled and free, pervading all elements 
took each and every form in the universe' . 
' He is the support'. The whole universe is according to another 

Upanished held together by force ( 3«o \ whicli emanates from 
the chit of Piramatma (Chandogyopaniehad). 

jyujjjati i^eai—iLjOmiii unrjdartiLi ^jstsS 

Qunjgp uttmffiQfSp (eUtrtBikfi fi/iQasr. (<s«) 

Looking at our first cause around and near us, there 
in nothing perceived in nature greater than He. 
Efforts and the results of efforts are in Him. The 
name of Him who is the raining cloud is Nandhi. 

QifiwirewfleS QpsuSpm/fir Qj-esruuevir 
meter six JH aiff/f.BWfiU) suit £pijsn aJTts^flj 

At the thought of the third-eyed Siva, it is stated 
that innumerable Devas perished, nevertheless the 
Devas and men do not all of them recognize Him as 

their Lord, 


The third eye of Siva is IbjB circular (including lion -circular) 
mark of light (including rays of light), whicli constitute the special 
means of omniscience. Symbolically it is represented by the red 
circular dot worn on the fore-head between the eye brows. In idols, 
a large ruby affixed on the forehead midway between the eye-brown 
represents it. Kyvalyopanished describes Siva -as ' Thrilnchanu' 
that is one with three eyes. According to the verse under com- 
ment, the third eye of Siva is located in this fore -head. At the 
time when the three cities (Thripurani) — {what these are will be 
explained further on) were destroyed by Siva, sparks arc said to have 
emanated From his fore-head eye and destroyed the cities. In 
Snrahbopanishad, it is said that " He destroys the whole universe 
by sparks emanating from His fore-head." This fixes His third eye 
in his fore-head. The same Upaniehad further down says that His 
three eyes lire ' Somutunjaguintri' that is, the Moon, the Sun and 
Agni (Fire). The seat of Agni is stated beautifully thus by Vala- 
yanda, " *x^uSfgB^n aarafi aiLLi—i2.Ji& KtCi—ih i-/(*ai i&pfea-a&r at_ 
*-">," that is Nandi is located in the sphere of Agni which lies 
midway between the eye-brows- This again fixes the position of 
Siva's third-eye in His fore-head. In Pasupathu Drahinopanishad, 
Nads, Bindu and Kala arc said to be the three eyfcs. 

In this authority, it is clearly laid that Kala (knowledge or Gnan) 
ia the third eye of Siva. Bindu is but Nada heard in tho head and 
this is explicitly affirmed by Thiru Moolar further on his work, in 
accordance with upanishad texts on the point. Kala is the higher 
knowledge into which Nada and Bindu are translated in tho act of 
spiritual involution. The specification of Bindu and Kala which 
are both developed in us by pinctice of Pranayama, Prathiakara, 
Dharana, Dhama, . Samadhi capeeiallv Samndhi at a point called 
Braiimarandra in the fore-head, fixes tho place of the third eye or 
the eye of Njan in the fore-head. According to Soobalopaniahad, 
it is possible to sec things by rays of energy developed in ns by 
Yoga practice from other centres hv the body, than the seat 
of Nandi located midway between the eye-brows. As the five 
senses physically are all located together in the topmost part of 
the body above the neck, so tho main centre of Spiritual Njan, 
or the eye of Njan is situated inside the fore-head, above the eye 
brows midway between them. Locally the sense of touch is below 
the sense of taste, which is below the sense of smelt, and the sense 
of smell is below the sense of Bound, which is below the sense of 
sight. The physical eye which is the organ^ of physical vision is 
and must be situate below the eye of Njan 'Guana Satchus* 
which is spoken of in Swateropanishad, Hahopahishad, and 
some other Upanisuail and which is located at BrahmarancDira 
(probably pineal gland) inside the head straight down from a point 
in the lore-head, niidwuy between the cyc-brows. The eye of 
Njan is certainly the hear; of thebmin system. Pines) gland 
which is u small reddish body is placed beneath tho back part of 
tho corpus cnllosuiii, and rests upon the ' Corpora quadri jemmo* 
(Kirkes Physiology 447) which may be regarded bb the principal 
nerve-centre fur visual sensations. The fact that the pineal gland 
rests upon the principal nerve centres fur visual sensations show 
that it is related to l lie function^ of inner vision or it constitutes 
the organ or the eye of spiritual Njan. 

S. Ramaswamy Aiyer, d a., b. l. 
(To le continuedj. 






Pakafaksha — (Sautsantika) Batddha's Statement, 

(Continued from page 55) 

1 . The Baoddhos are of four classes who deny- 
ing the Dharma as set fortli in the Yedas, follow 
the Dharma as 6ot forth in the Pifcakns, and act 
up to the five or ten golden rules, and wear the 
red vesture, and worship the Itodh (Finis SeUgiwa — 
jfsmi&gth) tree. Of these four, the Sautrantika Baud- 
dha, who recognises no caste, claims our attention 

2. The great sage Buddha is our Lord, who 
becoming omniscient, hated the five great sins, such 
as killing &c, and being filled with true Office, 
took on himself the sorrows of utlfer beings, and com- 
posed the holy Pitaka, Agamas praised by the (ioils. 

1. The four cla*ses of ,- BnurtfUms hit Siintrmitika (Kcprcsciitu- 
ttcwists),Yos^h»ra (Subjective idcnlists),Madhyiimika(Xihilists) ami 
Vaibhashika (Presentatioiiiets). The five golden rules are AhiaiM; 
(1), Batyn ($). Arthr\i", (8), Hrolnnncliaiiyn (-1). and Kiiiignihii 
(congregation), (5), For the ten, »t Inm- to ntlil, (ft) Hoing rtciiiid 
in high places. \7) not reclining, ("1 not wonriii'j sumlnl Ac. 
(9) IJisliko of song and dance, (ID) rijtfnjr before Miiirfsc. Custo 
includes Dtavya, Nama, Gimn, it. 

2. (1) To the BuddhiBl, Buddha it tin- God, or his euvioiir and 
he eeta up his images and prayB in it* pt<*5M. , m'«\ and Bnytliiiiff 
connected with him, such us his tontli, mulirvlla. Bo tree &c, has 
also become objects of fetish worship. The result ran'r be other- 
wise. Man always wishes to rest his mi ml mi soinciliiiig liijflipt' 
than himself and when the True One i-amitH he puinnd out, 
anything that comes in the way supplies its place, While journey- 
ing in Ceylon, a Bingalesc began to preach to us "what yuu mil 
God, Devadi Dcvn. Sirsdi Siva. Snteuli Snkrji, up call Buddlm. 
Buddha is De-cadi Deva, Sivadi Siva, Snkrtuli Sitkra." We hod 
to point out that such (rood understanding between the Buddhist 
and the Hindu was good enongh, Int ilic essential distinction 
between the tiro conceirtiouti had to he hurnc in mind nevrrthe- 
iesi. What our Sinhalese frieiul called Buddha was a man born in 
Kapitavnetu and who attained Buddhahnod. As such he conhl not 
be the undying and the unborn (3.J-'-*', -Vi.i/) tr? author of 
creation, susteiitaiiuu and resolution, Droupavn nuil Aougraha -, 
One who in the words of Tbiruvachaka is "the oldest of the old 
things and the newest of the new" {'' ,;'kS.J ■„.«,<-•. jjj .g.*r- 
£v0 U^i* r\'*j2» L_ r «r*r J -,s*r-:i#» !jv* a ?y '£ '?&*- *-^ ,r ). One 
wno was before all the 21 Buddhas put together, one whose Golden 
crown is where all things and words cease to penetrate {-Zf-f^jaf 

djrQir&q.'Zi'') ; One who fills our hearts with grace like water 
flood, brooking not its banks, ('So-,!? -&*'l sr*S atcr?aui.---ji* t t* 
9^*m'). There may he no anch God. and no such consummation 
*S we assert and there may be only the live Skdcdas find their 
result or extinction as the Buddhists assert, yet the two notions 
of Siva or Buddha are entirely distinct and can have no connection 
between them. This does not prevent the Sidrthonti from holding 
that it is the only One who appears in every form, and being; 
adopted for worship by mankind, accepts the adoration of the 
truly penitent heart (nr,ji:(«j.*.'.»Mt' jg «*,»-.■* s> MP -»*.*• 
c**:V f y» '*sr * j>±* *-■*'). The essential difference of these two 
statements have to lie home in mind, that the true God is not etery 

3. There are two methods of proof, namely, Per- 
ception and Inference, accepted by\ the Pitakas. The 
things derived therefrom are subject and object, and 
these change (die) from moment to moment. The 
subject and object divide themselves into JEtupa and 
Arupa, rf» or Nirvana and *if«© (belief), and 
each one of the four divides itself into two, and there 
are tbns eight in all. 

4. Rnpa is of two ktods, BuMa Bupa ( material 
form, Achaitanya) and Upadana, Rupa (Sensory, chai- 

tuTLya) } Ampa is of two kinds, Chitta (mind) and 
Karniii Veedu or Nirvana, of two, of faults and of 
Skandtis ; and belief, of true and false belief. 

5. Earth, water, fire and air aie Bntha Rupa. 
Hardness, taste, smell and rolour form the Upadana- 
Rupa. When these eight combine, we have visible 
form*. CJtitta (Buddlii or mindl jiereeives sensations 
tlirough the senses. When the Budtlhi perceives such 
as good or- \-.i\.i\, it i« dito tit the effect of Karma. 

6. Nirvana of faults ( tp^S'S^, is attained when the 
sins of lust, &e. are avoided. Nirvana of Skandas 
(a/j^ d>Q) is attained when knowledge of Rupa, Dame 
&e. is lost Bight and wrong belief are divided each 
into aggregation (0#T*n«), succession (O^aL^n^S/ and 
annihilation (G?/rpp ?it*ti). 

idenl {gross or noble) of itmnkiiul but is present in every such 
Inrui. Compare verses 22 and 2:t of Chapter IX of the (Htn. " To 
lliote who worship We, not meditating on another, to Ihoae ever 
hnrmonioue, I brio;? full security of Yoga," and ' The V also wh<» wor- 
ship other Gods, with devotion, full of Fnith they also worship Me, 
fl eon of Kunti ; though this is eonttary to the ancient rule." Tn 
the snbserjuent verseB, Sri Krishna speaks of them such as not kimw 
Him in Essence, nnd that they full arid, go to the Gods and pitrfs 
h hoin they worship. 

(il The special acts of grace shownhy Buddha are enumerated 
in Tn hi il works ench as ' M(*vntu-kutt f i' &c,-, asgiving up his kingdom, 
wife and chilli, losing his eye, (,'ivinj- hiB Hesh on account of a 
pigeon, ie. 

(3l The Fitakas are three in number, Vimmaya (Vinaya), Sutra 
(SutltO, Ahidlmrine (Abhidamnia). 

;t. The change is of 4 kinds — (1) Increase by change. (2) 
ilrerease by change, (3) remaining the same after change, (4) total 
destruction by change. 

6. front these eight forms iad their actions are derived the 
live Skandas. From the visible form is derived Rupa Skanda(l); 
From the senses, KamaBkanda (Abstract Ideas) (8); from the 
Huddhi, ViynvtHi Skanda (3) ; from Karma, Vcdana(4); and Havana 
(Tendencies) (5). Bops Skanda arc the fonr elements and their 
four L'padana; Namasfcanda, the five senses, and Buddhi ; 
Yignana Skanda, the six kinds of Sensations or knowledge per- 
ceived by these 6 senses; Vedanaakanda, the knowledge of 
pleasure and pain; Bavanaakanda, ten kinds af merit and ten 
kinds of demerit. The tan kinds of merit are (1) Anil or Lore, 
(S) Desireleasneaa, (3) Love of austerity , (4) Sweet words, (6) Troth 
telling, (8) Useful apeaking, (7) Preaching charity, (6) Humility, 
(9) Giving to the needy, (10) Performance of austerity. The ten 
sins are (1) Contemplation of evil, (2) Desire or Lnat, (3) Anger. 
(4) Speaking harsh words, (6) and useless words, (6) and fala* 
words, (7) Envy, (8) Thieving, (9) Mllng and (10) Dotag aaaUw* 
acts. These ten kinds of merit and sin seem to be buau the Bitra 
of 42 sections, translated into Chinese in the first centory A. D. 



7. Right belief of aggregation is when we assert 
that what we call a man is merely the aggregate of 
the five Skan<W Wrong belief of aggregation is 
when we assert that man is an entity different from 
the aggregate of the five Skandas. 

8. Right belief of suoce ssion is the path of holding 
that events succeed one another as cause and effect 
without reference to time, past, present or future and 
that in succession there is no continuity. Wrong be- 
lief of succession is when we hold that there is one 
soul or padartha unchanged at all time, in continued 
succession of cause and effect. 

9. To hold that all things that appear will surely be 
aunihilatrd is Right belief. To hiAd that things do 
vsot die but are existent as cause in effect is wrong 

10. To this Right belief {Sat-vada) and Wrong 
belief ( Asat-vada) are to be added four other kinds of 
belief namely, Sat Sat-vada, Sat Asat-vada, A sat 
Sat-vada and A sat Asat-vada. Sat-vada is when 
we assert au actually existing fact as that an elephant 
has tusks- Asat-vada is when we make statements 
like that an hare has tusks. 

11. To hold that intelligence is born from mere 
contact is Sat Sat-vada- To hold that if an intelligence 
dies another canuot rise in its place is Sat Asat-vada. 

7. The first kind of Right belief is explained by the simile of the 
chariot and its parts. Without its parts there is no chariot. With- 
out the Skandas, there 'b uu Atrna. To assert otherwise is heresy. 
Buddha, denies clearly the existence of an Atmn. hut he does posit 
Buddhi, or mind. It must he remembered that, in his days, the 
Hindu philosophy as represented by the Uira and the Siddhnntn. 
nas in existence and Buddha was only arjruinx ugahisi such 
Hinduism— and against Lokavita. The Lokavita postulated the 
existence and cternalitv of the 4 material elements. Gautama 
analysed these into the live .^kixndns. denied it* positive existence 
and only asserted its phenomenal appearance (■;';'.» ) -ind claim- 
ed that it W8 rapable of annihilation ("»fJ). Beyond these 
phenomenal appearance, he (Iocs assert the existence of mind or 
RndJhi. This was one of the andakaranas recognized hv his 
opponent. But as for postulating i>n Atma beyond this mind or 
Buddhi. Gautama could never consent, According to the Hindu, 
Atti^i «»s different from Buddhi or any one or all of the anria- 
kurnims. But fiautama would sometimes identify this Rnildhi 
itsflf with .limit, or (iod, as Hindu Idealists identify Atrna 
individual soul with Paramatma. With this essential difference and 
distinction in mind, the question whether (Jantama, altirius or 
denies the existence of a soul will be easily solved. To the 
Hindu, Buddhi itself was perishable and when Gautama asserted its 
imperishability, the Hindus called him Buddha, the sv&tem Bud- 
dhism, which held to the assertion of Buddhi as a Padartha. This 
will explain also why in the classification of seven principles of 
man according to TheoRophy (or shall wc say esoteric Uuddiiism), 
Bndhi is classed with the three principles above as imperishable. 
To the Hindu as such, Buddhism is clear Atheism and Denial of 
Soul or Atma. Where the definition and analysis of each is clear 
and distinct, it serves no good purpose to state that all are one. 
Th« reliability of the account of Buddhism as herein set forth may 
be compared with nen-Bcddhiism as represented by some Theosu- 
phisis, as the Tamil account seems to follow some of the oldest 
treatises on Buddhism by Hindu Buddhists both in Sanskrit and in 

To hold that Intelligence can ris* without an «atoot>- 
dent cause is Asat Sat-vada. To assert the «tateni*Bt 
like that hair glows on the palm of one's hand sod 
that there is a rope of hair is Asat Asat-vada. 

1 2. Except our four postulates, we do not nadr- 
staud all that these people assert. Are they not mad 
in Baying that there are Akss and Time, and several 
cardinal points, and soul and a Lord whom thought 
and words cannot reach ? These things cannot be 

13- We cannot use Akas in any of our productions. 
If you say that Akas holds and gives room to every* 
thing else, it cannot do so, as it is formless. If you 
say that -it is the cause of sound, it cannot be, as sound, 
is the product of bodies wijrh form. If yon say that 
it is present inseparably everywhere, there are no 
such things as this or that. (A thing is mere action 
and attribute and not substance). 

14. If you assert that man has an Atrna or Intelli- 
gence, then why does he not understand without the 
senses (internal and external) and sensations and 
books. If you say that the soul understands By uniting 
with the senses and by contact of sensations and 
by permeating into books, then why do you feel doubt 
as to the color of the cloth you take out in darkness; 
as such it cannot so understands 

IT). Man cannot know except by the senses. If, 
as the senses are not intelligent, you say it is the soul- 
that midenstauds in union with the senses, the^i the 
soul must, through each one of the sense", feel the same 
sensation. If you say that the soul understands as it 
is joined to the senses, then we are mistaken in not 
knowing you to be a Buddhist. Wont you- say ia really 
beautiful ! 

16. Is (hiatha, postulated besides (rnana and Gneya 
by you, sentient or itisensient. If the latter, then it 
is material (Achetana) like earth. If sentient, von 
postulate one too much beyond Gnana itself, as if 
a man should say that Dholl rice has Dholl for its 

17. If the Atma is formless, then it cannot be 
attached to a body with form ; if of form, it cannot 

17. The following quotations fram Kundalaketi, one of the 
Punch*, Kavyas (a lost work) are cited in the commentaries on 

this stasna. 

££?2g fy^-L ftift^tp &2il'_ *. : a*rff ?$■& .* ***fij^** 
9(5* 0T4r^ffjti.'(3 «>ivnrail jjei—ii £uf & r«.jL n M^ 



be contained in another body. If it is an anu (an atom ) 
then it will pa«B away without staying in the body 
through many of ita openings. If it is eternal, then 
it should not be capable of appearance and disappear- 

18. That the Atma is omnipresent, cannot be true, 
as onr know'edge does not extend everywhere. If Atma 
is said to pervade the whole body, then it will die 
with the death of the body. If it is located in any 
one organ of the body (such' as the heart), it cannot 
have consciousness in any- other part of the body .as 
the feet and head. 

19. How does your Time operate? If it is that, by 
which all thing* undergo creation, development and 
destrnction, it will be confused with the objects them- 
selves-; -and time will cease, wheu such .things cease to 
exist. To assert that there aie three kinds of time 
and not three Winds of objects is ckij' wrong belief 

18. If there should then be any doubt thit the Buddhist 
denies an Atma. the arguments bo elaborately ecu forth from staiuas 
14 to 18 both inclusive ought to place the matter beyond all doubt. 
The commentators quote from work* of Buddhist t hum selves. Those 
text* deny a Gnat ha as distinct from Guana, A Guni as distinct 
from Gnna, an Atma as distinct from Buddhi or other senses. 
Is there such a thing as Atma distinct from Buddhi or not ? If it 
is, then the Buddhist surely denies its existence. It^won't do fur 
him to say that his Gnena and Gunaand Buddhi is as good as his 
Aims and that as each, he does not really deny such jin Atnin. 
This is perfectly futile us when 1 w have pointed out above, 
Buddhi is regarded by the as materia) and insentient 
and Atma as non-material and futionr. Look at the following 
apology of an argument from the h'arrred Editor of the Mortis. 

" This is plain to every one who understands that truths arc real 
even though they are not substances or entities. And the same is true 
of the soul. To deny that Volition, Cognition, and other mental 
activities are substances or entities, or that they need a substratum 
or metaphysical subject, is nul a denial of their existence — it is 
simply the consistent consequence of the cominnnly acknowledged 
truth that they are not material." 

And the able Editor accuses Prof. Oldenburg, the jrreatcst Pali 
scholar, of misunderstanding Buddhist texts. It will be apparent 
to anybody, in the light of our foregoing observations, who has 
really misunderstood Buddhism -, or rather, the fact is, not that 
Paul Cams has not understood Buddhism, hut that he bus, not 
understood true Hinduism better. The quotation from Pn.ul Cams 
we have given above contains the gist of the grossest idealism. 
And Hinduism has been till now solely understood in its idealistic- 
form, which according to the opinion <if a number of scholars 
such as Prof Kunte, Col. Jacob, and as understood by the Hindu 
schools of SaufcLya- (Both "Sirishwsj-a and SeBhwara) was derived 
from Buddhism. The Professor talks of ' the consistent conse- 
quence of the coratnoDly acknowledged trnth that they are not 
flutferinf.' Consistent consequence indeed ! Need we wonder that 
the most thorough-going idealists of to-day are also the moat 
thorough-going materialists of the day, and iire-rer*i. Anybody 
who knows anythUiv of the social and political condition of to-day 
will not fail So be struck with the fact how closely related are 
Idealism and Materialism and Nihilism and Anarchism uf to-day. 
What to the Hindu Siddhanthi is immaterial. To the Buddhist is 
non-existent. What to the former is material, to the Buddhist is 
not material. And yet Atma and Buddhi are tq be field as synony- 

20. To one standing to the esst «f myself, the 
direction where I stand is west, but to one west of 
myself it is east. Therefore tell me which is the proper 
direction, I stand in. Your wrong belief in cardinal 
points is therefore false. 

21. You postulate a God who created the earth. 
If the earth existed before creation, it needs no crea- 
tion. If it did uot exist before, then it cannot be 
created. If creation means creating the effect from 
its cause, then the world must be said to exist and not 

22. If you say that God creates the world as a 
potter makes a pot out of clay, where did he stay 
when He made this world. If you say he stood on 
the world, then the world should h&Te been created 
before baud. If you say he was everywhere, and 
omnipresent, then 'everywhere/ must hare existed 
before God and given Him birth. 

23. If you say that God created the world out of 
nothing, out of his mercy, where is His Grace and 
mercy, when creating the death-dealing monsters 
such as lion*, tigers and elephants and yama. If He 
created all these things as He liked to show his might, 
then you had better worship a madman. 

24. What is the purpose of this creation ? If it is 
mere play, your Lord is a mere child. If necessitated 
by Karma performed, then the persons performing 
Karma must have existed before creation. The truth 
is, the world is eternal and not created. 

25. If God is Bupi, there must be one who created 
this form. If He assumed Form out of his mere wish 
then all the world could do so by their mere wish. 
If each pets his form by his Karma, then the Karma 
must have existed before him. 

21. The reference in the last line is to the asti nasti or Sapta 
Htiaugi Nyayaof the Jains, according to which neither existence nor 
non-existence can be predicated of a thing; and agin the Erst case it 
will be mere implication and in the second case not a fact- So, all 
rhat can he said is 'asti-nasti.' existent-non-existent-' This is a curi- 
ous conclusion. There is however an element of truth in this, so far 
as the nature of n logical predicate is concerned. Dr. Bain for 
instance rejects ' existence* stated by SHU as a predicate and re- 
duces the lattei-'s six classes of predicates to three namely co- 
existence, succession nnd equality. The Buddhist apprehension 
of the theory of causation is entirely erroneous in the light of the 
modern theory of causation as involving conservation of energy, 
held by Western Logicians j a nd this only follows what the two 
schools or Bnilkbya (Nirishwnm and Scshwara) have always held, 
Both the Jains and the Buddhists merely quibble about it and 
there is neither Bcience nor sense in it. 

22. The argument is rlmt inasmuch you cannot separate God 
tram the world, iki Clod can esi-t a-s such apart from the world, 

23. A nmd man does m.i k\<nw *ltc consequence of his act and 
Cod should have known that hi* creating these terrible animals 
must produce evil to his other creatures- 



26- If God » Arnpi, He, like Akas, cannot lift qb 
from our sis. If He is like the shadow of a tree, 
then the credit ie due to those who neared the shelter 
(or the benefit is to there who approach the shelter; 
and as snch he is not omnipresent If He is omnis- 
cient, then a Form is necessary which should he 
lonrgly dwelt upon. It there was no snch form, 
no intelligence could subsist. 

2.7. If yon say the Vedagamas are eternal and 
proves the existence of God, then what yon say, that 
nobody gave it forth is really beautiful ! Yon, to say 
that yoQ knew God by the Vedagamas and the 
Vedagamas by means of God ! This is wonderful 
indeed ! 

28. The vegetable kingdom (Urpeeja) and all its 
mnlfitudiaons forms grow and die Tike hair and horns 
on animal's bodies and hence have no life or intelli- 
gence. They exist for the benefit of other creatures 
with life. (Andaja, Swethaja and Sarayuja). 

39. Von must not kill at all. Yon can eat always 
what had been slaughtered already by others, as a 
slaughtered animal is simply dead like earth. Tell me 
who gets the merit of the deed, whether one who keeps 
a water pandal with fragrant drinking water or one 
who partook of that water ? 

26. The Akas does Dot put forth any active powers. It is merely 
passive. Here the Buddhist is wrong: We new know what 
aiDoont of force is locked up Hi Akas or Ether and the modern 
European research tries hard only to unlock it and even when 
they sometimes by mere chance, unlock such powers, they are 
pan their com prehension, as for instance the X rays. As similar to 
a shadow, God cannot be omnipresent and omniscient, and no credit 
tO Him, except to those who approach Him. This tatter view will 
account for their believing more in a Buddha, a Mnkta, as a 
saviour than in God. According to the, Buddhist, no intelligence 
can be conceived of, except as dwelling in some form. 

28. Urpeeja are produced from the earth ; Andaja from eggs, 
Swethaja from sweat and damp, and Sarayajam from womb. 

29. Heat is distinguished to be of two kinds Kallya (Earpiya) 

Uamaa, that which can be eaten ; and Akallya (Akarpiya), that 

which canaot ie eaten. Akarpiya is of three kinds, Thrikodi (meat 

got by direct killing, or express order or implied consent) Shatkodi 

.(last three and by seeing or hearing that it wag killed for his own 

use and by not suspecting the character of the slaughter) Navakodi 
(the last 6 and by relish of meat, eating too much, praise of the 
killed meat). Really the distinctions are too nice, but the ignorant 
cannot possibly understand their niceties and they hold on to the 
Baying that they cannot kill bat can eat meat killed by others 
and in so acting they do not make any distinctions of the meat of 
any animals that might be slaughtered for their use. 

SO. To say tbat the five Bkandas are not annihilat- 
ed but are reduced to their cause is Wrong belief of 
(Qptpfo mirth) and is the canoe of birth and suffering. 
To hold that these are altogether annihilated is Right 
belief and leads to the Bliss of Moksha, Nirvana. 

31. To' leave off the sins of Kama, Envy, &c. 
to hold on to good deeds, to destroy the desires of 
the senses, and the sense of pleasure and pain, to 
practice the eight kinds of Right conduct, and to give 
op all wrong doing and attain to snch Gnana is to 
attain to Imperishable Samadhi or Nirvana. 

J. M. NalLASWAMI PlLLAl, B.A,,B. L. 

(To be continued). 


C?«rr8su lusajS^F 
&swQu>£tuiii &inket,a> QtupjBiF Q&a2at__ 

topQevrgpUi uireasp ^r*fl wpStLftcQutr 

&BartLj£2u Qpesn rr men igevmtr Qusfjbj&Q 

" With the boat manas, and the oar of Bhuddhi 

With anger laden, one crosses the raging Bea. 

And as he founders against the rock of passion, 
he cannot know his God. 

Grant me the wisdom to know Thee, O Lord of 

31. The eight kinds of right conduct are — (1) Bight Seeing, 
(!) flight touching, (3) Right speech, (4) Right action, (&) Right 
life, (6) Right endeavour, (7) Right principles and (9) Right com. 




-[Continued frmn \iage 60) 

* (5 tfBgi* ****_«/ 6*T. 

Gaifgam Sf/tiou £tg$*ar Sentuuiu 

trpQpiip /Bjp Qt>+& 
f jruriB mm afi f ^Gtuirwufi yffow 
r-pimip &"** u*m 

*im*s 4iQp& 3far«t(?^ 
Jlp--ip mGst*-r Sme&fiQuj* wmuQm 

j»##«ff^ S&iFiL, Q-f/fQL-irrr g&*p*trr 

*pu9m tupatttB ftpdaf&i-m Mut—titpp 0Vv/»u,AHe 
<«rjBV ta<5*>r ©©C*" 


47- O Supreme Lord of Grace, who dost play the 
joyous dance in the worthy Btage of wisdom ! * 
O Transcendent unknowable Teacher, who didst mani- 
fest Three- Eyed.t under the banyan tree in the North, 
and let Thy fit diecipleefrealize and enjoy Thy Perfect 
nature and bliss and Thy true advaita relation to the 
universe. O Supreme Siva, let me offer my inoeesant 
prayers to Tbee in these terms : — 

8a.ri.hira, Sambhu, Sadairiva, 
Sarvawa, Sadananda, Bhagava, 
Nirguna, Niramaya, Niranjana, 
Niralamba, Nishkala, Nirvachana, 
Nirdhonda, Ka.iva.lya, Nirvishaya, 
Nitya, 8an$ala~rahitha, Tatpara, mutta 
Atanga, Visvdthitha, Vyoma, Puma,§ 
Sankara, Sambhu, Saddtiva! 

* The word id the text is chitsabha (hall of wisdom) 

t Bopreme Siva is Three-Eyed when personified. 

t The ref ej-ence is to the Auspicious Dakahius-murthy who eu - 
lightened the great munis Sanaka 4c. Vffle 26th verse with notes 
and notes to 'chin-mndra' in 37th verte. 

§ The meaning* of these addresses respectively are :— (1) Bene- 
factor. (8) Haf ay being, (3) All -love, (4) Universal rnler, (6) Brer 
Blissful, (S) Owner of wealth, power, praise, felicity, knowledge, and 
indnVerJence or Aversion to worldly objects, (7) Void of properties, 


ic'«sh^B£$ ssi urn Qf ir<B t-ijppfjjfsr *(ft*Muju> 
eu"d*irji OrQagp eit&iL/u 

eueriiSdrp e-ijgvpl uerio.'© *'ix<t.«% 

QpfesftSSH'P Q&t—irjuttp jpir-i'irt* a; QiLVafitLiiriLiJ- 

jrStkrfiu stmusor t—iisorti^ ^swaifl 

uSOT^sprTj ijSs* ■»? QqQ utta.ii ui$.$fi(i§i- 
u*sirenL{>QtBj8 Ssirgr paityu 

ftarfffjp ftstCLiVsir San pm&si uimeOiueotrei 
«©s«9i_ff« Sail® UJpGvi 

48. O Supreme Lord of Grace, who dost, play 
the joyons dance in the worthy stage of wisdom, 
So that, Thy self-controlled devotees who are ever 
intent on Thy Divine Arul may always realize and 
enjoy Thee "by, prostration and worship with sweet 
melodious hymns with tears overflowing and melting 
hearts and emaciated bodies ! 

how exalting is that Holy Word Thou hast taught 
me as Mauni* ! No words to describe its blissful cou- 
seqnences. The moment I began to contemplate it, I 
was able to experience the universal Heavenly Joy 
in the Atas of Thy knowledge wherefrom the 96 
Tat vast and the rest were burnt away at once— 
namely— the external tatvas and the infernal tatvas 
beginning with earth, beginiug with mouth, beginning 
with akin, beginning with svnnd, beginning with 
manat, beginning with knlai and beginning with 

(8) free from disf-n6<' ( (^ ;;uil<-lefcs or sincere, (10) Self-existent 
m S('lf-Hii|i|n:.rtiiiL'. (II) Indivisible or Entire, (12) lirdcsci-ibnble or 
L'iispmkiih]i\ (1H; Xot <lnal or two, (14) AbtultiU' Bliss, (15) free 
frttni j>ji^-iiui Hi- lirstff-s ; dibpassiun. (lfi) Xiiya- tfeittal nutl n-n- 
I'titiii.n-i'liir in- • 1'C.' r, inti'it 1 «nfl uitchfiiiji-ubU. (17) caroleeti and free 
from viu-O}*, (]*ij luCt'iit uil doin^ (food oi Lielovi'd to suuJs, (19) ITn- 
<-ouditii>iLi.'d or tiinlcss, (201 Kot atiuchod re- anything ; Kodin^ no 
resist em e, (21) nccessihle or welcome to nil alike; nlso may mean 
Extru-lDSiiiir. (22) filling the Ether or A fcas in full, (23) dnniipvcscul 
c. f. also 3rd vui-se. 

* Herein i* implied the theory of Guru-duisana, i. «, of (iod initia- 
ting the worUiy devotees arioil^ men (Sakidnrs) through the ius- 
trume'icalitj of human form ur Muktas or Ul,aktns or Siddhns- 
c- f. notes Co the 37th verse about " initiation.' 

-f The 96 tatvas are (<i) the 36 interna! tatvne, 5 ^rcws 

elements, earth, water, fire, air mni etther,-5 
organs of inAoUntt, skin, tong'ue, eye, nose and ear, 

S rudimentary undifferentiated subtile elements from which the 
gross elements arMioroduccd i.e., SOURtl. tOUCtl. taste, 

smell, colour*;— 5 onraus of nctiou mouth, foot. 
hand, arms— genitals,— 4 andakaranas chlttam 



crsveorgp arl+aoutGuj 9rii«»(jp i&a>^a>t&GiL> 
SfaMftBQp gr«ot_ «j 0#uj(?eii( -fj 

ujeDsaiUi «2e»3aiQajGP is sit <gp eu j8 isQ p sir 
JLMIT0 tvartBiGiz! siSajGieensw i&nuSGevar 
««f«T<S &^J@6pi goffer ycmirjgjg&s: 
*M)2$aj QpfoBLjifi sop fir if firrpgiS® 

(thinking), mind (doubting), ahankaram (wrongly re- 
solving), buddhl (properly determining); These 24 are at ma 
tatvae or component parte of the soul) — 7 vidhya tatvaa kaJa 
(time). Otyatl (destiny or necessity), kal&l (Inducing souls to 
tense of duty), Vldtial (imparting knowledge to souls), Irak- 
am (exciting desire in them), pUrilSh& (consciousness pro- 
duced by the preceding five i&Ui, 4c. when joined together), 
may a <foroe of nature)— 5 swa tatvaa SUtta-Vldhal 
(predominance of guana over Kriy a), ISWar&m (predominance 
of Kriyaover pcma), Sa'thakKlam (equilibrium of Kriy a and, Saktl (set) Slvam or SOUnd (gnana) and (6) the 
60 external tatvas, viz., 5 psrts of earth, hair, DOneS, ex- 
ternal Skin, blOOd veSBelSr, flesh, + 5 parts of water, 

fluid water, blood, semen, marrow and fat + 

5 parts of fire, hunger, sleep, fear, cohabitation 
and laziness 5 parts of air, running, walking-, 
standing, staying and lying— 5 parts of Ether, 

ka'IYia (sexual love), krO'dha (anger') LO'pa (avarice), 

mada (pride), macharya or matsara (envy). 

(These 26 are the products of the five elements) — 10 vital airs, 
pra'na (inhaled and exhaled air, 12 inches are prod need from 
the nose of which 8 inches go in and 4 inches go out ; in so' doing 
34,600 breaths are inhated in one d*y), apa'na (downward air 
causing discharge of excretions), UCja'na (the air going upwards 
from the sole of the foot to the head and causing stoutness), 
Vya'na (the regulating air that circulates and is the cause of 
energetic action), sama'na (carries And distributes food and 
and water and digests food in the stomach ; it corresponds to 
what the modern scientist calls 'gastricjnice'), Na'ga (causing 
coughing and sneezing for the benefit of the body). kOOrma 
(giving vitality to the eye), krEhara (causing laziness andyawn- 
ings), De'vadatta" (cause of twinkling and laughing), .Dha- 
n an gay a (the vitatair that fattens) — 10 vcinsor blood vessels 
(vide notes to 36th verse) — 5 objects of the organs of action 

above-said, vachana (speech), jfamana (soing), Dha'na 

(gift), VlSarga (dischar^cj, a' nanda (pleasure carnal)- 4 
artigulat,e"sounds, SOOkumal (spnnd in the navel) ; Plsantl 
(sound produced in the throat), madhyama (sound formed 
within th<; throat), Vlkarl (articulate sound from the tongne 
or mouth)— 3 gunas or gunams, Sattva (poodness), Rajas 
(foulness), TamaS (darkness)- 3 ahankaras or egotisms, val- 
Krlta (the egotism in, which goodnssa .(sattm> predominates 
over foulMOsr (Baji.») and darkness (Tamas>, Bhli'ta ClI (the 
egotism in which darkness predominates over goodness ami 
foulness), Taljasa (the cgotiem in which frxiliww predominates 
over tiooB.tess and darkness), c. f. " From the first egotism 
(vailcritn), the five organs of sensation and the five organs or 
action and the mind are produced ; from the 2nd egotism ( tihutadi) 
tbe five rudimental elements proceed; und the 3rd egotism 
(Taijasa) heing 'active' or 'ardent' influences both the organs of 
sense and the rive rudiments said above)." 

49. Supreme Lord oHi race, vvlio dost: play the 
joyous dunce io the worthy stage oF wisdom ! Tliou 
art the dominating Holy Spirit existing every- 
where in nnture. So the Veda* Rig* Ac, as wall as 
the great Yog-ins and Sflnmln of Teachers have rightly 
declared that all are Thy slaves, that nil are Thy body 
and property and that all motions und actions in the 
universes are Thine This and Hits alone. I «n,s 
blessed to see, was the true Siddhaiitat or established 
conclusion. But instead of adhering to it and attain- 
ing Thy Bliss, I have simply squandered my time ; 
and 1 am not untold of Tliy Benevolence being the 
caused °f this also. 

I would, therefore, appeal to Thy Mercifulness and 
get final Liberation and Bliss. 

rj._-.LJ uapQuirttgaifS itSqffQen m p WQetriTptn. 

'-!' '',-.- -Pt_ -lioa/^ggf.-j 0&n£g£%i r-gJ_Liiu.T__ 

i-is LcQevG& iL/ir-i O eu rr <tj<2 9 n ?u 
.© '- . 1— (l/> _ srrf QLDff~e$\Lsti n.tWfwGif.u ^(r^is&ji 

irigysS® sC-tB.gjfii ejr'Sf? s n pes,*} ^sre^Ssfcx® 

Qp,&Qw(B wiiaixr Quasi 
tti—i~$sasuj $«A&pp _soaSi4<_ eSQtv "fl-ti 

itsir B&GIHLJ mis gusfsS 
~5nQ(3rarjrii £Qu:eit! <B s e»' i$-"4» 8si' Onjeia ejif?^ 

h'BQsl' (tp&tfip Lot? saps 
aiLi—mi/S iL/ru>(?6u *oj n ulQ em QeiuQu~i£> 

50. O Supreme Lord of Grace, who dost play the 
joyous dance in the worthy stage of wisdom. 

* Tltt' Veda* nm*ist of four j/roai col lections (made to facilitate 
ilit- dn'ticH of the '4 classes of lU'iesis. in r lie sacrificial ceremonies, 
unit of the (4ih) Bnpcrintondcnt of die sacrifice)— namely Rig veda, 
Yajnr-veila, Stinia-vprln, aittl Alliarva-vcdu. Vt.-ila me_ns knowledge. 

+ This was the lnCiurinsr of all grcai ;.«ints, ninnis, yogins, sid- 
dhas, arid nil great jiure kohIs. Equipped \virh such knowledge, 
tliey perceive no difference between the Veda, nnd the Agama, and 
they tolerate all schools, xnztfrfXfrttti till schools, assimilate all 
schools, and accomodate all schools in their essence and truth. 
Then only tlicv can be worthy Saiva Sid'lhancis. r. f. verses 8, 37 
and 39. 

J Cause of <hi* i. e. squandering of time. The Saint refers to the 
Doctrine of Komt-.i as posited by the Suivu Siddlianta School — that 
is— fiod is said to ordain the working "I the* Universal Law of 
Karma which induces the sooU to. cat the ti-Tiits of past actions, 
good as well as bad: when bad, the emil is s_id to suffer under the 
Hajasic misuse of time <tc. Hence rlie saint knowgi God's Bene- 
volence as the cause of this evil quality and consequent suffering 
of pain, because, as said above, it is by (iod'ti Gvace that we go 
round the course of rebirths to eat away the fruits of Senna and 
procure the equilibrium (Iiuvinai Oppu) of both. 



I am not m blind bigot* like one who would obsti- 
nately My that what ia black ia white. Nevertheless, 
I did not benefit myself by that One Word which 
Thou kindly chosest to teacb roe and wbich landed me 
ia the universal consciousness in which I was com- 
pletely absorbed- And I bare been seized with the 
childhood fancy of triumphing in the intellectual 
researches alone : to the end that I have not. been able 
to control and concentrate my mind and discriminate! 
myself from Thee the Lord of all. May Thon, 
therefore, bless me at onoe with Thy Grace. 

&fiaj*£_i* mttftrf QwiLiajQi efl(Qf&£>& 

Qu>iuG*j& usfitjs Qfvjpiui 
Qu»iiit$!—ru Qt-iittLwSQfv jgtmeirp f&Q^i&fipnBir 

Qu»a7aj»»»r Oudiusuuj Qajaticufrto 
Qt-nrioQiL.m aiamsmGiz Lftmf&aij $a'diLis#.b 

C)msau>(Saj Qmtir Q&iLrfgQtaiesr 

S»LBK0l_<f GjCLf&tV *«Wt_(Jj^ Q &£$&}&> 

inHiQwJ) mseijoQiL><'& it titer Qfimi rgtyGai 

fSgaSi—i GfQiusi'p «/airu(J5s mehruauui 

*<5& **<* * L ~af-**< r - 


51. O Supreme Lord of Grace, who dost play the 
joyous dance in the worthy stage of wisdom ! It is 
an undoubted fact that Thou art manifest in the 
hearts of Thy devotees who love and follow truth 
for truth's sake, a.nd dost teach them the Truth 

• Bigot. The saint alludes to ' fanaticism and prejudice ' with 
which some get foolhardy and obstinate in contraversieB, especially, 
when their side is found to he weak. 

t Supreme Lave can arise only if God in his supremacy and 
benevolence over at (souls) is well discriminated and understood 
a* inch and enjoyed an soch : This is a distinguishing mark of the 
S»iva Siddhanta School from such other schools as do postulate, a* 
it were, EvOiutlOn Of GOtf himself II i.e. perfect God 
becoming imperfect or the pore becoming the- impure or the 
entire becoming the broken and bo nu. c. f. Shvet TJpaniahad IV 
15, "Surely is He the guardian of this World as long as time 
■ball last, the lord of all, in osery oreatnre hid ; in whom the seern 
of brahno and powers divine are conjoined. Tliui inowiaj Sim. 
ust onts the bonds of death" — Mr. Mead's Translation. "Th- 
^sowers of Brahma, knowing Him in this TJrKverae as different 
from it, become free from birth when they are absorbed in Brahma 
and *eady is abstract meditation "—Dr. E. Boer's Translation 

But tamamr infidelity is predominant in my mind; 
O ! No other alternative for me if Thou wouldst con- 
tinue to keep me down in this way ! Universal 
Guru, I appeal to Thy mercy. Thou art the basis of 
all manifestations. Thou art the Nilakanta,* the Jfaha- 
Vishnu and the four-headed Brahma well skilled in 
the vedic learning and Thou art the sole Guide of all 
schools of religion. Again do 1 appeal to Tbee be- 
cause Thou alone canst inspire Love of Truth in Thy, 
lovers ibat seek after Thee. 

usJvQsm gvffrssrregr y gn&Qti- jt(tj sum. s$Q<nj 

utflmmj QnGUa icsarnpu) 
'Ter.tiQeizr arsiiru>eS(T^ en&gaeir .gj<z$ds.Qevei6fV 

teagpOtxnk gtefiBijfl /ff 
it/iwrgjii i$<3LhGuir .^sanrirf-u- iSi^apeuitai 

nievj^eaf Qfiutjem <y>enpGiuir 
e&exrGairsQ ^^ujirtk l^CJuJ itirfiGw 

G&lpOw GctifJiB #Glo 

Gw$et QxsirsSGiu Gssr<i$<L:i!ui u,L£d(gai 

sSpGjgtu sSp$A QpSeaGiv 
t&rGtu styfGpQtu QfsmQ&sr QuQfipQfi 

*$ist:ar Gtrtdair oi.'tu Gcv 

*Q5® ags Mi-BjG&r. (®»-) 

52. O Supreme Lord of Grace, who dost play the 
joyous dance in the worthy stage of wisdom ! X am 
ignorant of the due form of worship to be offered 
to Thee. And if I should think of making pujaht 
to Thee in any of Thy manifestations,! I cannot do so 
because 1 find Thy presence in the very flowers re- 
quired for the pfijah and consequently I cannot pluck 
those dew-filled flowers ; nor can I worship Thee 
with my hands as Thou art in my ashamed heart 
and my worship may be i»id to be improper. 

Thou art the One Essence of everything in the 
cosmos: Thou art the Ether, Thou art the fi^e ele- 

• NUukanta ia rh epithet of Siva meaning 'blue -necked'. Vide 
also notes on 'terrible puision' under 13th verse. 

t Ffljalwmenns norhip. 

J Manifestation hers: mea'ii.i Murthy. The reference is to the 
nine inanifeetntiuna uf I'iirnimuiuan, vbt,, (!) Bi-nhtua, (2) Vishnu. 
(3) Ruilrn, H) Mahepwara. |">1 Saihislva. CtS) Knilnin, (Sabda 
Brahniam), (71 Oliinilit, f») Sakii and ^ Si'iain. The Saint 
poinrs out in this vi-h' Lliat wln-i. u-rtc 5*ivjt|#na«a if atcaiM*'d, 
ihc ilualistu* irorahip \<t' God I't'i-.-muiHi^l li^ciMnea uiinecessarv, 
still, huwrvev. Rnanii-sni-^va, (iiMii.i-kii iyn and <?nnna.y<iga are 
uuavoidahly ncceseai'v till rho Tlmd'ntu'i' o.iidBti** >* rcathed. 



meats, Thou art the sound, Thou art the Vedas and 
the Vedanta, Thon art the final end and fruit of nil 
inquiries and researches, and, in short, Thon art im- 
manent in all objects of the senses and of the intellect. 
The silent state of Moua alone oan realize Thy own 
Divine nature. 

&if0Qpii> Qw0QtMgi$ tjffQfimwjpi upfi*»& 
** strains £> Qppjp Qiheseiam 

*SlS $<*,&&<!& iLSarQpOSK Ol_ETTU^I 

*0ir i8*m—« Sham fisitn 
Sisspufi ujniiSjs fu'Jiuu peOeoQm.' 

$(gi*fP (*<&>? QpaH&iA 
oaiictKriAiLi ««w«<T£ii no ;m?_jj ^^^r«er" 
•£<rti9u:0) iun£ <7iw lissi- 

a>S(*d)j f&SQfiu euGia 

53. fiapreme Lord of Grace, who dost play the 
joyous dance in the worthy stage of wisdom ! It has 
been invariably proclaimed by the Vedas that 
those who fix Uteir mind upon any object and meditate 
on the name: become absorbed and tiannformed into that 
object quite forgetful of everything el»e So the great 
sages who live iu this world as -Jivnn Muktas are 
quite mindless of their dentil. 

This great Vedie truth of Soham-hhuiaita* vah never 
be told to the unwise ; for it will only end in con- 

The Muktas who did realize this Truth aie.Ahir- 
Ivhatidcya, Suka and such-like suges : Please do Thou 
raise me to their level, O God of (iods. who art adored 
by the Devas, India &c, adored by the Gods Brahma 
&c, adored by the Munis skilled in the Rig Veda &c, 
adored by the nine Suidhan.i by the flu>iau>'thm,i 
by the Sun and the Moon ikv, )>y t lie OhttuHurmsA 
the Kittiiaraji\\ mid the rest. 

*■ S.ijiiuli If is I. Hlnmma t'Ohrri^ in'/ in It.-, m 1 ri.nvi'it inn 

• im-M-il' in In- wl.;it it* I'uutvlvtnt ;kliLiiLi . tUt,-',-,<f I <; iimn-i* ini; . 

m-IT It. l'i- (<tiil ivitl.oilt llii- it|i-;i ill" 'lm 1 ' mill "mill.' Itl'.'tMfvmt? lii>i[: 
m- 1ik>htif\Mi?iitM'«i-lf Witli timl. If iiitsitb-tl ;iU.> rvjtficiitn.u 

+ Vi.i.' ni.H' In i Ih< 

X JiHMUtUUtta* inv Sil;r"s ri'tinri".- ILIl.ll'l ill.' *.|tl'.'iiil llii. 

Cuitftul who in timlur mi. iln< iviiiinvi' «f yl t*l «eL»-, 
S lilinndtirvna ill'.' ili'iiirs .if suiitis nml inu~ii'. 

|, KiniiuruB arc iln- sfrnmis of Ktivcra 
liiilf-mtvn Mud kUl'-.imimil. 


i ill 1 1 

jfrm^iBjB ijewspf} ulbQafQj Gjar&aLO 

u jBtfi«J*«0 ( D fitidjGp tvmijfu.rr QpersQs 

QjfsrQnwuarsir ui3(£tA& Sit 
ts^ijjai^iS Qeoc&Q-J) tn*Giip$,uti Cjssemm 

$($■&* svwmfijf) eprsiieo yw^u" 
Qaiitut-lsSfi GfisrsQ&sr A-ir 

QpetiifiG? Gar 9 eSGto 
m&Tsrsar/i mQ$u> OioerorQuietr QontBiun£ii 

a Q5& * s * £i_e/(7err. i.®* 1 .' 

hi. O Supreme Lord of 1 Grace, who dost play the 
joyous dance in the worthy stage of wisdom ! 

Having pacified the malevolent Deitiea of my Karma- 
Mala &c, with the offering of my turbulent mind* in 
sacrifice, I would, Motionless Lord in Turiyat, set 
myself to Thy Supreme worship if Thon couldst be 
realized by me :— 1 would have Thee bathed in the 
water of my pious love, make to Thee the offering of 
my soul and worship Thee with dflpaj of my j»ann$ 
and di-pa\\ of my intellgence. 

And I will be continually performing this piijah^ 
in view to receive Thy blessings. Homage, Homage 
to Thee, my Gracious Lord, who mixest with my 
depraved intelligence and gradually presentestlf Thy- 
self as my Holy Friend and Saviour ! O The Sweet 
Ambrosia, the Kssence of the Vedas ? Resplendent 
juice extracted IVoin various sweets such as sugar, 
sugar-candy, honey Ac! () The Eternal Bliss of 
int't'uasiiig delight, \ do always seek Thy (trace. 

1£. ytlANHIlnAM Ml'OAi.IAJ; 

(Tii he •tiutittut'd). 

* l\J iit.l i.r H*ttt*t* ln'iuLT ihr c:i n><- nl" /<i-/Jm. m\unt* yi" linuilv cf 

I'visU'iii'.'. sin- is kill* r *l id .iv.lrr tn kill ill.- Kiii-iuiiil- i*ITt'i-l *. 

f Tlti-ivn V'.iiivili Sinii'. Viilr iinii' i.< "\ h i-i-i>i>. 

J n.*L|>:i is I lit' ilK'l'lISi'. 

* Ti'imn lirrsuli ; \'\\A sf.irii 
l)i|i;> is liLflil 

S I'l'ijn wursltic; hniim^. \'iiK- |ii"i2lhI 

. v. I, Ah Ul'lit (Imlt^li [irrsilil in r^'i'l'U liiu^ UHtltdaHt", OuN' 
niakca ii viailiii. mulii Lirtuin I'nuililiuiis. sn iliv Doity (Goil)tliunij!t 
iill.|n'i-vii.linij inmiilYsU 11'uis.H' lu \\\- Htnucfs miiU* I'fi+uin 






Siddhanta Deepika, 

MADRAS, 2 1 st SEPTEMBER 1897 


The expression ' changeless East ' embodies a time 
honoured fallacy, and the sooner it is exploded, the 
better will it be for the future of this country and for 
all parties concerned- The average foreigner who 
knowB so little of our past and much less of our inner 
life and institutions and their rationale, becoming 
conscious of the difference of his own institutions and 
manners of the West from the East, and meeting whith 
reluctance and sometimes with opposition on the part 
of the oriental to swallow his gilded pill is easily led 
into this belief. This view only assists the hardy 
Oriental and serves to keep him in the error he had all 
along been brought up in. The oriental is as much 
in a hallucination about this as the European ; and. this 
is due in a grant measure to the want of the historic Fa- 
culty, so often pointed oat by European Scholars. The 
oriental hns the inveterate habit of referring every 
thing to what bis ancestors did and what his ancestors 
said ; and if we, however, haul him up and test his lore 
aa regards his past history, he cannot carry himself 
past one or two generations — and his whole evidence 
breaks down as the barest hearsay and he breaks down 
miserably. Let the newest practice be introduced 
into a person's family by the most immediate ances- 
tor, and only let it b«j started without his knowledge, 
he. will speak of it as the oldest custom prevailing in 
his family for hundreds of years. Though he will often 
refer to the days of Rama and Yudhistra, we don't be- 
have he has read half of a page of either authorities. 
The most inconsistent practices are ascribed to the most 
arariant Vedas, and whether they are actually found 
there, u a different question. The veriest modern day 
dreamer traces his doctrines to the remote Vashista ; 
the latest story teller quotes Vyasa and Suta as his 
authority ; and the veriest plagiarist of the Gojili book 

bazaar does not hesitate to palm off his garbled Vade 
Mecura of medicine as the work of the sago Agastyn. 
And all these untruths are swallowed "wholesale 
by a credulous mob, while they will suspect the 
most approved schemes of sanitation and thoroughly 
tested modes of medical treatment by European ex- 
perts. The reason for the belief on one side and dis- 
belief on the other side is not far to seek. It is not 
that the oriental does not chnngo. If ho did not, he 
would be actiDg agaiust nature. Whole nature is 
ever changing but its gradations sire very iniuute. 
If we are to believe Geologists, whole continents and 
the highest of mountian peaks hnd not been lifted up 
all at once by the earth's cataclysm, so much a* by 
the slow and miperccived heaving to and fro that is 
ever going on. if by this constant heaving for seve- 
ral centuries, the surface is only raised by a few fact, 
how slow must ho this incessant change. No doubt, 
cataclysms in nature, nuw and then occur Mich an 
earth-quakes and volcanic eruptions And similarly 
also societies undergo such cataclysms, but the re- 
sults will be awful and terrific in many cases. Whole 
societies may be doomed for ever as are. countries 
by earth-quakes. In India the real fact is, the 
oriental has changed often enough. His is an ancient- 
past. And in this vast sea of time, what storms be 
has not encountered and how many under-ground 
rocks he has not tilted against and how many sand 
banks he has almost grounded in. And the wonder 
is that he has come cut so whole in spite of all thesa, 
changes. There is however one peculiarity in his case. 
Like his soil, he is not prepared for deep ploughing. 
No doubt the soil can be ploughed deeper than at pre- 
sent but the foreign plough is not the best of the ma- 
chines for doing this. If used, it is apt to turn np to 
the surface more of laterite and sands and the land 
made unfit in consequence for years to come. Foreign 
civilization wakes in him up more of his vices than 
his virtues (speaking generally of course and its effect 
as a whole) and to wean him from these new v : es 
will take another age. As it is, the Indian agricultu- 
rist has, by slow and steady work, attained the best 
results and enduring ones too, by adapting the exist- 
ing means to the best of his nbility. He does not 
exhaust the soil too much- by his haste to show as- 
tounding results. There was not so much of worry «nd 
selfishness iu his old mode of life. And as a matter 
of fact, he-has slowly built up a civilization as high 
as his mountian peak, though no doubt there are in- 
accessible and unattainable heights and must slippery 

■rut; light of-'tsuth mi; siduhanta deepika. 

precipice*- therein The much despised Kali age lias 
«wn inuoli greater reforms fn religi'm and murals and 
much greater advancement in Philosophy and .Science. 
To only mention mil' ()]• two instances. As t.u the evil 
effects »f incut and drink, llici'o ought to be now no 
twn I'piai'.us- among Hindus at any rate. The Honour- 
able Dt*. VV R. Cornish, hilts isiirgeoii-Gcneia4 of. 
.Madras in M> address to the assembled alumni of the 
Madras University at the Convocation of 1S34, exhort- 
ed them to adhere to the two excellent qualities of 
' plain living* and ' high thinking' which characteri- 
sed ihe Indim philosophers of olden days and pointed 
out that " in adhering tu the simplicity of life prac- 
ticed by your forefathers, you will have the sanction 
and approval of some of the most eminent of modern 
scientists who have come to the conclusion, that al- 
coholic drinks and strong meats are not essential to 
health, life, or mental and physical vigor, while 
the abuse of strong drinks, at any rate, has proved a 
curse to the northern peoples". And it was only yester- 
day u writer in the Nvith AwriatH Review coun- 
selled to his countrymen about rood station in tal- 
king meat and drink. And yet, is it not a fact that 
in the far famed Dwapava age and Vedic age, people 
of the highest caste were immoderately fond of meat 
and madlm, and prayed to the Ciods for plenty of these. 
No Brahmin writer of to-day will lay down rules for 
the eating of particular kind of meat and fish as does 
the great JIanu in his Siuiriti. And it must be con- 
fessed that ihe institution of animal sacrifices was a 
remnant of savagery. As the sentiment of the people 
became refined in course of long ages, the more intel- 
ligent and educated classes slowly gave up these re- 
prehensible practices, and not to he pronounced guilty 
of Avaidika' practices, substituted others altogether 
innocent and called them after the old names. The 
modern Temples which took the place of the old Ya- 
gnasalas, only retain the ' Balipita' in name. And 
modern Saivaistu is so rigid in the exclusion of meat 
and drink that even a Vaishnava who is an ab- 
stainer say? he is a ' Saiva'. The rare performances 
of Yagua to-day find very few sympathizers and sup- 
porters. In this connection, we might give an an- 
ecdote of the Great Appaya Dikshita, which an Iyen- 
gar pandit mentioned to us when we spoke of the 
improvement in the Kali age in this respect. The 
Great Dikshit performed a great Yagna and as a 
matter of course, a number of cattle had to be sacri- 
ficed. He saw the sight and it was most heart-rend- 

ing and repugnant to him and he burst out crying 
'd'eusda s^Ssn- *jtS7arsri' 'O Vedas, I bulievu 
you, meaning thereby that he would not have 
done it of his own free will. Unthinking and ignorant 
men (Indian and foieign) frequently flaunt ngaiust 
Hinduism, excesses in these repects in certain forms of 
*8aktaism and Vaishnavism in byegone days and even 
now in some forsaken and unseen corner. It has 
only to be remembered that mature opinion oE both 
these sects are dead against these practices and the 
general sense of the people itself, which like anything 
else has grown, is against them, and it is thereby that 
these few out-castes who indulge in it, do it unseen- 
Then it is seen that in the Vedic days, the people 
prayed to Agni and Yaruna and Vayu and Indra and 
Vishnu (Sun) and Maruts and all the gods. And the 
author of a District Manual complains that the 
country people have given up their Vedic practices ; 
and we know a learned brahmin friend ol ours used to 
ohservo that th<j worship of the fire was the strictly 
' Vatdika' practice and the worship iu the temples 
was 'Acaidiha' and that he desired to see in every 
brahmin household the kindling of the sacred fire 
and it3 upkeep. But if instead of worshipping these 
elements themselves as gods, the modern Hindu sects, 
in Siva iRudra) and Vishnu, see the one True God 
present in the fire and the one True God present in 
the Sun, does it not show an advance in thought. 
The old form of prayer ' I pray to the visible Agni, 
to the valiant Vayu and puissant Indra, give me 
health, wealth, children and cattle/ is substituted by 
the new form, ' Siva, who art all Love, who art 
present in Akas, Agni and air and water and earth 
and being present in each and everything 
givest each its peculiar beauty and power, and yet art 
not any of these." The change in these respects, the 
struggle in the old belief and the subsequent conquest 
is recorded most vividly in the Kena Upanishad, 
the earliest of the Upanishads. That Lady wondrous 
fair, Uma tricked out in gold had to point out 
''Brahman! In Brahman's conquest do ye triumph." 
.Then only did the Devas know that it was Brahman, 
If the very Devas could only come to know this 
great truth from Uma, The Light of Grace (Arid 
Sakti) then bow was it possible else to those who 
believed in the Devas themselves, as all powerful. 

Does it not show an advance if, instead of setting' up 
a pot of fire in each house and worship it as fire, we 
set up a symbol (of the form of Pranava) in a Temple, 



and worship it as the God present in fire, and which 
the greatest Devas could not discover after very great 
search ; if instead of worshipping u sen and a river 
and tank as a, God, we introduce a symbol and wake 
it surrounded on all sides by water in altnuit a mira- 
culous way and we worship this symbol as that of t\u 
one True God, who is present in water. The Tantric 
or Agamic form of worship was u distinct advance on 
the old Vedic Worship and though the old Mantras 
were continued to be recited, yet the ideas and forms 
are all based and derived from the later Vedas 
and Opanishads and it will be interesting to enquire 
and note at what precise point of time, the old 
rituals were given up and the new forms substituted- 
This, no scholar, h»s as yet attempted. Those only 
who do not understand this slow growth and advance 
in thought in Indian symbolism cavil at modern 
Image worship. We will in no wise be gainers by 
reverting to the old practice in the days of Rig Veda. 
Improve the modern worship if possible by cleansing 
it of the dross which age and ignorance have coated 
it with, but it will be absurd to talk of going back. 
The modein day living Religions Systems (we caa only 
mention two, Saivism and Vaishnavisra, others come 
clearly under one or, the other) contain the best 
Theology and Philosophy, theoretical and practical. 
If a few missionaries and bigoted sectarians stoop to 
take up stories from a forgotten rubbish box, which 
tend to lower the divinity of the one or the other, wise 
men will remember that these stories only dwell in the 
filthy imagination of these people and not in the 
devout minds of the respective worshippers. The 
Saiva rejects the stories of the Vaishnavas as 
altogether spurious and late malicious productions 
and the Vaishnava rejects the authorities against 
him as being ' Tamasa.' So both parties wish to 
forget and have forgotten anything that, may be 
repugnant to their High Ideal and the modern Saiva 
prefers the address ' ersa ^drQu ' and the Vaishnava, 
' ue i&p lutrenn.' 

Ooe more instance of such change and growth of 
ideas, which the Tamils have stereotyped in such 
familiar sentences as : 

QjQpaiea iinec eusasuSf^Qev." 
(" The old changeth and the uew entereth ; 
This is no wrong. It is the effect of time)." 

" Q^jroraDinw GacGtiigt Qmtsimitfih mtif(ffsir } 

("Kvtry thing old cannot he good 
and everything new cannot be bad)." 

The instance we would select from the field of Hindu 
Sociology We reiVr to the question of widow re- 
marriage. Independent scholars and pandits with 
some honesty will freely admit that the custom was 
not one unknown in India in remote times. In lower 
classes of society they fciill prevail. But the pandits 
Bay tint such remarriage is prohibited in the bad Kali 
age- Who prohibited it, we ask ? Is it not the fact 
that the thought slowly aud steadily dawned on the 
mature minds in this Kali age (Be it said rather 
to its credit} that singleness is better than wedded 
life (one of the checks to population in the Kali 
age) and that a widow would do well to keep faith- 
ful to the memory of her first lord, if she can afford 
to do so. It marks the highest sentiment in love 
that the lovers should remain true unto death- The 
Europeans have also built their faith on St. Paul's 
words : — " I say therefore unto the unmarried and 
widows. • It is good for them if they abide even 
as I. But if -they cannot contain, let them marry ■ 
for it is better to marry than to burn." It was only 
the other day, the Indian Sor-iat Reformer, praised 
Her Most Gracious Majesty for her noble widowhood. 
If such is the sentiment iu modern Europe, need 
we wonder that in India, where tbo people attained 
an early civilizat'on,these thoughts became crystallized 
aud handed down as custom (unfortunately soma evil 
practices have had this tendency too) aud the higher 
castes began to prohibit it altogether ; and the mis- 
take was made, in not remembering the wise caution 
of St. Paul that it is better to marry than to burn. 
Besides this rigorous custom is opposed in one sense 
to the generally recognized freedom in Hindu Princi- 
ples, as deduced from the doctrine of Karma, It is 
freely held that no one man's or woman's capacity is 
equal to that of another and that as such no man or 
woman can be forced to undertake the duties and res- 
ponsibilities beyond his or her strength, and that %s 
such, if he or she fails to undertake such duty, even 
tboagh it be regarded is the highest, she cannot be 
blamed. Actions or omissions can only be prohibited 
if they are positively harmful. Aod when we con- 
template, as in the case of widows, th;it in some 
instances, the forcing of a widow to bear a harden 
which she cannot afford is likely to cause enduring 
injury to her and to society, we do not think that such 
a contingency was ever actually foreseen by the Law 


ruv. light <>f truth ok siddiiaxta -dkepika. 

which enunciates ' Aliimsn Paraino Phnrmo.' Any- 
thing liktrly to ranse pain is regarded as Pnpum 
(-.afjfi-f^.fiO^dl/i } and fiinv :i 1 11 w. anything likely 

tii give plcasnr 

. iSii 

Q*ul_j v 

We know 

positively that in ninny i-i>cs great, suffering is 
caused hv enforced widowhood, tempered tlmii'jfk 
if be by lite u m-xii t in l; it ltd generally rontfiited, 
even, pious h>i«mr <>t t hoi i- lives. This !"ct'!io«r of 
contentment and being utterly iT«<ig»ed, it lias 
only to be feared, stands every chance of being 
nndennineil by the liystci ieal eric:-, of a few people 
and by tlie character of education which is t hurst 
on tbem. Modern education (European) knows no 
content and if via duly contemplate t.lie chances of our 
ytmiig girls trading Reynolds and otlter one penny 
novels, the eliances indeed are awful There is vice 
even now in consequence of tliis enforces widowhood 
but by tbese new evil influences there is room for 
greater vice to prevail in tins future. Already there 
arc girls who brook not their parental control and arc 
flying from their homes and offering themselves in 
the open market. ; but man iss extremely selfish and 
though ny his preaching Jfec, (purely didactic) he in- 
duces nu innocent girl to leave her former, perhaps 
even happy mode of life, yet he would not himself 
under <jo a tike sacrifice. As it is, caution has to be ex- 
ercised, even on prudential considerations, in creating 
a supply before we create a demand. Man has to edu- 
cate himself much far than he has to educate his fe- 
male-kind- It is a perfectly frivolous etense that we 
have often heard, that but for his females at home, he 
would have effected this and that reform ; and all the 
while the speaker is a peison whose other vices his 
wife or mother had not sought to eradicate him from. 
From the foregoing discussion we wish to draw pro- 
minent attention to the fact that change and freedom 
are not opposed to the genius of Hindu Dharraa and 
religion ; and that on the other hand, change has been 
its special characteristic and that it has all along been 
improving and Adapting itself to its new environ- 
ments. * 

• It should be apparent to every one, how, hut for our established 
courts of Law, Hindu law in the hands of the people would hare 
undergone many changes ; and to how many shifts find contri- 
vances people have recourse to, to keep" themselves clear of the 
presnmptif,..: cf osr law courts. Even the Legislature is too slow 
(perhaps justly) to move with the times, mid we know what 
difficulty the Hon'ble Mr. Sankaran Nair haclin carrying a merr per- 
missive piece of legislation through the Council; und the IT n'ble 
Mr. Bakbyatn Ayyangar's tiny bill is "till hanging fire, 


Ai;ot i the end of the eleventh century, it would 
seem, arose a Tamil poet whose influence throughout 
South India has been very great, and is probably 
increasing. He cante from the village of Knndiattfir 
T~- hifl-tiwH 'J, and was called Arul-inori-dtivar, 'He of 
!fo- (imciovx Word.' His brother was called Piil-arrft- 
viiyar, 'He from ivlioxe moidh milk ever flows.' .These 
may have been epithets afterwards given but the 
name of SeUkirar which was originally that of the 
tribe (a snb-divisiou of the Vellalar, or Yeomen), was 
given- to the poet as being preeminently the glory of 
his race. The Sora king of that day was called 
Anapiiyar >yhe imperishable 1 ; an epithet of Siva), 
whose date is between a.d. 1063 and 1112, and is said 
to have been greatly addicted to the study- of Jain 
literature, and especially of their great epi the 
Jivaga-Chintiiniani, an account of which ia given 
elsewhere. There were many good reasons against 
this heretical study, but the ehief one urged was that 
its teachings were opposed to the Saiva faith- The 
Sekkiriir, who for his learning and piety had been 
made prime minister of the kingdom, a position great- 
ly affected in old times by Saiva devotees, reproved 
his master for these heretical studies. The king 
answered ' But where arn the lives of your Saiva 
Saints ? Give them to me, that I 'may obtain pleasure 
and edification from their perusal.' To this the 
minister replied, that Sundara Mnrthi had summed np, 
in eleven poems,* the history of the Saiva devotees, 
and that Nainbi-andar-Nambi had amplified this work 
in verse. These works were brought to the king, 
who read them with delight, but found them all too 
brief. He therefore requested his minister, the 
Sekkiriir, to compose a poem that should be n great 
epic like the Jivaga Chintauiani and should make 
these histories popular through all the Tamil speaking 
lands Sekkiriir undertook the task, and at once pro* 
ceeded to Chitharabarain, the Siva metropolis, where, 
after bathing in the sacred tank, and performing all 
holy rites, he presented himself before the God, who 
there ever performs the mystic dance that symbolises 
his five divine operations. There worshipping, he 
made his prayer for inspiration to perform the assign- 
ed task. In response a voice was heard from the 
shrine which uttered the line — 

' He who is hard to be understood and express 'd in words.' 
* Thin is n f anions poem composed by the Saint. Sea bis life. 


These words both the poet and the thr> e thousand 
devotees of the temple heard, and understood that the 
6od sanctioned the undertaking, nnd commanded that 
the poem should commence with this line. 

The bard now Bet himself to collect from every 
quarter, arrange, and versify the legends, while the 
impatient king continually sent messengers to enquire 
as to the progress of tbe work and to urge it on. At 
length the poem was completed, aud the king himself, 
learning that the great poem, whose initial line the 
god himself had voucli-safed to dictate, was comple- 
ted, came to the sacred place, and bowed in reverence 
before his poet-laureate and minister. And now 
epistles were despatched to all parts of the Tamil 
country, to tbe devotees of the God of every order, who 
came thronging in until the city was crowded with 
sages and ascetics. In the Golden Hall — the Pon- 
nambaUtm — a seat was placed for the bard, and with 
royal pomp the finished poem was placed upon a 
pedestal, while flowers were spattered around and 
incense offered. So the first reading began on the Gtli 
of the month Sittimi (April'; and continued day by 
day till the same time of the following year, while i J 
the interval, all the auditors from every region were 
daily feasted by the bounty of the king. After the 
reading was completed, the book was wrapped up in 
a silken covering fringed with gold, then deposited 
in a golden casket, and with the bard placed iu the 
kowdah of a royal elephant, where the king stationed 
himself with a fan to cool the distinguished compiler ; 
and thus in royal pomp they returned to the royal 
abode. The king then assigned to the poet the Tondai 
land 41, as a kingdom, which, with his brother, he 
governed for sometime, and then returning to the 
presence of the God, in due time obtained his fina] 

Tbe collection of legends which this poet has thus 
versified consists of seventy-two cantos, in which the 
lives of sixty-three devotees of Siva are given, with 
every species of embellishment. It would seem that 
the Saiva gurns had come to the conclusion that they 
could not retain their hold upon the people without 
»:>mething that should be equivalent to the Jatdkan 
current among both Buddhists and Jains, and proba- 
bly beginning then to be used by the Vaisbnavites 
also. It is curious that the same species of legendary 
hie tor j was commencing at that very time to play a 
***y great part in the religion of the Western peoples. 

* The ToDda-mandalaia was a subordinate, kiupdom, subject to 
He Bow. 


About this period, the Ncstorian Christians on the 
Western Const of South India pere in full force, and 
though it would seem very corrupt, and mingling a 
great deal of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Muhammada- 
nisni with their Christianity, still possessed and 
valued, and vaunted their own legends together with 
and above the sacred authentic Christian histnry. 

Our poet and the devotees at Chithamb'tram, ivho 
seem to havn formed an Editorial Committee, had 
abundant sources of inspiration. Every village 
throughout the Tamil lands was made to give up its 
traditions, and additional matter sought for in all 
directions. The result is a very remarkable and com- 
posite Hagiography. 

I have translated a law of these almost iu their 
entiieuess, and given (in the pages of this Magazine) 
a very brief abstract of some others, being compelled 
to omit all reference to a considerable number whose 
character is absolutely niicdifyiiig. It is hardly fair to 
give extracts from writings which are beautiful iu 
the main, without noticing the fact that many of them 
are exceedingly silly, and some of them most repug- 
nant to all good feeling. There is a gond deal of 
Indian wisdom in these poems there is, alas ! min- 
gled with things that are affecting and admirable, 
very much folly, ineptitude, and evil.* 

Yet every Tamil student must read the truly 
marvellous Pkkiva Pcranam. 


'The boy, from guilt and evil frcr, cat off the feet of him 
Who rashly overthrew the work in Siva's honour done ; 
tn caste a Brahman he, hit fotlier too ? Through lnnn's gtnec. 
While gods adored, his crime was utterly consumed. 

InatownintheSora country, called Seynaltir a Brah- 
man boy was barn, whose name was Visara-sarumar, 
who, from his earliest days, instinctively understood 
the whole Saiva creed ; so that when the sages came 
to instinct him he met them with the recitation of tbe 
essential doctrines of the system, which he had grasp- 
ed by a h vine intuition. It may be permitted to re- 
peat tbe articles of his creed, as these are summed up 
in the legend : All souls are from everlasting fast 

* We question these remarks, but we retnin the same in our pages, 
if only to show what ptcoliar prejudices are retained even bj tbe 
most informed and open-minded of the Christian Missionaries.— Ed. 

t This very ancient nnd popular legsud is referred to in the 

Tli'iiivwolnrii, XV.; £5— 'IS. 



bound iti the chains of impurity. To destroy that im- 
purity, and to give to these souls infinite felicity and 
eternal release, He who is eternal is revealed. He 
performs the five Acts of Creation, preservation, des- 
truction, " envelopment, " and gracious deliverance. 
He is the one Lord (Pathi), Who possesses the eight 
attributes of nbsolute independence, purity of form, 
spontaneous understanding, absolute knowledge, 
natural freedom from all bonds, infinite grace, endless 
might, boundless blessedness ; and whose name is Siva, 
the Great Lord. He performs his gracious acts by 
putting forth the energy (SattiJ, Who, as a person, is 
one with Him, and is therefore the divine Mother of 
all, as He is the divine Father and must, with Him, be 
loved and worshipped. Nor can we say "we will do 
this in some future birth," for we are born here as 
human beings for this and no other purpose ; and the 
human form in the infinite series of transmigrations is 
bard to attain unto. Nor should we defer till to- 
morrow our dedication oF ourselves, since we know 
not the day of our death. Therefore must we avail 
ourselves of Siva's gift of grace, studying the sacred 
Agamas and other works, without doubting, or com- 
mingling of perverse interpretation. This is the way 
of life ! ' 

One day, together with his school companions, he 
went out to the bank of the river where the village 
cows were grazing in charge of a man of the herds- 
man caste. This rustic, having no sense of right and 
wrong, beat one of the cows with a stick ; but Visara* 
saruruar was vehemently stirred by thia outrage, and 
Tushing up to him in great wrath, restrained him 
from striking the sacred animal. 'Know you not,' 
said lie, 'chat cows have come down from the world of 
Siva to this earth ? In their members the gods, the 
sages and the sacred purifying stream dwell. The 
five products of these sacred creatures are the sacred 
unguents of Siva. And the ashes which are the adorn- 
ment of the God and bia devotees is made from their 
refuse.' Dwelling upon this idea he conceived a de- 
sire to devote himself entirely to the task of herding 
and carifis? for the troop of sacred cows; and accord- 
ingly sent away the rustic, who reverentially depart- 
ed. And now our hero is the self-dedicated Brah- 
man herdsman. He easily obtains permission of all 
the Brahmans of the town to take charge of their bine j 
and daily along the bank of the beautiful river Manni 
he leads forth his troop into the grassy glades and 
green pastures allowing them with refreshing water. 
When the fierce heat of the sun oppresses, he leads 

into the shady groves, and guards them well, mean- 
while gathenng the firewood necessary for nis house- 
hold worship ; and then at eveotide, leaving each cow 
at its owner's door, he goes to his home. 

While things went on in this manner the cows in- 
creased daily in beauty, waxed fat, were joyous, and 
by day and night poured forth abundant streams of 
milk for their owners. The Brahmans fonnd that 
they had more milk than formerly for their offerings, 
and were glad. The cows, tended with such un- 
varying solicitude, were brisk and cheerful, and 
though separated from their calves that remained tied 
up in the houses, grieved not a whit, but with joy 
awaited the coming of their herdsman, following him 
gladly, crowding rfrnund bim like tender mothers, and 
lowing joyfully at the sound of his voice The young 
Brahman, seeing the exuberance of their milk, reflect- 
ed that this was a fitting unction for the bead of thf 
God ; and conceiving a great desire so to employ it, 
constructed a lingam of earth on a little mound 
beneath the sacred Atti tree on the bank of the river, 
and built around it a miniature temple with tower and 
walls. He then plucked suitable flowers, and with 
them adorning the image, procured some new vessels 
of clay, and took from each of the cows a little milk, 
with which he performed the unction prescribed for 
the divine emblem (the Lingam), and Sivan the 
Supreme looked down and received 'with pleasure the 
boy-shepherd's guileless worship. All essentials of 
the sacred service he supplied by the force of his 
imagination. Though this was done daily, the 
supply of milk in the Brahmans' dairy, was nc "whit 

For a long time this continued, until some malici- 
ous person saw what was going on and told it to the 
Brahmans in the village, who convened an assembly 
before which they summoned his father, and told him 
that his son Visara-sarumar was wasting the milk of 
the Brahmans' sacred cows by pouring it idly on the 
earth in sport. The father feared greatly when he 
heard the accusation, but protested his entire ignor- 
ance of the waste and desecration, and asking pardon, 
engaged to put a stop to his son's eccentric practices. 
Accordingly the next day he went forth to watch 
the boy's pioceedin^fs, and hid himself in a thicket 
on the bank of the river- He soon saw his little sob 
ceremoniously bathe in the river, and then proceed 
to his miniature temple, gathering sncred flowers 
and leaves, arranging everything in order for the 



minutiae of Siva worship, and then pouring a stream 
of anDointipg .milk over the eartbeo lingam. That 
convinced of the truth of the accusation he was great- 
ly incensed} and rushing forth from his concealment 
inflicted severe blows upon the boy, and nied many 
reproachful words. But the youpg devotee's mind 
was so absorbed in the worship, so full of the rapture 
of mystic devotion, that he neither perceived hia 
father's presence, nor heard his words, nor felt his 
blows. Still more incensed by the boy's insensibility, 
the infatuated father raised his foot, broke the vessels 
•f consecrated raitk, and destroyed the whole appa- 
ratus of worship. This was too much for the young 
enthusiast to bear ; the god of his .adoration was 
insulted* and the sacred worship denied. He re- 
garded not the fact that it was his father, & Brahmao 
andaj/Mf-u that was the offender; but only saw the 
heinous sio and inealt to Siva. So with the staff in 
his hands he aimed » blow at the offender's feet, as if 
to cut them .off ;and, behold, the shepherd's staff 
became in hi* hands the SaerM Azp of Siva, and the 
father fell maimed and dying to the ground. The 
hoy then went on with his worship as if nothing had 
OeouiTed, but the Lord Siva with Umii the goddess 
riding on the sacred White Bull immediately appeared 
hovering in the air. The young devotee prostrated 
himself before the holy vision in an ecstacj* of joy ; 
when the Supreme One took him up in his divine 
arm*, saying, 'For my sake thou hast smitten down 
the father that begat thee. Henceforth I alone am thy 
father, and embracing him stroked his body with his 
aacrtd band, and kissed him on the brow. The form 
of the child thus touched by the divine hand shone 
forth with ineffable lustre, and the God further ad- 
dressed him thus : ' "Hiou shalt become the chief among 
my servants, and to thee shall be jfiven all the 
offerings of food and flowers that my w6rshipper s 
present His name then became Sandecuvarar ('the 
impetuous Lord'] The God finally took the mystic 
Camia wreath from his own he id. and with it crowned 
the yonthfitl saint. And nt> he ascended to heaven 
with Siva, and was oxalted to tjiat divine rank. The 
father, too, who had been guilty of such impiety to 
the God, and had been punished Ly the h:itid <>f his 
otrn son, was forgiven mid restored, and with the 
whole family parsed into Siva's abode of blins 


(.J. U. Pc.«, II . 

A., »>. I\ 

A Cameo is a gem, a precious stone or shell cat and 
carved in relief with a picture. This word exactly 
bits off the nature of the lyrical and dramatic pieces 
we have selected for translation and publication in 
the pages of this Magazine under this heading. These 
pieces will be mostly from the collection of poems 
called aCQjQjittmM and from 0®*Q»nmmuMi of 
Manickavachaka. The works comprised in m££jt 
Optms are enumerated in the following stanza. — 

" (tppB\m u«eofg jpkQ&sm* majs^jfjg 

1. itjbfilm NarVinai, an anthology of four-bond* 
red verses, by Pan'n'adutanda Pnn'diyan' Maran' 

2. <gj»«0^i*D* Kurondogai, an anthology of four- 
hundred verses, by two-hundred and five authors 
compiled by Purikko. 

3. icgAV-^ Aingurunuru, by different authors. 

4. u0pj)iu i-ifif Padir'r'upattn, by different au- 

o. ufiui't-M Paripadal, by different authors. 

6. **SjiQfiftns Kalittogai, compiled by Nallan- 

7. jfttff^^i Agauauut-D, an anthology of four- 
hundred verses, compiled by Uruthira San man, 
during the reign of Uggiraperaval'udi relating to 

R. \-i^zt<gftt Pumnanuru, no anthology of four- 
hundred verse*, by different authors relating to Pora- 

Kaeh uf these verses or Ode* in every variety of 
metre is a gem, a word picture, describing every 
variety of scene*, tiuint- or out-door, vivid and full of 
life and moral pith, The piece we have selected to- 
day i* from Kalittoifiii, fitly praised by U'Hi-ned men 
for its excellence tjfjS-.m lu*.c «*s. Tins )*»)-* 
the name uf Nail and urauat- mid tht learned KJitoi 
of this prieele-.* wijik, Mr C H Daio'idarum PtJlm, 

* Tl«« m-ri »»■*•« "1 l«i." .-i'«i l'ii"i ,-. Ii,.l«r i„ |i» Tninir riun.'r.. 
Intvi- Bimpii M* ii fiodlH4lJrt" Hut Iim im-,41 i-tr»Tj.'v vii'l i* r 
n^i rrnurv 'iinl ^|.l n if mm nhi nu\ h |.«i. > i. *» H ( .ik *■•>..:. I 

I|H»^' d|pJ 1)4 1*'|.|- fr *l.;, vl] j.i ,J..., ||, « 

lin>lt#lu imi! mtl- I Ju- i," -r*»<i. f . ..f Ih-n 

I i xqrl !. 
..f Ta.ntl 



controverts the view that this is only a collection by 
different authors like Agunanaru and Purtinauuru, and 
points out that each verse in Kali, does not bear the 
name of the author in the manuscripts, as is the 
case with the other collections and what is more, he 
quotes the direct authority of the great Nachinar- 
kiniar himself. Iu pafje 449, the commentator direct- 
ly refers to Nail and uvanar aa the author, 

Air. Damodaram Pillai makes the work from 2,500 
to 8,000 years old. The work may be ascribed to the 
same period as many of the pieces of Pattupattu and 
may be as such ascribed to the first century before 
or after Christ. The verse is in Kalipa metre, and iu 
every species of it. The subject is ' Again' and in all 
the fire species Palm, Maiutham, Mullai, Kurunji and 
Neithal Thinai. The piece we have selected to-day is 
from Marutham ; and wedded life is a characteristic 
of it. All the pieces, though each separate aiid complete 
in itseli are highly dramatic ami the dramatis 
personae speak iu the first person in strict dramatic 
form. The existence of this work iu particular, 
makes it such ;t matter of extreme regret that they 
have not left evon vnv sustained piece of dramatic 

Scene. [A Town house with Verandah and central 
courtyard. A mother seated at the edge of the Verandah 
her back against the door way, suckling her child. The 
child leaves its mother and goes after a toycart in the 
courtyard- On one side, hhe maid seen standing, the 
mother looks at her boy and says aloud.] 
s&ioiup edsrrm&nj LO&jftLOrtKGrra; anniijSCsir 

GGvuaQujpi *LnypQ&eir&ft /s«i*Qiojt® ^ojwait 

sv/RQureQ Ss&jQ&afl oitiuSuaa/tr eiLf.fii_.uu 
uirQevr u.ex>nmp QpSannpii^i Qf>pp l i&!& 
mtrwtvQpir cv><cu9 e&uj&Gfr Kes>i—UiSp(nr 
m/rsuwir Q<Ft»oj ear m& -Firm QumeBpsv 
'^uirsueu^ QinetrffyiiS/r • 

»-«>.. The reader is requested to note the very uumr Hue 
rurut of expression, quite simple. The diction being unfamiliar may 
•ram unintelligible. Bnt with a little patience and fumUinritv its 

'■iiiity can be relished. 

"The drivel let fall, from the mouth, bright like a 

spotless coial, as it babbled inarticulate sounds; 

wetting the jewels below, 
The tiny guldeu crescent strung with pearls, dropping 

from side to side, from the lovely, and fragrant 

The transparent garment which could not conceal the 

loveliness of the body, loosening and impeding 

the ever-tinkling foot. 
He leaves off feeding from her mother's flowing breasts, 

and goes after the toy-cart revolving on little 

wheels and drags, it, 
He, my life, verily the image of the mighty Muruga 

begotten by the Supreme Sahkara seated tinder 

the Banyan tree." 

[The mother note addresses the child itself.] 
(3u/mui,tS(TK'sQfiii Q em ■% ^n si/ it* Q 6U Lb en ld iu (tx sir sir <f n i 
Quriff&Qpc/FjsBp Q&a&srt—iriy.. ^£ir\u&\ unSppp 
.©(g''-/ Sxpp Q&irp&ar tuireiQaL^u 
UiQisQ^atiij Oie^Sp aiSfjip LtuSestppCOf p 
Qu(0)iip stria ah-jpfrlev ; 

" O my little, good natured, lord, yon would even 
forget me, engaged incessantly as I am in attend- 
ing to my guests, in your play with your gov- 
ernesses and iu learning from them again and 
again to articulate speech. 

Your prattle could not cease to fill me with ever- 
renewed pleasure. 

Let me now hear from you what you have newly 
learnt, and drink your words sweeter than am- 

[The father comes up behind and stands quiet ; the 
child sees him and cries, ' papa,' 'papa* ' Jippir,' ' Jfp 
pit,' and the mother not hum-ii.ij the real cause, addres- 
ses her moid.] 

treaeStfiatu, Q&tLt&shrjpi urn tuQ&itci&Tirisp uitssnoi 

a/<rG?tuff"/£_ QiuQ)f$Lj uirLf.iu ©icrirQ?.! 
QisamiSfK ,»arfig tLmsOfitau uratrt-t— 
Qmirw fB®Mp<i!)ppj ppptQat&r utrwuorsm 
QtViiiQicegQ^eff Qtuiup@p$5 < 2fiTppjpu>jpaN&t«jr 

suiTii-jmeSu Qun&tTGStG s a ; 

* c. >'. the expression " «, • igi^i SwnSiitt." 
fThe Masculine of this is +*f&; (father), wluoh my mother 
used, hut which i« becoming obsolete in our own generation. 



"Look here, my bright jewelled girl, my man whom 
1 had .so loved is almost a stranger to me owing 
to hie present associations ! 

Wishing to find a balm for my diseased mind, in my 

child, I go to it and lo! he- would not cease 

prating 'papa,' ' papa,' 
I forget his fault and take him up on my shoulders 

smooth tike a bent bamboo. 
And even then hi* mouth does not cease prating the 

same word." 

• OTOiirui-'r pmp&Quw sapp* fftaiiisDtfi 
Qiu&f^mti «/*,*i<?ff «?s»(g ; 

"1-aee, he has come here like a thief sent by one 
side to rob the enemy of their war-iraplemeDjiB, 
only to wound me and not for love of me." 

OpLiur Qi—anrasfliJ Lfifisn&sBiu speaQatiir 
#«rai«JiT« *fr<es)f)£l n&trrQi— Qi*«r u*«^'J/rsu# 
Qftu&enji* Q*MJ<Lur^ Q^irivcSr &s3rwsrf)Qsr 

g) few *!-*©,» t-KTitkitH ; 

He — " The watchmen on the tower fancy they see 
thieves, while there are none, by reason of their 
fevered imagination- Like them, don't accase 
me of what I am innocent and get enraged and 
get away from me. Who will disobey your 
commands I " 

QpfdffLA*** Qp&aQatrQp (2su0)a>iram Qp*8) 

She. — " Don't stand in the direction of the wind which 
wafts from your clothes fragrant dust which be- 
longed to the person of your new love ; and go 
awuy from me. You shamelessly pain me, you 
ouly came out of love to see uiy child." 

• tbj /. sir. TMb givca tlip mcrmmjc of [lie controt-ieil from 
<u*;ifr, 8 ■»«*>" The gmmlson. one at fattt, would be invariably 
rftlled after \\\i grandfather. 


He. — "If you will not believe me even afti-i- my oath 
that 1 am innocent and will stilt keep aloof 
from me, then let me take to my breast and 
carry away my darling son, a* the oow flies to 
the side of its beloved calf where it is tied up." 


(Continued from page 1\) 
Though the object of the poet was chiefly to inculcate 
and embody iu his work the salient features of his 
religion, yet, in his delineation of the birth and ex- 
ploits of the hero, he thoroughly came out successful 
in his secondary object of launching on the face ol 
Tamil, the model of the approved Sanskrit Kaviya 
But his commentator — Nachinarkiniyn<- — includes thi; 
work under Ou.t^lIO'— m—i &tn^Qfujnfiii: } bases it or 
'the QprAi of Ofi"sa*ii6i3iuir, and states that the word *t 
uiSujih was not in vogue iu the author's time. But the 
treatment of the subject, and the description of -eat- 
and scenes are quite different from those of the work: 
of his Tamil predecessors, and so close after the mode 
of Sanskrit, that there can be no doubt that tin* authui 
never intended hi a work to be included in the category 
of the Tamil grammarian. The commentator o'. 
Silappathikaram points out that the word sir^ujii 
(tiruiSuh) was already used in m.jSiufmir *«>_£ (a.iu^ 

siruiSiu euKfUeer* tec.^peaai G*/ra"«$," 

in the 29th stanza of *arsuirtb>turif)s!>icu*iA of Chinta 
mani itself, 

QmiM.Qvj(tf tSfpiSjgpC-L-irti, &c." 
and in the 19th canto of Manimekalai, 

" tnit-.4s£ siruiSiu mar gprgnefiuQuftri." 

There were also, before the time of Kamban, fiv< 
minor epics of the Jain class niter the Sanskrit model 
In his preface to (gwtuiruii, Mr. I." W tlamudaran 
Pillai enumerates these to be i~C'sr.j *-A ..-, 

and establishes with sufficient evidence licit ^a - * -etf 
is at least 1,500 years old. The atith'n-* nl' w.jflu 



4 jrn"wu> and •»*irff>» imitated some of these Kavyas 
in the opening of their works. Kamban, who lived 
sometime after Kachiynppa Siva Charyar, though be 
had no knowledge of Sanskrit like some others pie- 
ceding him, studied the Tamil Kavyas on Sanskrit 
model, grasped the knack of producing a Kavya, and 
at last by his genius excelled his masters, and even 
rendered obsolete some of the master minds preceding 
him. The poets, who came after Kamban, seem one 
and all to be his imitators in all respects, and not one 
of them up to date has beaten liiin down. His Kama- 
yan is a very good mould in which subsequent poets 
cast their poems. The old school of poets disappeared 
sometime before the last days of the Madura College. 
The modern school was opened by Jain. scholars like 
gl<0}££as(e£&->r l and of this school, Kamban stands 
supreme, and Was, therefore, in his own time crowned 
as " The Emperor of Poets." 

Our Subject. 
Who was this Emperor of Poets ? What was his age 
and who were his contemporaries? What was the 
literature available to him, and what part of it shaped 
his genius ? What are the salient features of his 
Ramayan which ennohles the poet and his genius ? 
What were his other works ? Can we glean anything 
abont the man from his works ? These are some of 
the important questions which, as stated before, we 
propose to discuss in this dissertation with the very 
meagre and scanty means and materials at our dis- 
posal. We do not intend to be partial. We only 
mean and mean really to extract truth from the 
mythical traditions and irrelevent statements. 


M. A. 

(To be continued). 



" A Philosophical Study."* \y B , luVy ,, e . ul 
little pamphlet of Mr. Covindacharlu with 
pleasure and profit. He wishes to discuss the subject 
of Inspiration, Intuition and Kcstasy ^Voga katcJii) 
as understood and developed in the Hast and in the 
West and by the Theosophical Society, and the present 
part traces the aevelopement of tin's idea from the 
earliest times down to quite recent timus in Kurope. 

The subject is a vast one treated in so many portly 
volumes and yet the short resume of it is given in a 
quite attractive manner, in tbe .short compass of the 
book- The subject does not admit of anj criticism 
here and we would say we look forward with great 
pleasure to his other promised contributions on the 

"The Ashtadhyayi of Paiiini, Part -VII I." "—The 
learned Translator of Siva Kainhita has been en- 

o-ao-ed in bringing out this unrivalled work in. 
English at very great trouble and expense. This is a 
book which is indispensable to every student of 
Sanskrit, especially if ho wishes to understand the 
Vedas and Upanishads. Professor Max M idler says 
that "there is no grammar in any language that could 
vie with the wonderful mechanism of his Pauini's) 
eight, books of grammatical rules" and he laments 
that he had not the benefit of sneh a valuable transla- 
tion in the beginuiug of his studies. It is to be 
completed in 8 Volumes, of 2,000 pa?es Royal Octavo, 
and 5 .Volumes of this book of 1,0-i.j pages are already 
out. Subscription in advance Us. 20, or Us. H per 
Volume. The enterprise is one which is well worth 
the patronage of our Riijah.s and Zemindars and by 
all lovers of our ancient Sanskrit learning. 

» CliroiiiotMUliy." t J'lie enterprise of Mr. T. A. 
Swaminatltii Aiyny has made this tract on the new 
science of healing available to the Tamil reading 
Public The rendering is in simple plain tamil, though 
the repeated use of certain English words such as 
' case ' Ac, could have been avoided. The object 
of the translator is not gain, and he quite believes 
that this new remedy will be a boon to all suffering 
mankind, though we are not quite sanguine about it. 
We found however the book in the hands of several 
Indian .Medical men and one of them has assured us 
that he found the treatment successful in several 
cases. He however thought that the faith of the 
individual may have gut something to do with this 
effecting of the cure. However, there is nothing trial and it is neither costly nor 
injurious as other nostrums are. 

* By A. (ViivinilnrJiai-lu, K '!' s. 
Weslejan Mission Cress, 1697. Fi-ic 

of Mvsurc, 

! AdHUS. 

Printed .it ulie 

* Tinjth*h|*«t1 >»u> English by Sriah i ..uiHui- Vasu, b. a.. District 
Mnnsiff trf N". W 1'.. Piiriini 1-tftice. HeimiTS Cniitonwonr. 

t Translated into Tumi] by Mi-. T. A. Swanrinatlia Aivur, Editor 
of the Stittca s,„tl Minim*. 1887. rW- M AnUsw. ' 



Wk acknowledge with thanks the following exchanges 
The Dawn (for June, July and August), Theosophie 
IMeanei- (August), Prfcbnddha Bharata (.September). 
Astrological Magazine (1st quarter). Vivekaehintaniani 
(for July and August) and Satwa. Sadhani (for June and 

* • 

Thk July number of VliekachiHlammu contains full aud 
interesting matter and is prefaced with a portrait of the 
late lamented Rao Bahadur Professor P. Suudram Pillai, 
31. a., and contains verses lamenting his death. In an 
article " Tamil A Retrospect and Prospect.'* by a. distin- 
guished Tamil Scholar, the following suggessions for im- 
proving the Tamil are contained. 

1. To form a committee of really able scholars selected 
from among officers and pensioners and to entrust to them 
a fund fur the improvement of the Tamil language. 

± The committee to undertake the publication uf cor- 
rect editions of ancient Tamil works, with new annotations 
A/, and to arc.] it and publish works of merit from the 
pen of modern scholars, and to award scholarships to 
really able men devoted to the ciiltu-reof Tamil. 

To increase the pay iind prospects of Tamil pandits 
in schools and ciillcircs. 

4. The university tu institute an examination for 
Tiiiuil t'snditft, and to grain degrees. 

o. To grant honoi*ry degrees besides to Pandits of 
rare merit. 

b'. To compile a Tamil Dictionary similar to Webster's 
Dictionary and to subsidize the printing and publication 
of hitherto unpublished hooks, with annotations <fcc, 

7. To publish translations in Tamil of Standard Kng- 
lish works. 

8. To institute public libraries in different eeutres 
and to place a pandit in charge of the same, who shall 
be able to teach scholars who may resort to them. 

Our leader* may be aware that many of thete sug- 
gestions ivere also put forward by us in our last issue, 
but to expect that any progress will be made iu these 
directions without the hearty cooperation of Government 
and the University is perfectly futile. The apathy of 
our own people is very great and the few who moved 
m the matter originally are <-ven beginning to lose heart. 
If at least our own dry hones can be vitalized a little, 
we ean fairly expect Oovernnient to 'aid us. But the 
Government has itself a great duty to perform by its 
people and it m prayed that it will not shirk it. By 
Us efforts alone, a great deal has been done for the pre- 
servation of ancient books and ancient learning. A little 
more of its wonted generosity will accomplish more, now 
that there is a slight stir among the people themselves. 
Auent the criticism of the Mialia* Mail, that our sugges- 
tions mark a departure from the principle of study for the 
sake of study, we need only observe that it ignores the 
Stern f:icts of our existence and that this principle fits a 
society where all would follow the noble doctrine of Lord 
.lesns of not earing for the morrow and that such enthu- 
siasm was never sufficient even in Europe without found- 
ations and scholarships. 

* • 

Rehauihsi; the 'art for art's sake' principle, we will 
quote a couple of lines from the Pall Mall MagazineAJnnS). 

" We *'C,"thon, that in the most brilliant a>re of Greece, and of 
Creek art and totters, the civic spirit was the inspiring spirit. Uut 
ns the iireek cities wink, one by one before the Macedonian power 
mid forfeited their liberties, this civic spirit died for lack of nonrisli- 
inciii and exercise, and a literary spirit touk its place. In other 
words, literat ate w«a driven to feed on itself, which ig about the 
worst tiling that can ever happen ro it " whatever wog in- 
vented by these men had n purely literary origin; aud though, their 
compositions havti a certain interest of their mvn, they no longer 
reflect l lie feelings nncl :rj(ieH of tree political life." 

" Ajjain Turn to Bomr. :ind you "ill Hud , very nearly the (same 
Rtory. A ch'ie spirit in education anil literature accompanies lior 
ifruu'ih: a literary, 'art fur art's sake' spirir her decline." 

And our readers will not fail to sec that this ' mine story 
Iniv i. neated itself in the case of Oriental Learning and 
Literal are. The Olympian. Augustan and Elizabethan age 
of the Tamil literature, for instance, was the period when 
its kings aud princes did nut disdain to sit at the feet of 
its poets and pandits, and when these vied with their poets 
tu excel in learning, and some of them .succeeded too in 
becoming the most- accomplished poets, and the poets 
themselves did not disdain to sing of Love and War. If 
to-day. we find an English writer writing against the 
prevalence of this same ' literary, art for art's sake spirit' 
in modern England, with its great facilities and undoubt- 
ed scope fur the encouragement of luerrof letters, the learned 
Head of the Educational Department will, it is prayed, 
pause before applying this noble principle of the ' Mm I ran 
Mail ' in the case of a down-fallen side of Oriental learn- 
ing and litei-itin'f. 


* * 

We gave prominent insertion to the translation of 
another Hymn from the Tiruvachakam from a respected 
contributor and learned Tamil Scholar, in our last. The 
purport of this hymn is said to be Aimbara Lakihaua' 
and there is no other hymn in the whole book which 
contains the cream of the Advvaita-Siddhnnta philosophy. 
The whole hymn deserves to be got by heart and the 
woi"ds meditated and pondered over ever and anon. 
A translation of ' OunpjS^^(Jf"^ei'^>', will appear incur 

Wk hRve received the full tepoit of the proceedings 
of the Twelth Anniversary of the Saiva Siddhanta .Sabha 
of Trichinopoly. The Sabha represents an indigenous 
effort of the people to improve themselves in their own 
religion and philosophy. They meet every .Sunday at 
the Rock fort Hundred-pillared inantapum for prayer 
and reading and lectures. They have a Pandit who 
i«ads and explains to them fjwm some staudm-d Sanscrit 
book. They have a library. They perform pnjahs and 
feed people on the days sacred to the Tamil Saints. 
The financial condition of the Sabha is fair enough and 
they can show a balance in hand of over Rs. 1J00 Ahuve 
all, they have, u Sunday Religious School which judging 
from the attendance seems to be very popular and well 
managed. In the first standard, there are 43 pupils 
and in the 2nd, ~M pupils and in the 3rd '.i~> pupi]> 
and in the fourth ov the highest class there are 1J 
pupils, iiefnit the anniversary, the Ihjvs and the girls 
are examined and compete for prizes and wc count no 
less than 8 girls who have passed in the examinations. The 
Sabha records with deep regret the disath of Sriinmli 



Gttruswami Sai-ma, who was, in fact, the founder of the 
JStiivii Samaj, out of which, the present Subha whs 
resuscitated, and of Prof. P. Sundram Pillai, ». a., one of 
the patrons of the Sabha We congratulatedie members. 
of the Sabha, on the progress, shown by them. The Sabhn 
till* a great want and there is a great necessity for such 
institutions everywhere and they are bound to be popular 
proceeding as it does on strictly national lines much more 
than foreign importations and new fangled institution?;. 


Hah BAMttHit Mr. Sathu Seshayyu, n. a., writes to the 
h'tt'tctttioiial Jievietc as follows; — 

'"Tin- lirnloiio Humiij movement interested mc rmicli, nuil at one 
period ill' nry life I whs almost a Bmhmo. Again I Wits Pile of tlie 
t-upponers of the Vedasamuj. In course of lime I found [hilt these 
movements failed, or produced little impression upuu tlie mind 
el tin: people, chiefly uccuusc they did nut appeal adequately tu 
tlie highest religious instincts of man. Social movements have 
always interested me tlie widow marriage movement in parti- 
cular. 1 have sometimes taken nctivo part in them, and have 
always supported the parties of Reformers against sociul tyranny ; 
Lmt my own conviction is. after the experience of years, that it ix 
no easy task to sail safely uwny from tlie old moorings, which 
have the support of religion, A healthy religion* revival is nccen- 
irarv before healthy .social changes can be wifely established. J 
have always freely communicated my views on these and other 
questions to ficcessivc groups jof pupils and friends. In spite 
of us, changes aro coining upon us — English education, English 
commerce, English (iovcminent and its accompaniments are large 
eiliientiinutl factors ; lint tiiey need wise direction at the hands of 
those « ho are responsible for the training of the coming geiicr- 
ut ion * else wo iimy drift into grievous blunders. Heaven avert 
[hem! t iiavc cautioned men against pseudo-politics und pseiulu- 
patriotisni. that puiviutisui which helps men to help themselves 
cheaply. What the country needs is n liody of workers ami not 
patriotic talker*. Talking, though it in a highly useful function, 
is liable to he grossly utilised. Heal humanity is hive and charity 
these we must learn and practise. Other tilings will follow aft u 
■natter of course. English vices, political und social alike, mo 
levy easy to imitate ; but not the social virtues of Englishmen, 
n« a nation of sturdy Worker*. Man's mil glory consists in work 
Cor sell" mid oilier*. 

A tcaelier's missiuu has many fides and aspects; and he who 
would gladly teach must gladly learn, mid he unto his pupils an 
example of noble minded truthfulness, charily and purity. It is 
a high iilcnl we jumtals Miisri strive to attain it, In this humble 
spirit i have worked, willi what success [ lay lit the feet of (Jod. 
I am ever ami ever reminded of my serious short -coinings. I 
have always felt my class of hoys before mc the moat cheering 
speeiaclo to me: and my work, very imperfectly done, has been 
my inspiration." 

These are words of Truth and need being pondered 
over by others who have not come under tlie powerful 
influence of this Veteran educationist's strong personality 
and by successive generations of pupils and alsu teachers. 
Almost every mature hulian Thinker has .struggled and 
felt and acted in the same way. ft behoves therefore 
I lie present and future generations of pupils to profit by 
-nth experience and to bear in iniud especially the caution 
iiL'iiinst the worst temptations of European material civili- 
zation. We also wish the lata Principal of Kumbnconam 
College, health and strength and a long and happy career 
ul further usefulness. 

* * 

Si'K.iMNtiTit a Conference held at Oxford under the pre- 
sidency of the Mnrquis of Ripoti. the Bishop of Hereford 
said he did not remember' a period in the course of his 
life in which personal greed was so prominent and had 
WM'li a strong grip <>u private, political, commercial ftnjV 
industrial life as it had at the present time, 


We look forward with great pleasure to the forth-coni- 
itig publication by Pandit V, S&minathaierof hia excel- 
lent edition of 'Manimekalai ' LDsjonGioatsv. Thd book 
ought to be of special interest to all lovers and students of 
Buddhism, and we have here afforded a means of knowing 
what Buddhism really was two thousand years ago and 
to compare the same with Buddhism as propounded now 
by various schools of thinkers. The author was an ardent 
Buddhist and as such there could he no charge of distor- 
tion of views. The book is almost ready for publication 
we hear. Another Buddhist work called ' Kie»tfn/aJre« 
(^mri^eoQsS has been irretrievably lost we are afraid, 
though there must have been copies extent,, when the 
commentaries on Sivagnana Siddhi were written i.e. about 
2 centuries ago, as we Hnd the commentators giving 
([notations therefrom. 

* * 


Aludms Mail r m 

Air. Brnce-Koote writes to the 
follows : — 

In your Tuesday's issue the writer of the very- interesting London 
Letter D'fers in the passage in Kir John Evans's presidential speech 
ai (In 1 llritish A^soc-iat.ioti Meeting at Toronto in which the possi- 
bility of Southern India being ' the cvtuUe of the human race ' is 
alluded to. and the remarkable identity in Bhapc of the implements 
made by many tribes, ill very different parts of the earth, if 
dwelt upon. Tlie special form of implement which Sir John Evaos 
had in mind and mentions us almost peculiar to the latcritic depo- 
sits of Madras, but as occuring also in the old gravels of the iMihl," 
panares river at Mndrid. is the often large and heavy uxe-shupefl 
implement with a broad-cut ting edge, of which 1 figured three ex- 
amples in plates V, XI and XII of my driginal paper ' un the 
occurrence of Stone Implements in Latcritic Formations, commu- 
nicated to the Madras Literary Society, in 18G4, shortly after my 
hiivitig discovered that type of implements in the lnteritic conglo- 
merates at Alnmpitkkaui, north of Trivellore. 1 lim'e since then 
found this type of implement in their palieolithic deposits in India 
and notably a very Hue example near the bnse of the great 
alluvial deposits of the Sabarmati river in southern Gujarat. This, 
which like the majority of the Indian palieolithic implements in 
made of qunrtzite, X had the pleasure of showing to Sir John 
Evans and other leading I'rehiatoricists at the British Association 
at Oxford in 1B94, where it excited great interest. 1 may add 
that ifiis axe-ehnprd implement belongs to the rarest type known 
in India." 


— OR 


A Monthly Journal Devoted to Religion. Philosophy. Literature, Science, &c. 

Commenced on the Queen's Commemoration Day, 1897. 





No. 5. 



"Thy. Pilgrim's PuEKUJtsa." 

This hymn is entitled " Cf^j.r pA ^S^aii- aim " or the 
Song of Praise, the sjreater part of it being devoted 
to the praise of God. I have omitted most of the 
praise giving only a few specimen lines, and translated 
mainly the earlier pavt which describes tha progress 
of the soul to God. The exigencies of the translation 
have compelled, the use of the lii-st personal pronoun 
rather oftener than in the original. verses, though 
having a personal application ti the l's;i)mist. art; 
rmestni also to record ail experience typical ul that of 
every Soal in its progress ti God, — a pilgrimage not 
confined within the brief *]vm of niu: human life but 
extending over counties* lives find i-vcii embracing the 
evolution of man out of the [iiiiiiordial elements. The 
hymn recalls the sublime picture Jwwn fry U uli 
Whitman, in harmony with modern -cil utiti. Ihoughi, 
of planet.rry development ind t'n; ynid "■'' emergence 
of life through its sncee^MVc o &>'■-■ i?Uriv r.rsfjl 

it stand' as a cwi*eiovM hwimui ml. 

" I am an acme of things* accomplished, sun! J am an 

enclo^er of things to he. 
Afar do*vn I see the huge first Nothing— J knuw 

I was even there ; 
I waited unseen and always, and slept through the 

lethargic mist, 
And took mv time, and took aw harm from rji<* fend 

earhoi 1 ■ 
Long / was hugged close — long and ioitg. 
Immense have been the preparations for me, 
Faithful and friendly the arms that have helped nip. 

Cycles Terried my cradle, rowing and like 

cheerful b:>ntroeu ; 
For room to we still's kept aside in rheir own mig« 
They sent influences to look after what was to hold i»" 

Before I was born out uf my mother, u-enemtiori-- 

guided me. 
My embryo has uever been torpid — nothing cnld 

uverhvp it 
Par ii the m-buht rula/icd fv !#h. 
The long -lrtlUi piled t" f ■' 11 

\ .».>♦ \*i-e. t rbh". guVV il - 1 1 -I - - 1 - : 
>[..,,-!,■. in- < tvri.,- ■'-(■ I ''I- 

i.Iid 'frtiv-I'L'i 



All forces have been steadily employed to complete 

and delight me ; 
Now on this spot I stand with my robust soul" 

To the Psalmist MAnikka Vasakar "the faithful and 
friendly arms that helped" were those of the Lord who, 
having lovingly watched and guided his path through 
the £eons, came at last upon earth and "held out a 
helping hand " as "Brahmin Teacher of Trnth" in the 
grove of Tirup-perun-turai , way laying him on his 
errand on the king's business and making him His 
" vassal." How he became ripe for this crowning 
mercy is told in the hymn in language whose intense 
love and emotion are but faintly, if at all, reproduced 
in the translation aud are characteristic of the Bhakti- 
yogi, whose goal and final experience were told in the 
hymn entitled " The House of God" aud translated 
in the August issue of this Journal, With such sturdy 
confidence in the security of the whole scheme of 
things,, with this imperturbable optimism and unrest- 
ricted faith, — the essence of all religions, — each of us 
may, in, darkest hoars, be sustained and exhilarated 
and feol his " foot tenoned and mortised in granite/' 

" My rendez-vous is appointed— it is certain ; 

The Lord will he there, and wait till I come, oa per- 
fect terms, 

The great Camarado, the lover for whom I pine, 
will be there." 

P. A. 

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Mighty Vishnu of luminous crown., — who 

'Mid prayers of four-faced Brahma and all 

The heavenly host, in ttf o paces measured 

The triple world, the sages of the four quarters 

Raising their voice the while in praise and thanks, 

With joy their senses blossoming, — 

Did once in shape of fierce strong hoar 

Pierce and cleave the erst blended spheres, 

Yearning to know Tbybase and crowu, 

Then in weariness cried ' Victory to Thee, 

Universal Lord.' Even so he saw not 

Thy flower-feet, which easily that I might praise, 

Was I saved in 'faultless wombs 

On the sea-girdled earth, elephant's womb to ant's,* 

Saved in womb of human mother, 

Saved from stroke of sterilizing worm, 

Saved in the meeting of the seeds in the first moon, 

Saved in their growth in the second moon, 

Saved in their struggle in the third, 

Saved in the great darkness of the fourth month 

Saved from the; blight of the fifth moon, 

Saved From the mishaps of the sixth, 

Saved, looking earthwards, in the seventh, 

Saved in the straits of the eighth moon, 

Saved in the daugerB of the ninth, 

Saved in the due tenth moon, 

Together with the mother in a' sea 

Of agony struggling : — 

* Elsewhere, in the bymn entitled Sivitpm-dna m, the Saint has 

L/sveonSu ut^ntLu uQgeunuj uw mnQu 

uiud3(rK&tii>T@Li up&asmuniuu unuiusQi' 

seoeonaj LDe&jfirniuu Guiufiui aemrmi&sniiiu 

w ai sv m a it n m QfiaSaiffinL'fi G^euniiLi^ 

Qf£i)6vni§firp olljipnGy &&■!&& u}j££i 

Qsesneinu tSpuLjLo t9pijB3f*iQ& .QerwQu(i$tDir&r. 

"Grass, herb, worm, tree, animal of sundry kind 
Bird, snake, rock, man, devil, angel, Titan 
Of evil might, sage, godling, — 
These and all else in this wide universe 
Have I been bom, nnd I am weary, O Lord." 



Then in the march of years saved, 

Saved sitting, moving, and in countless ills, 

Saved in the morning excretions, 

In the fierce hanger of noon, the darkness of night, 

Saved at work, in sleep, in wayfaring ; 

Saved from the havoc of darts from maidens' eyes, 

Dark locks, rosy lips, white teeth, peacock gait, 

Young breasts that rise in wanton pride to burst 

The bodice, and, sinking back weary and in pain, 

Swell and fill, leaving not a hair's breadth space ; 

Saved from the furious elephant desire 

That roams through this wide world of mad men, 

Saved from the multitudinous seas of learning, 

Saved from the dangers of wealth, 

Saved from the poison of poverty, 

Saved from the petty fetters 

Of divers customs and modes. 

There arose then the thought of God, 
And tbinking of the Peaceful One, straight away 
Sixty million powers of delusion 
Each its prank began. In troops came 
The atheisms and spake atheism 
Till their tongues were sore. KinBmen crowded 
And clang like kine, calling and wailing bitterly. 
Priests pleasantly, establishedfrom the scriptures 
That fasts and rites were God. Sectarians 
Fought shouting each his religion true. 
The hurricane of Idealism whirled 
And roared and raged. The fierce, bright snake 
Materialism spat its venom 
From amid the conflict of sciences. 
Thence delusions great and many encircled me 
That I might not escape. 
But letting not go what had been grasped, 
Heart in prayer melting like wax in sight of fire, 
Weeping, trembling, dancing, shouting, 
3inging, praising, gripping like jaws or babe 
What was clutched ; as a nail cleaves 
The tender plant, so with pure, ceaseless love 
Melting, overflowing, tossing sea-like, 
Heart auspiciously softening, body quivering, 
The world at me as ». mad devil laughing, 
Lost to shame, the town's ridicule my ornament, 
Unswerving, of appearance heedless, 
Mad with yearning to know,— 
My goal the Supreme Wonder,— 

la pain and wilderment like calf for its mother crying, 
Even in dream thinking not of other God, 
Making not light of the gracious coining on earth 
Of the Supreme Peerless One as Teacher, 
To His holy feet clinging like shadow 

Inseparable that goes before and after, 

Looking ever towards the Peaceful One, 

Bones melting, heart in agony of suspense, 

The stream of love its bank bursting, 

(The senses made one), crying aloud, 

" O Lord/' words faltering, hair standing on end, 

Hands clasped in worship, heart blossoming, 

Eyes filling with tears of joy, 

Daily' fostering unfading love, — 

To such as these, Lord, art thou mother, 

And them thou dost Tear. 

Glory, Glory to Thee, 

Glory, O Lord that, in shape of Brahmin Teacher 

Of truth, to crush my karma didst hold out 

Helping hand. Glory, King of Golden Madura, 

Glory, O Gem among Teachers that shonst in its courts 

Glory, Dancer in the hall of Southern Tillai,* 

This day unto me thou become hast ambrosia. 

Glory, Lord of the- Vedas that age not. 

Glory, Siva of the Victorious Ox-banner, 

Glory, O ripe fruit peeled from the rock. 

Save me, O mountain of gold. 

Alas, have mercy on me. 

Glory, Thou who createst, preservest, desfcroyest. 

Glory, O Father that rootest out danger- 
Glory, O Lord, Glory, O Sovereign. 

Glory, O Friend, Glory, O Comrade, 

Glory, my Joy, Glory, my Treasure, 

Glory, peerless One th'tt art where speech and 
thought are dead. 

Glory, Mountain of teeming holy grace. 

Glory, Warrior, that madest a man of even me. 

And degned to place thy feet upon my head. 

Thou rubbest away pain from the hand that worship- 
ped Thee. 

Glory, Ocean of Eternal bliss. 

Glory, Thou who art beyond death and birth. 

Glory, Bridegroom of the Gazelle-eyed, 

Glory, Mother of the celestials- 
Glory, Thou who standest as five in. the Earth, 

Glory, Thou who st.mdest as four in water, 

Glory, Thou who standest as two in air, 

Glory, Thou who standest as one in space. 

Glory, Thou who art ambrosia in the hearts of the 
well-ripened ones. 

Glory, Thou who art inaccessible even in dream to the 

Glory, Thou who to me, a dog, in waking hours d ; it 
graciously appear. 

Glory, O Father who art merciful to those that make 
Thee their refuge 

Glory, O Destroyer t.f confusion and doubt in them 
that worship Tbee. 

Deign to accept this garland of tender words from 
me, au ignorant dog. 

Glory, ancient One. Glory, First cause. 

Victory, Victory unto Thee. 
P. A. 

* Chidambaram, where he is represented in the attitude of 
dancer, the dance representing the operations of the universe. 






Refutation or (SAnitAKTiRA) Bauddha. 

{Continued from paye SO.) 

1. O Bauddha, you did say without thought that 
jour Lord Buddha knew everything".. He could not 
know everything at all times as the universe is im- 
measurable. If everything was understood uy him 
one by one, then the^ universe should not be called 
immeasurable. If this is possible by his limitless 
wisdom, (ben his wisdom is not so capable ; he could 
not know everything an his, intelligence dies and is 
born from moment to moment. 

2 If you say that be will know the rest by know- 
ing a few of each kind, how is this possible, as objects 
of knowledge are innumerable and one divides itself 
into innumerable other species. Besides, as human 
knowledge implies perception, similarity and difference, 
how is knowledge of various objects possible, by com- 
parison ike, when according to you we do not retain 
( he consciousness of each previous moment. 

3. If your Lord Buddha gave out nis ' Dharma' 
after attaining Mukti Nirvana, then his Bpeech after 
Nirvana (annihilation of Skandas) is like that of the 
person who died by eating ghee and honey together, 
coming to life again to say, that to eat honey and 
ghee is bad. If you say he died after giving out the 
Dliarma. then ilie luw was j^iven by one who had 
not atUthu'il lo Mukti and as such it cannot lead one 
to Xfuksi. Ili« vain den re is like that of the person 
who ;;-'t knowing the depth and breadth of a rushing 
flood di-sires Id cioss ami land all the rest on the other 
side of the rivet 

-I. Yon st;ile that unlike our God who, being pre- 
sent in C",k-Ii ;*s Uiiite in wuteiyffects their preservation, 

if. i ii " i. i-s mi rt'ly tl e ■ U.-i riiL-tioii uf all [lie Skandai such 

lis lL',<iiiL, X;uii:i ic.. in- v |K-.-i-li i- [wAsiblc after Jfirviiua. Of course, 
Bti(lilhi.\t* "ill say Ll ( ;vt Iluit'l'i-i Aan u .ti v:m Muktu, lint this ivill 
Ijc ;i LHiiiailiuii.'i. in L 'in i -. in ;!li- vita- I ln'V tnko i>? Mukti or >>ir- 
Vitti* I!' niulilhii hud ii'T :n uiiin'il i i S'iitaiKi, liis law cannot 
|«uc.'Uil Hum ;ifi mil i?x].iw' .«••' riinl <'.uniut bo suit I unity. The 
*lilhrUi> ti"i f lii'l':i<i ill i! lL JjLidiltii&t iigl recoguudii!?- a 

God Iiu lm* i.i Kiiil- iju (voliuion tn incrCM&c this experi- 

etics. A 1 1 J. tin. dili iiniiii wlm'li in uuiiti'iiiu'iiL-L 1 mists is beautifully 
|nit Tin: ni'.tt stan/.a follows tilt: muuo subject. 

V This stanza (jm|ili!iswr. s il,c 8n]t<etnc principle of Siililhcuttt 
that Ui'ti >••■'■ not tf hut i, in.tlic ,',-.</i, loriiiiy reason, vioii lor the i-nr- 
nose of savins all mankind nmt'li k-,<< n( his mere whim, for his own 
lilcft^ui'', I'm 1 realizing uiuiself. trout Karam, for imj uw'ing himself 

your Lord undergoes the fiery ordeal of tawerablo 
birth and getting himself released, saves other wet*- 
tale. This is like a deer rushing to save his kind al- 
ready cangbt in the toils of the hunter's net and being* 
caught itself. This law will only lead to great sin. 
Tour doctrine ia really incomparable ! If yo» say that 
wishing to create Dharma, be was born and he .created 
the Dharma, then this also might be said of every 
man that is born. 

5. If you say that your Lord entered an endless 
number of wombs for the propagation of Dharma, 
then his births must have been caused by Karma, 
Nay, if it is said this is by has mere will, then the 
same can be said of every man that is born. If it ia- 
said that he was born not like ordinary mortals. Trot 
came out of the belly , don t mention me the Dharma 
of one, who killed hts mother before he Apread his 

6. When the Lord Buddha incarnated himself fee 
beasts uf prey* did he not f of get virtue and kill men 
and animals with pleasure ? If be did not kill and eat 
their f^esh, did he feed on straw to appeasehis hunger? 
You sav he took on himself the sorrows of others. 
Really lm acts ot grace shown to the wowan who had 
lost her husband jrn'rt to the bird-catcher are beautiful 
to behold ! 

7. Before you discover an idea and find words to 
express the same and put the same in writing, your 
intelligence would have changed ever so often- How 
can you therefore have any authoritative treatise, 

by (successive evolutions. He ia the supreme .Biit>)e£t and cannot be>- 
comejhe object also - t whfen Jib will be when JIb is born. If. there 
ia however a Vedic text to that effect,' it only means to emphasize 
the fact of God's supreme nature, that independent of Him, nothing 
can exist ; nothing can oat and t -Jthing can be owned. God ia 
Sarva Swantara, Swampamprafciisa. . Ji verything else is.Parstantra 
and shines only by reflected light, c.f. Thayumanavar, 

jt rv at f op or fw q. & m \a i u t 

«r4p*)f QfprtBrcri—^u.fiu, ^tfrifli,* (Xfm&li'— Mi 

and Terse 52 girea in last numhelr. 
c, F . St. Karaikalanunaiyar, - 

Qmtbu Q'j*<$$* i ^:J.w *^ .S «- -. . 

5. Siva is called 'Ayoniju.' JBurtdhiateclaiming a atiuilar Dirine 
attribute for their Lord, have a story that Gautama's mother on 
her way to her mother's house %vns fnkeis with premature psiue in 
the,beautiful forest of Lambili (Luinlrini) but the foetus could not 
be brought out in the mdin.iiy way and the belly had, to, be cut 
open to remove the child from the womb. Tlie mother flied after 
the seventh day. Even to-dfcy, ivc hear in Tibet, the child intend- 
ed as the future- Lama i^ takijii out similarly . This is a mere tra- 
vesty of the noble truth. 

7. Aasociation of ideas (ft fin- wj) if of i- kfuds. Lamp from 
lamp (^u rkftarie) aii t rem au- (a «y *i *••■?: u), light from star 



If yoti say the words follow one another, then the 
eame words must get repeated. You say by the change, 
the intelligence which it succeeds is superior to the 
preceding one No, it cannot increase, as its dura- 
tion is only momentary. A true book const be consis- 
tent throughout. Is your book of this character '( 

8. Yon said that your Lord performed various 
virtuous actB in the beginning and became omnis- 
cient, and out of Grace gave oat the Pitakss to 
enable mortals to attain Moksha, If so, who deter- 
mined what was virtue and vice, before your Lord 
performed virtue. If one like himself who taught 
this predecessor of his ; as such yon will get no one 
who gave out the law in the beginning ; as such, whom 
do you- hold as your God in your school '< The fallacy 
of haviug no beginning ( jyigeu^wt^) is present in your 

9. If you nold the Lord Gautama as your God And 
Saviour, then who was hia Lord whom he worshipped ? 
Where is the sanction- of his Guru's words for the law 
he set forth ? Wedq not find such sanction anywhere. 
If yon ask for onr final authority, oar Par&uwfthwara, 
beginningless and of endlees knowledge, self-exiatent 
when every thing else is destroyed at the last day, He 
it was who gawe out onr law, which is comprised in 
our Vedas and Agamas The sages who follow this 

(pit., -r.-.firerK) Pipilika (JlJsS*' ri^we). These are several kinds 
of illustrations to show the passage of living beings from one body 
to anothei- and for their final extinction : 
The simile of the lamp is as follows. — 

' Tkeepakn OtintKana* The life of man, te aae a flpustantly 
recurring Buddhist simile or parable, ie like the flame & an Indian 
lamp, a metal or earthenware aaucer in which a cotton wick is 
laid in oil. One life ia derived from another/ as one flame ia Lit at 
another; it is not the same ftsjne, but withont the other, it would not 
have been. As flame canntt exist without oil, bo life, individual 
existence, depends on the cleaving ho low and sarthly things, the 
sin of the heart. If there is no oil in the lamp, it ivUl go out, 
though not until the oil i(,hjch the wiok hge drawn up ia exhansted 
and thtu no new flame can be lighted there. And eo the parte 
and powers of the perfect man will he dissolved, and uo new being 
will be born to sorrow. The wiiui will part, away, will go out like 
the name of a'lamp, and' their Karms. will be. individualized uo 
longer I 

'Tn.T mufJiapia.' Stare, long ago extinct, may be Still- visible 
t rt ue bv the light they emitted before they ceased to burn, but 
the rapidly vanishing' effect, of a no longer active cause will BDOn 
cease to strike upon one's Beuses \ and where, the light ivaa, will be 
darkness; so the living, moving body of the. perfect man is visible 
still, though its caikBe has ceased to exist but it will soon decay, 
and die, and pass away ; and ae no new body will be formed, where 
lite was, will be nothing. Again, the five Skabdae, the bodily 
and mental properties and tendencies, are like a tree. The tree 
pvotuceB a seed, a fruit, from which will spring another tree ; bnt 
if the tree be cut off at the root, it will be visible- a littl* while 
»ly whilst it dcCays, and willnot produce any further seed. 

' Plfiiliia sonffcoiw-' Again, Triahna the yearning thirst, js com- 
pared to a creeper which grows like a parasite on the salt trees, 
*nd eventually destroys that on which it was nourished > (Dr. Rhys 
David'B JIaniial of Buddhism). 

law also advise control of passions and performance 
of tapas. Your law enjoining eating before sunrise 
without washing and eating of flesh was made by a 

10. Authorities are of three kinds, the aathority of 
the Ninrnala God (oppo> jsrsi'), the authority of the 
sage who provides explanations and exceptions not in- 
consistent with the original authority (&$ ja>«), the 
authority of the successor who following both autho- 
rities, gives his own opinion from experience also 
(^/rriy^irsV). Could yon say to which class of authorities, 
your law belongs ? As it cannot come under any of 
these, your law cauDpt be true 

11. Bauddba, whom do you praise a$ tSutfdha 
who had attained Nirvana, and why ? If yon say that 
the rituals performed in honour of the dead will confer 
benefits on the living, then the beings must be eternal. 
And we require a God who will appreciate your good 
acts and confer benefits. .But yon do not assert so. 
Torn iiononogthe dead" is like supplying oil and wick 
to a lamp that has been complejdy extinguished. 

12. You say that to know the contents of a book is 
as good inference as whou we infer an author when we 
find a book written by him. Well, the existence of a 
hell and heaven you postulate could not be ascertain- 
ed except from some book . Otherwise tell ae. But 
this knowledge of hell and heaven could not be by in- 
ference. This alone is possible by believing in Agama 
Pramana. As you do not postulate Agama Piamana, 
yonr Pitakas themselves cease to be authorities. 

18. You state that all thing3 will suffer annihila- 
tion. Is this annihilation possible to beings or non- 
beings or being-non-bemgs i 1 if. to the non-being, 
then it ia e,ver non-existent.; If to the being, it could 
never cease to exist ; If to the last, from its character 
of being a being, it could not cease to exist If you 
ask me to point out an object whiih is not capable 
of destruction, what you see undergoing changes- l 
birth, growth and death is the Sthula body (a^J 
not the Suksbuma body;. 

14. If you sa3~ that things die and ai£ reborn by 
mere. cb.cuig.6 of form, as the sproul ts produced Irom 
the seed, then yon luiye. Forgotten your postulate of 
8arvam~itaiti and hold on to the A.-t!-it't?>i doctrine of 
the Jams. If you say I iiiisiitnlci'^taii'i y*m, aitri rx- 
plain thnt, what appeal oil n^ sprout, lcu\ (.■■••, i txv arc not 
stable but are o.-ipiitilo of destruction, then liwar, that 
it is not the visible form tlmt is <Jt*jtiuy wl but ch:uigc- 



are wrought on it by reason of its youth, maturity and 
old age; and after such changes, the subtile (Sukshnma) 
body remain*, though the Sthula Sarira is destroyed. 

15. If you say bodies areformed from the mixture of 
the four elements, then these cannot unite as their 
natures are opposed to each other. Hyou say they are 
formed by the union of Wood and semen, then recount 
for toads being found in the heart of rocks and worms 
in the heart of trees. If you say the real cause is 
good and bad Karma, then these, being opposed, 
cannot join and form bodies. If food is the cause, 
then the food which in youtb develops the body is 
not capable of preventing decay in old age. If intel- 
ligence is the cause, then that which is formless 
Chaitany a cannot assume Achaitanya (non-intelligent) 
form. If you assert that bodies are formed from no- 
thing, then we could cull flowers from the sky. 

16. If yon say that forms can be produced from 
nothing as the tree from the seed, then we assert that 
the tiee iras already in the seed. If you object that 
we du not find the tree in the seed by actual observa- 
tion, then the fact that a paddy seed does not pro- 
duce a palm tree but only one of its own kind 
requires explanation. As one species of tree do not 
grow out of another species of seed, what does not 
exist cannot be produced. The seed is the cause and 
the tree, the effect. You also forget what you before 
asserted that forms ;as effects) are produced from their 
cause the five Skandas, as the Moon is formed by 
beams of light. 

J". If yoiTsay that the bodies are formed by means 
of the four elements and their causes , then these can- 
not unite, as their natures are opposed to each other; 
and each uf the elements cannot be limited to the 
nature uf nil Other elements. Understand also that these 
flements and their causesjire all objects of sensation. 

IH. If yon say that it is matter, hi its eight various 
forms that forms the body, becoming snbtilp, us the 
extracts of medicinal herbs in medicated oil, then we 
require a God who could bring about this creation, as 
the Physician who prepares the oil. If matter alone is 
the cause, then all forms must be of the snmo nature. 
Bet, as their natures arc different, you lisiv.; not real]}' 
umiorstoud the drift of your words. Then again, 
show \w. if yon can the four ranges of the four ch>- 
<m.-nts, which are Giina fjittribnti's), apart from the 
tour 'ilements themselves. 

I'.i. If you say that intelligence diVs at one m- 
un.' lit, lmsh ;iL another moment is burn uin 

what is dead cannot give rise to tt new product. Then, 
the new intelligence cannot know objects and perform 
-functions which the former intelligence knew and 
performed. K you say that the old intelligence ceases 
to exist after creating the new intelligence, then two 
suet intelligences could not exist at the same moment. 
If you say that the old intelligence does not die 
wholly before creating the new, then the sentience 
becomes Sat-asat, and your assertion that it ia Asat can- 
not be true. If you instance the case of old straw used 
as manure becoming new straw, to prove that the 
old sentience dies and is reborn, then know that the 
old straw does not die altogether but is only reduced 
to its subtile condition and from this, condition, is 
produced forth as new straw. 

20. [f you say that sentience is generated by 
association of ideas, then this association most be 
eternal. If you instance the flow of water in a stream 
to illustrate your position that the moment one sen- 
tience dies another takes its place, then, as the things is 
solution in the first flow of water will flow away with 
it alone, then all the Good, Bavana &c, attaching to 
the old sentience will die with it and 'will not become 
united to the new one. If you say there is no break 
in knowledge as there is no break inthe waterflow, 
then this knowledge cannot be momentary but must 
be eternal. 

21. Is this Santana (association) the cause or the 
effect or the cause-effect ? In cither of these cases, it 
must be eternal. If you say that. succession involved 
in causation is the intelligence, even then it must be 
held to be eternal, as it is ever recurring. If the in- 
telligence is separate, theD it is different from the 
external senses and as such it will become an eternal 
object. The consequence will be that instead of our 
understanding the intelligence as subject, and the 
rest as objects, the senses must be regarded as subject 
and intelligence as object. Consider deeply the absur- 
dity of this positiou. 

"22. If creation and destruction take place at llio 
same moment of time, then these two functions must 
be the same. If Time is merely the change in the 
conditions of things, tlien why do you speak of present, 

2'J. W> ;uc bound to my We are not convinced by these nrgn- 
iiPt'iiTe, No duuW there is MiccessiOH in Time, but whether there ia 
.-» tlistiuct pwtity bke Time hnm Things ami Actions auuewd- 
mjtanv KwitWt, tku is n in:,itei-uf tlonbt n Ito^ctlurr. It is «n 
iilistmen'un like tnivnj other notions such as space, Ac. If there ia 
>io rx'ra'|>1 ; m of succession, ihere "'ill b© no perception of Time. 
Itrlifr iv no nereej.fiin i.t'eo-cxistiimr objectn. tliore nill be no 
fwret-.tiou -f space. Ilnl ilnu the llmlilhitt who twlievei ill 80 



part and future Time. If this is so spoken, as things 
undergo the successive changes, then yon mnet not 
■peak of It properly as the present, past* and the 
fotnrte aud-aJj th* activities of things must be one and 
the same. If all the different activities are comprised 
within the same point of Time, then this point of Time 
is capable of division into three kinds of Time, as for 
instance, when a needle is passed through a pack of 
100 lotas-petals, though the time taken np is ever so 
short, yet th« succession of time can very ealily be 

23. According to yon, ond sentience is produced 
from another sentience ; this* cannot be, as the sen* 
tience you postulate- suffers momentary death. Sen- 
tience if it dies once, in its course once, cannot survive. 
I! the' body, as the cause of sentience makes 
another sentience, then the body must manifest active 
intelligence even hi deep sleep If the bodily senses 
are the caase of intelligence, then as the senses are 
always active, the intelligence also can be eternal (non- 

According, to you again, Karma is the cause of 
sentience. Then any particular act performed must 
be intelligence itself. It is not a fact that any such 
acts are so. 

24. If you say that Karma begets sentience and 
sentience begets Karma, then as memory is airattrihute 
of sentience, Karma must also possess memory. As 
Karma is non-intelligent, one cannot produce the 
other. As everything is momentary, one cannot pro- 
duce the other and then die. If sentience after being 
produced from Karma, destroys Karma, as fire pvo- 
duce'd from a piece of wood destroys the firewood, 
then this is fallacious, as Karma is destroyed the mo- 
ment sentience is born, and one cannot produce or 
destroy the other in succession. The fire bora of the 
firewood, though it can destroy the firewood, cannot 
prodace another piece of firewood. 

many airy nothings suoh as his Karma, hi* Nirvana &c. y should 
dislike time is wonderful indeed ! 0. f. The follon ni^ passage from 
Dr. RhysDavidn' Mamml of Buddhism. 

" Stiun^e is it and instructive tljAt all thi.-s should huvc seemed 
not ni:attractiv« these 2,300 years and mole, to many despairing 
arid earnest hearts — that they should have trusieti themselves to 
the so seeming stately bridge "ivliich Buddhism has tried to build 
over the river of fhe mysteries of Borrows of life. They have been 
ch.artn.ed and :vwed perhaps by the dclieate or noble beauty of 
inic of the several stones of which the oich in built ; they have 
seen, that the whole reBts in a more orleBS Bolid foundation of f-ict ; 
that pn the one Bide of the key-stone is the necessity of justice, on 
the other the law of causality. Bnt they have failed tu see that 
the lery keystone itself, the link between one life and Knot her, is 
a mere word — this wonderful hypothesis, this airy notion;.', tliii 
imaginary cause beyond the reach of ren^on — the individuuli/cd 
and inrliv'dnalicine/ force of Knrtna !"' 


25. You assert that that there are dwellers in as- 
tral and Devachanic planes (Devils, Celestials, Brahma 
&c.) and that these have bodies bnt nofc born of a 
father and mother , as a body is merely a product, 
there must be a canse for the same. If the cause of 
this body, sentience, or the finer matter* (8 kinds of 
them), or Karma, or was it prod need by some other 
person. The Truth is causation is of three different 
kinds, first cause, i/ftia^-i), material canse \Qpp&), 
and instrumental cause (^-&ar). To perceive this is 
real wisdom. 

26. O Bauddha, you assert that except the product 
of the five Skandas, there is no separate entity like 
Atma (soul,). You also assert that there is no being 
who understands the five Skandus separate from him- 
self.*/ It is Buddhi that perceives those Skandas. 
Then, who it is, who lias knowledge of this Buddhi ? 
If Buddhi knows itself and other objects, as the lamp 
makes its own presence felt, while it illumines the eye 
and other objects ; then understand fiom the «ame 
simile, that there must a, soul jvho is conscious of 
Buddhi and other senses and objects, as the -ye per- 
ceives the lamp, and other objects. 

27. Yon loudly assort that your Eg'o is ruerelv 
your body and senses and mind {anda^ranu) The 
body does not know in sleep. The external sense? 
are also dormant in sleep, and, besides, are nofs'ibse to 
perceive the sensations of each _As your roiud/> 
w orijy momentary, jt cauiioE percent tue pit-it rtntl 
the future and the present, oo the real Ego is the 
intelligence which, perceiving the body, senses and 
mind and their functions, discriminates itself from 
these, ami becomes eoiiscimt* «f objects in contact « it!i 
the mind, through the eliannel of the ^ense<. and per- 
forms actions with tlir body. 

23. ") on say thill there if iiu soul independent of 
the mind as the latter perceives object-, when it 
born aamin after momentary extinction. Then when 
I say,' i said so.' what d'ies the T mean ? Is it mere- 
ly the mouth that uttered the words ? L'tearlv it means 
a person different fn-in tin- mouth ."tc. Just so, that 
which ssayS nfter knowing •■ wry thing; possible to be 
known by all the s.u-u- ^Internal and external}, 1 
know/ this ' T' i- the •, the true Ego. Tlmt which 
perceives with tin ■ ini'nl. utter- with the luoirth. ;if|> 
with the boilv and at tli" ►nine time is M»c Mijij.'-jt 
mind &c, is tin trim Kl'", Soul. 


f. lib S'.ir 

.. n.-ii- 



29. Too say that the Cbitta born of the external 
senses, and the Chitta born of the mental senses are of 
two and ooe Is Trtrn after the deata ot the other. IF so 
why don't people feel the same in dreams, as in their 
waking state ; and vieejersa ? Besides, the man born- 
blind has no knowledge of form and colour. If you 
say the defective sense is the reason of the defective 
knowledge, then it must follow, that when the senses, 
and knowledge, in waking and drenming are all stilled 
in deep sleep, nothing will remain to bring these 
senses Ac, back again to life. The True Ego is the 
real caase of man's volitional, mental and bodily acti- 
vities (g)ff#ir, gjiif, SMeou} and perceives both in 
waking and in dreaming states, 

30. If according to you, a sentient ;vct arises in 
one external sense at one moment only, then, the 
sound perceived by the two ears could not be perceiv- 
ed by. one ear. Besides it is a fact that at one and 
the same moment, a person sees another with his two 
eyes and hears his words with his two ears and knows 
him. The five external senses can no more percieve 
anything when dissociated from the mind. Each of 
the senses can only perceive objects one by one. The 
mind too cannot perceive all the' sensations together. 
Besides, each sense will not perceive what the other 
perceives. This is what is done by miud. That 
which understands everything by means o f the senses, 
interna) and external- is the True Ego 

31. It as you say, thefivo senses with the formless 
as the sixth, become conscious in each organ alter 
undergoing change every moment ; then, as the mind 
is formless it cannot unite with the body and under- 
go change of youth, maturity and old age. When a 
man wakes to consciousness when his body is disturbed 
in sleep, where does his consciousness pioceed from '■ 
li.vnu say irom luinu itseJr, uo, it caiinot so prooeed, 
by becoming «ons«iQui through the sense*; nod the 
senses ,and sop rid and ait cs«not ruusn; the nimd, as 
thev 6ia Asat (objective). The bght proceeding from 
the wicV will vanish when the wick is exhausted and 
will not flash up again from the earthen lamp. Tell im 
also -where- consciousness dv when a man is inu'-ns- 

31. The commentator gives an another .UliiMnuiuH of the Bud- 
dhist. A lame man and bis crutch cannot vmt.-, the mi-r <-a C U tiv 
itself. Bat the one wkl, the other eotild. So ve-n^-ieuM^ ,]>„' 
not arise when, the Miiuit, and senses ami ay Av. ttel i ....dl. 
The reply is that :. bom m uitviiavv and even with theh,.;~ 
tame mun And his milrli uml the boat cannot reach the ..t 1 1, r 
ahore viihout o bdatumu. li> Us- illaBtratim, ufilte limin li-ut is 
consciousness, wick is the bill rl.e bodv i f ,l.c tivn W sD-l 
ieheea are the t«Jj e c»«l 

32 Desire andhate, pleasureand pain, intelligence 
and aotion are all qualities of the bouI. Desire is the 
liking we feel for an object, say a fruit, when we sea 
it again after once we had tasted it. Hate is the. 
reverse feeling ; and the other qualities also imply 
similar previous experience. As its experience tnu3 
refers to the past and future, the wise postulata an 
eternal soul and disagree with your theory. 

38. Akas (Ether), supports and affords room and 
is in inseparable union with everything, is neither 
darkness nor light and yet gives room to both. Its 
attribute is sound ; air and fira and other elements are 
produced forth from it and reduced into it. We have 
already explained our position about the soul. Time is 
divided into morning, Doon and evening, days — past, 
present and future — and is ever changing and is pro- 
ductive of good and evjl. The cardinal points are 
four, East and West," South and North— and are eter- 
nal in their nature and invariable and productive of 
good and evil, 

J. 51. $Ja LASWAMI flLLAI, B. A., B. L. 

(To be continuedj 

20 — 32. These verses controverts the position that there is no 
scpatate entity culled soul, apart from the body and the senses »nd 
the Attdakarana. As definition is the most important thing, in these 
respects, to avoid all misconceptions und Confusion in thought and 
argument, the attention is drawn to the way these various senses 
mid organs ore distinguished erne ■from the other. For father in- 
formation on the suhject, reference may be mads. to Sutras 3 and 4 
and the notes thereon in iny Edition of Sivagiiuiialiothani. Atniaia 
sometime.* other than Buddhi and other Andaknrrums.senses and the 
body: There may be nn such thins;. It will be useless to con- 
found these one with the other: The arguments herein given teud 
to show that tire phem menu of existence cannot be fully and 
adequately explained without this postulate. ' The test ofu true 
hypothesis consists in that the theory ought to cover nil facts and 
explain them without any self contradiction. Stanza 32, coutrre 
verrs the opponent's theory that desire is the cause of sentience. 

3n, Akas may mean space, in which ease it is an abstraction 
no doubt, or fiber whei it is :t patbu-tha. The nord is used in both 
Mmsea and is then often the Cause of much confusion. As regards 
time, the belief in nn oM one and quite conventional. Compare 
the paMaue from Mahnnlmvata. 

Xo .me can leave the way marked out for him by Providence, 
f.xisteiice and non-exiiieuce, pleasure and pain, all "have Time for 
I heir mot. Time crent.-th all thin.LS and Time doslruvrth all ere*. 
liny. Il is Time that burnetii creatures: and it is Time that 
cx:iiijj'oi>lu-ili the lire. All states, the jrood and ihe »vi1„ in the 
three worlds, are cflitW-d hi Time. Tiine cntteth short all thin~s 
ami cre:iicih tlictn :.iu;<. Tin <c alone U awuke i\he»iail things 

are ashrp indeed. Tin 

ipable of hciiiL: overcome. Time-* 

pa^seib all rhimr* »irl t being rctardetl. Kuun-tng as thou 

t»«t r'ir.t a'l ihittu-s [risi (in i future and all that exist at" the pre- 

""'■' '_"*" i'e ''>f "ff-sp j ,if Time, it behuvciU thee not to 

ab:.;ie. icusfle 




(Continued from pay* Sij 

t-t*pQpt* OaijpuiS j£&p 

LM—uQi—mr Uigfu ^/oifp&fBir fm<2£(§pu 

i-i^iepl Qptp^Gev Stiaitaraj Ljtmfnsva 

iOi_cv»{y uw^tariu essiSflp £>da^!j'Q 
onrGmMj wtsS tfaru »*-*#*> 

— majAQiuar &*££$ Qup&ts 
&L-mrti>fB^- PfDfcpO&riu a/atuirest i^iOanPemu 

*sarGarg5 fg»*3« tBaasuGujn 

55. Supreme Lord of Grace who dost play the 
joyonB dance in the worthy stage of wisdom ! 
Prom the flinty nature of my heart I see that I am 
not worthy that Thou shouldst make me the object of 
Thy Blessing, And I know, indeed, that T-hou wilt 
be moved *t Thy devotees only if they at once resort 
to Thy Help and render themselves the fit objects of 
Thy Divine Favour, by ever praising the boundless 
flow of Thy Love and by worshipping Thee, the in- 
exhaustible spring thereof, with their beautiful hands 
in great excitement : — that is, by dancing and singing 
Thy Glory with as pleasant a smile as the bright- 
moon light and with tears gf love springing forth 
from thejr eyes, with throbbing hearts and choking 
voices- and their bodies relaxed with dissolved bones. 

O for the day, my Lord, when I will be Thy 
Bhakta of this description. 

si i a s a-0 jpii Qfi p, ay a> n .i 
§}eitQ&n pay .(afiOwnLeaLD \u~iSQpd gjen tr uj tr ? 

Fljjflu t£&fi0€v (jhenefrs «(ffjjS £gji)S8> t L 

+ 8&4)$ uSmu e f! ^i(CT 
mips** a/out/t Qp<&n «2(g.-i<7/ 

Gift <gM00t&r uim>(j Lrfffli<*«i 

fimGeter mmrGiu pOtu 
mwmpp Qua team Qtoarerrppeir aim^U 

56. O Supreme Lord of Grace, who dost play the 
joyous dance in the worthy stage of wisdom f 
Let me, now, state tbe virtues of true Gnanis* to whom 
Thou Wouldst be readily accessible. They are so wise 
as to foresee that their future is to be meted out ac- 
cording to their tendencies in this life. They are 
ever intent on benefiting others. They have strict 
regard to truth and to the fulfilment of their pro- 
mises. With * clemency' as their watchword, they 
prove themselves quite harmless to all creatures. 
When they are thus prepared For Thy Grace, Thou, 
who art the everlasting witness, dost bestow on 
them both heavenly and earthly happinesses, just like 
the trees of Heaven such as Kalpatatu t and Sam- 
tdnakaX &c. 

May Thou, therefore, be a Sarabha — 17ke§ f"e to the 
lion oi my Kurmn-bhavda,^ and be the solar light to 
expel the darkness of my cares and anxieties. 

O Thou art the safety-boat regularly plying in the 
celestial sphere of Thy Grace and anchoring to take 
me in at the harbour of my undying love of devotion 
to Thee. 


iim&u* t^Qe 

j^'iasttS fitah^np^, u.snQ^s ~SiL&s&Gaj 
Q^xnQ(vfiq- lurry, euQf^ii 

Gfth^UIIoX'l-L* G'A(lh'*&Jtl ({T£S&Ql£'n ! Q& SOf iw Go* 

6S* ,Q ;. isffiu uimf Pit' 4 i^iftisa tt_ir r iiT.7 

t K^)|»:i + l;iln i^ ll.'- wf-lLili^ live ur \]\v. Ll-CL* 0l' |i:U-UiUse. 

T S;»iiilnn;iUii ir. mim-iIl i' iir.-,>| L |.:u M'lisf. 'I'Ih'it are Sitid t^- 

5 tlVVS "I Ji;U'illlisi' \\lliull 1.1 r> "i i.-l'l .lit \lj>llL'r>. 

§ Ail fi-jlit-lcj.'-^'il :ilimi;il, OiC ''•<■ -.1 I Ik- li.m, iiih:»^ilinff tJift- 
Bnowy FrKiutit.-iin*. 

•T ft''[,^"/-hh-Lln.l:i - -bdlLLl ill I'&lQH. 



Qtupsmf &J0ii/l *u>»*mm aituQupp 

Praise to The Host op Siddhas.* 
57, O the Host of Siddhas of Divine powers who 
have attained the noblest order of viewing the Vedan- 
ta and the Siddhanta alike ! Wonderfully diverse 
and manifold are your niddhis or supernatural powers : 
yon can tour round, in no time, over and beyond the 
regions of the universes ; you can expand yourselves 
to reach the region of Dhruvat which is as bright as 
the golden mountain of Meru% and can stand in great 
splendour and loftiness like the mighty Trivikrama§ ; 
you can collect and reduce the waters of tbe seven || 
oceans to the size of a black gram and take them in 
as the small draught of t'jsamanaHjf ; you can make a 
play-ball of both Indra's world and his elephant If; 
you can compress in a mustard-seed all the heavenly 
spheres and m^ke a, shqw of all the eight** classes of 
mountains together. In short, yon can make a mole- 
cule of a universe and a universe of a molecule. 

O, then, demi-gods, it can never be out of your will 
and power to favour me with your darsanatf in fall. 

Note. — The reference in this verse is to tlic wonderful powers of 
of the Siddhas. These powers will seem supernatural to the ma- 
terial world atone. Those entering the spiritual plane of existence 
will tec! nothing impossible for man. My Holy Guru exhibits the 
Siddhi of pi-a-kfimya (floating in earth). Vide note to 44th verse. 

• Vide notes to H let and 43rd verses. 

t Dhruva is the polar star. This state of uternity was bestowed 
opon Dhrnva, the sou of a King named, and the 
grandson of Manu, for his Austerity and penance after his initiation 
by Narad* his Teacher. 

t Meru is the gnlden mountain in the centre of Gambudvjpa 
round which tho planets are said to revolve vide note to 12th 

§ Trivikrama. means literally ' ibe three slepx «f Vishnu; hence 
Tishnn is so-called. [The references to Vishnn and his three Bteps 
are frequent in the Big Veda, but in all these instances it does 
not mean any other than the Sun. His three strides are hi* 
positions at dawn, noon and evening; for example. 

" Vishnu ntrode over this universe ; in three places lie planted 
hisBtep: [Tho world or his step] was enveloped in dust." His;, i. 
22. l7ff. 

Sakapmii'K interpretation of the three stepB is, fire on earth, 
ti^htninpr in the firmament, undsiinin the sky. According to Saya- 
m. this refers to the story of Vnman.i Avamra.] 

|l Seven derails are :— Satt-wati'ix — Fresh waters- and those like 
milk, enrd *^hee, susrur-eane. jnie" and honey. 

X- i;i is the drop or wnier taken in hy (lie patm at the 

offerii nf daily prayers. 

ludva's. elephant is called ' riiravarha' or ' niravana.' 

* KSjrUt el»«n<5 of mountains :ire: — (1) Knite*, (21 Himalayas, 
Mandril, (1) Vishya. (r,) NMatlin. (01 Vama-j Cull.' (7) Xik'iris 
stnd (ft) Khaiida Madame I !ii> i- ,>ie> ehi-sitieiuio)). 

t+ Iliirsana --ni-rlit (of Guru i-r spirit n:i! Teacher); Otil'j Suhl 
'Jui'ii i« .i Sfi'l'llii. Itenec tliih seeeial adili'cs.' ro '.l"Ni Si' ■' 

UfffltrfoPi— aijra/entfiuiSit 
ufiwSjj} *«J*Jj§ tS(Qutr fi*p03tut 

QmlL®u iSemtpuGunaBSium 
fi^uu^ lUirifgeSr spuviip, Qm&renQutHQ 

GaexfliiSaii— ^jpiseamiutSn 
^L.tB-&5r QujQpptr &ff pQfiil-® mn/DqpM 

^eifieSSta QuKeerfBSjMigGSiir 
E-trrngp iBSauumr Qiuam ,*«ot i_ /$ pQ «o 

■Leu(^<9resita ujirsaif^ennsir 
IdlImll. *yta m/aieoS QgeffunsB s aseiiSbttuGrai 

QtaQg&jAQ en euuufiiRGflir 
Gaupii lip Sfi^mhp fLDjr&aresi eSSseQupp 


58. O the Host of Siddhas of Divine powers who 
have attained the noblest order of viewing the Ve ■ 
danta and the Siddhanta alike ! Le,t me ^further de- 
clare your marvellous deeds. Ton can bring on to 
this earth the Heavenly tree of Kalpa-taru* with ifo 
delightful shade, around which the sweet singing 
wasps swarm up with merriment ; you can make 
Sanka-nidhif and Padma-nidhi% stand by and supply 
all needs and make a poorest beggar a monarch ; you 
can condense in a well the world deluge at the end 
of a Kalpa§ ; and you can convert a tile-stone into 
the purest gold. 

O Mighty Gods, you would sustain the world on 
your yoga-danda|| and kindly allow A'dhi-sesha? to 
take breath. 

Could it, then, be any difficulty at all to you to 
melt towards Love my solid mind like the bees-wax 
on fire ? 

A'ofc — In this and the next verse (59) the saint continues with 
pleasure his enumeration of the miracles of the Divine Siddhas to 
whose school his Gum Mmmi Ix-lonirs. 


{To he continued) 

* Kalpa-taru, See notes to the D6th verse. 

t Sanka-nidhi is the sfold of the figure of conch. 

t l'adina-nidhi is the hihis-HIte jrein. These two uidliis or trea- 
sures ; ire said in Kini'ia's or hidra'^i world. Siu-h kinds of trea- 
sure* ire mid lo lie nine in nil. 

f Kalpa Vide ine. in 36tli vorse. 

Tn,tn;1n,.'l-i ; s ili-i ■v,ii)ih-ii-«ttiff used by the Vyffioti its a Stippnrt 
wiu*ii spared in a particular .Wwim ur seat in meditation. 

f. AMhi-wsltn is the S..||ient-l)i-ity suppurtinir i lie enrili aud 

fpiniiiie.' the tiinel' <>!' \ i'l'Hli duriiiL' his tjleep. 






Siddhanta Deepika. 



Atmanatn aranim kritva, pranavamchii' uttararanim 
Gnandmirmathanabhyasath,j><i8am dahati pandithah. 

In oiLP-Xamil edition was appearing an excellent trans- 
lation of Kaivalyopanishad by that great Tamil and 
Sanscrit scholar of Jaffna, Srimath Senthinathur, who 
is now stajing in Benares. His commentary is a most 
valuable one, tracing as it does the passages in Kaival- 
yopauishad to other similar passages in various other 
tFpanishads. This Upanishad is by some called a sec- 
tarian and a modern one. Tbis we deny and we will 
take some other fuller opportunity to expound our 
views on the age of the.Upnmshads. At least this is 
older than the time of Sri Sankara who includes it 
among the Paneharudram which he has commented 
on. The Mantra, 

Atinanam aranim kritva, pranavamchu uttararauim 
Guana iii)matkauabhyasath,pas<undahati pandithah. 

following - as it does Mantra 1 3 and 14, Part I, Swetas- 
watara Upanishad, and with Mantra J 1 above would 
completely demolish the theory of that talented lady 
Mrs. Besant, that the Ishwava evolves and the sole 
purpose of his so evolving is flint he make himself 
manifest from liisunmanifest condition like butter tron. 
cream, five, from sticks &c. The passage a* it i ceurs 
in her last beautiful Adyai- lecture is as follows As 
salt ia the water, in which it is dissolved [Cluaithi^ya 
VI, L4| as fire in the wood before the tire sticks are 
rubbed together, as butter ia the milk- th;it is brought 
forth by churning, (Swetas I, 14 to 19) as cream in 
clarified buttei Ibid IV, 11) su is Brahman concealed 
as the Self of every creature" 'Hinduism |i, \<< Xo 
doubt the form in whhdi sh.- has Rioted hn^-lf has 
misled her. Th> rj:ii»*age- t 1iltii-c] vi'n are tlif*-- (ws 
quote from Mr Mead's iran-shition -nd from o*hi-r;. 

" Bij knowledge of God, ce**utio>i of till tond»- 

Wilh Dorroica perinhing. birth ttn<Vdtt>tk'» ceueiny route* 

By contemplating him, with body Wft behind. 

All Lordship. Pure Paitiovleni it R&' — (UantTrt fj.J 

How is this knowledge of God to be obtained ? The 
next verse says, 

" This is to be known as ever sorely settled in the 

(self, soul); beyond this surely nought is knowableatall. 
When one hath dwelt upon what tastes, what is tasted, 
and what doth ordain, all hath been said. This is the 
th ree -fold B rah m (Sat, Chit and Ananda) (Mantra 12)." 
The unbelieving may ask, '' how do you say God is 
concealed in our soul, body, we do not sec it. No ' it 
ia not there." The answer is given, illustrating it at 
the same time ;ind explaining the mode of realization, 
in the next Mantra No, 13. 

"Just as the (outer) form of fire, withdrawn into 
its source, cannot be seen, yet there is no destruction of 
its subtle form, — once more indeed out of the upper 
and lower stick it can be drawn, — so both indeed" (are 
to be found j by means of the word's power within the 

Tbis is more fully explained in the next Mantra. 
" One's body taking for the lower stick mid for 
the upper Om (the word), by meditation's friction well 
sustained, let i\w brhold thr (rod, there lurking, as it 

In the next Mantra, several similes are heaped to- 
gether to illustrate the same subject. 

" A soil in seeds, butter in cream, water in springs, 
and in the fire sticks fire, so is that Self (Paramatma) 
found in the Self (Jivatinu) — by Him icho seeks for Him 
tn'th truth <md meditation — The Self pervading nil, as 
buttermilk pervades, in meditation and self-knowledge 
rooted, that JJiahmmi, theme sublime of sacred teach- 
iltjj, of sacred teaching theme sublime" 

Wo wiil quota ag-iin Mantra 1 b in part IV, relied 

by Mrs. Ucs;uir, us the Muutfa preceding it 

before we finish tmr comments. 

•' Surety is lie the 'juardiuu of nil, in every crea- 
tine hid ; in whom the ?ee:« <i' IWahni, powers divine 
are (all, conjoined. Tim? knowing Hiin, one cuts the 
bonds <>\ death. Yost r;nv, like :>s it were that e-sence 
rarer for fhnti hr.'r.-i cl;u ■iiicl, Hun knowing'' (in h,ii 
form) ocuigT. fSival in t'N- .fure hid, tl".iig'h 

one (yel. a j> i;:i k>^ Iii.., iJ„u, Com t-\'?ry 

Vli !.'! OFIO IS fiX- 



Any one reading these verses together as we have 
read it, will fail not to see that the theory of Mrs. 
Besaut gets no'footing here at all. This simply ex- 
plains the way of salvation of the hound Soul (Jivatma) 
and the nature of the Supreme. The bound Soul 
which cannot see the ' subtler than subtle Shiva' (IV 
14), by pursuing the Sadana herein indicated, namely 
the search after Him •with all one's heart and with 
all one's soul in all love and in nil truth, with the aid of 
the divine word, will surely behold the Supreme, hid 
in himself, not the Supreme as himself, and then his 
bonds will be cut-off, and the darkness will vanish as 
the Sun rises in one's horizon. Butter is butter whe- 
ther it remains in the milk or separately. It itself 
gains little in one condition or other, but it makes a 
vast deal to the person. who has to eat it. No sane 
man will tlurik that it matters anything to the Supreme, 
whether lit' remains manifest or un manifest but it 
matters a great deal to his creatures who are wallow- 
ing in the in i iky darkness of sin and misery. There 
art- thus-; airain who think Pnsatchaya is alone that 
occurs in Muksha and thut the freed Soul is in itself 
and witn no knowledge or enjoyment of any Sort. 
No doubt, the moment of Pasatchaya is also the mo- 
ment when lie recovers his own self (one of the two 
comprised in 'hoth',* of Mantra 13, the other being 
God) and at the same moment is the Divine Effulgence 
cast full on him, enveloping him on all sides and 
swallowing him up wholly. "I know the great Puru- 
sha, snn-like btymtd ibtrkitem, Him and Him only 
knowing one crosseth nivr death; there is no other 
path at -.I! to go,"— .(Mantra 8, Part III). 

Nothing can lw clc-ircr than this passage, as to the 
person seeking salvation, the object of the search, 
and the mode of attainment, and the only path 
of securing it. But i.s one's powers all sufficient? 
No. " Smaller than small, yet greater than great in 
the heart of this ereiitinv the Atma (God) doth 
repose That, free from desire, He (creatnroS sees, 
with his grief gone, the mighty Isa, by His flmm." 
(Mantra »«, Part III}. 

These two mantras are reproduced in the famous 
verse Xo. 7 in " House of God" in Tirnvaelmkam a 
valuable translation of which we printed in our 
August number. 

• Mr MtfUiiiitisuriHy (f.iit|*)SPs i kit l,„lli r,.(i. rs t„ die lim-i-r ttrnlim 
,ii, i] hiv)iiTHi:J<u>;iii, Llm ilic Coil of M:iinr:i 14 is thfilnwvr Htnh- 
n;:i!iiir Miwnra. tl," ' * t-ll" i.l' M:ii.:j-i 15 umi lfi N tin' lifirfwi' Hmji 
miin, K«-n.'liuti :, L ':iin r hr-K" v.. r* -h • „.,,. i | 1( > r c „»ld :iriv ilisc.n', 
iliffercni-': ii' tlio ml m* of (Joilliu'ii'l in t)n-<f 31.-tutni« ? 

" Light of Truth that entering body and soul has melted 

all faults, and driven away the false darkness, 
** O Splendour that rises in my heart, as asking asking 

I melt." 
" This day in Thy mercy unto me, thou didst drive 

away the darkness and stand in ray heart as the 

Rising Sun." 
And let the reader ponder well again on the whole 
verse 7. Every blind man's heart desire is to regain 
his eye sight (His own self-atma) but suppose he 
regained his eye sight will the darkness be removed, 
which formerly pressed on his eye. Not surely, unless 
the Glorious Sun (God), deigns to show to him in His 
Supreme Mercy (^euGBTQ^eirnlsn j^eusBi^en aies/mS). 
And the Sun is of course of no use to the blind man 
so long as his blindness lasted. So he has to realize 
himself by $Q5i$8airQtuirui-i (being balanced in. plea- 
sura and pain) and u>&>utRuir.5ui (Removal of his 
Egoism) and to realize His maker, till now hid in hiif 
heart. And people have asked and will ask «,lways, 
whether there is pleasure from this passage from 
bondage to Freedom. And Saint Meikanda Deva 
asks us to consider the case of the bljodman passing 
from darkness to sadden Light. Will there be 
pleasure or not ? Did it ever matter to the Sua, in 
any whit when it, was hid from the blindman and 
now when it shines fully on his newly opened eyes ? 

"It was Thyself Thou didst give and me Thon 

didst take. 
Beneficent Lord, who is the gainer ? 
Endlessbliss 1 have gained. What bast Thou 

gained from me ? 
O Lord, that hast made my heart Thy temple,Siva, 

dweller in the great holy shrine, 
Father, Sovereign, Thou hast made Thy abode 

iu my body. For it I have nought to give it 

in return."* 

To tetnove all doubts that the Being to be sought 
after is not one's own self, the passage ' Atmanam 
Aranim Kritwn' refers to the self (Atma) itself as the 
lower piece of firewood. In the Swetaswatara, it was 
the body that was the lower piece in which case both, 
Soul and Cod could bo realised, but generally, the 
phrases, in my body, in my eye, iu my heart, in my 
mind, and in my soul mean almost the same thing, in- 
■duding son] and all below it. 

•Vn-tjijlO' ■ >i 

THm* -,Qh ■<<-. Hvium. "The H«H«e»f God," 



Our Saint Appar puts in beautiful and unmistake- 
•ble Tamil, the idea conveyed in these Upanishad 

m-pUjQ&trit aCJBesstai -tuS^/S^ei 
Qpjt* i->ei< ami. u Qptit b& p^gl u> . 

(Like the fire latent in firewood and ghee in milk, 
Noc-»pparent is the Great Light £.•«■■ IS'S^J'} 
With the cbnrner of love and rope of knowledge 
One excites friction, He will become manifest before liiui.) 


The Jnue Dumber of the Christian College Magazine 
aftsignB the premier place to a paper_co"Btributed "by 
Mr. O. Kaodasami Chetty, b. a., on 'Idolatry: A 
Retrogression.' As in other questions connected with 
the Religion and Literature of the Indian people, the 
question of Idolatry has advanced a further stage. 
The Christians, and with them, the then new Indian 
Reformers, the Brahmos, joined i» denouncing 'Idol- 
atry' as a most unpardonable crime and sin and as the 
worst of superstitions. Then it was thought that the 
custom was not so heinous as it appeared and that it 
marked only a low morality and religion. It was 
ifterwards admitted that such worship was only 
adapted to the illiterate mob and the uncivilized rustic, 
who conld not comprehend these high things; but 
then it was fouud that the greatest sages, with the 
soundest theistfc beliefs were sincere worshippers of 
these forms, and .that these sages themselves had 
denounced worship of forms without knowledge and 
love. Then we arrive at a climax and we quote the 
words of a Missionary friend of ours. " Educated 
people may use Symbolism with advantage, the mob 
are unable to do so. And the conception of the mob 
respecting God and duty, has n^t, so f:ir as I could 
find, been elevated- by the use of idols." And Mr. 
Chetty thinks that it must be admitted that God is 
immanent in everything and overruling the universe 
and that as such, we might identify God with his 
creation for purposes of worship, yet this is calcu- 
lated 'to confine man to" lower and lower conceptions of 
God, than to higher and purer conceptions of Him. 
We question this ; and we point to numerous ex- 
amples of the best and noblest minds, among as, on 
whom this degrading influence has not been felt. 

And we may be pardoned if we make bold to say that 
Mr. Chetty argues without understanding the real 
philosophic basis and nature and purpose and aye, the 
necessity on which "this worship is based. -Mr. Chetty 
believes^Tt wfmistake n<5f," on the necessity of Piayer. 
Will he try, for once think over the words he utters 
by his lips in prayer, on the sounds produced in his 
ears by these words, and on the mental image pro- 
duced by them, and compave these, and then transfer 
them on canvas with his pencil ? When he has done 
this, ivuuld he not find himself a most gross idolator? 
Why should he think that the images percepticle to his 
eye, the most intellectual of all the senses, less pre- 
cious and less noble than the empty words he had 
nttered and the sound »he had listened to. We say, 
empty .words, as these could neither describe nor 
reach Him, whom the mind cannot grasp ('ssherji 
&snn r ± Sij$ t, Q sir err or $y w ui_7£w') and whom tht senses 
cannot perceive [' sesnQpf^. L/iujgj^sfl LL£aftSsiQ am ■--''). 
What, then, is requisite to see Hun, to know Him and 
how are these words <tc. efficacious. They arc effi- 
cacious so long as they open out jonr heart aud head, 
and love can g'ish forth like (' mca^Qua? /inCurre^') 
a mighty flood, its bounds withdrawn. If the form 
of worship chosen fails to achieve this end, then it is 
of perfectly no use, whether the worship offered be 
in the most gorgeous cathedmls and mosques with 
gilded spires and minarets or in lowly temples. 
'Choose the Form which excites your love most', says 
sage Meikandan. And the idol of Christians is 
Christ. Says a Christian writer. "' Christianity is 
Christ Himself... Let our Christianity be faith in 
Christ, love of Christ and allegiance to Christ and he 
will lead us out of darkness." And we wont say, 
they are wrong. Let us not however be misunder- 
stood into supporting all those monstrosities and 
abuses and tamasha aud fun which has crept into onr 
midst under the name of religion and philosophy 
But of this, some other time. 

We wrote this sometime baok bat could not find 
space for it earlier. In the meanwhile, * noble dis- 
sertation on the subject had been appearing in our 
Tamil edition, from the pen of the great Preacher and 
writer, Srila Sri S, Somasnndnra Nayagar, under the 
heading of " ggtiGst *Aw euifiui®." We give a sum- 
mary of it below. 

" Among Astikas who hold that there is an Infinite 
Satchidananda Supreme Being, sonw hold God as 
Nirguna, some as Saguna, some as Xirguna-Saguna, 



sonic, as all these imd transcending all these. Of 
these, the Nirguna Vndis alone do not postulate 
that God ha* form (Rnpa,- The other three schools 
respectively postulate Rupa, and Aiupa, these two 
and Ruparupa and none of these. Vaishuavas 
and Sivadwaita Saivas postulate only Rnpa ; Vedan- 
tis, Rnpa aud Arupa. The last school represents the 
trne Siddhnnta view. Of these again, the Vedantis, 
followers of Sri Saukara, agree in most respects in the 
forms they choose with the Siddhantis, in what they 
call the Vyavahara stage. It is in their Paramai- 
thika, their ' mere theory' they differ. The Vaishna- 
vas are divided into two sects ;is Madhwas andRama- 
nujas. The other schools, Sivadwaitas, Vedantis and 
Siddhantis (among whom ai'o followers of Meikanda 
Deva and Srikanta Siva Charya) are Saivite in form. 
As such among those who believe in the Vedas, there 
are none who are pure Nirgunavadis and as such 
postulate no form. Tlie six schools we have mentioned 
jibore, use certain forms in their worship Atmartha 
and Parartha) and this worship, of form is only as a 
Havana (a Symbol) and it cannot be otherwise. And 
the necessity for the use of symbols is thus manifest. 

Hut there are some among us who misled hy the 
doctrines of the Christians, and holding on to some of 
their doctrines pose as Vaidikis and qnote Vedic 
texts to show that the Vedas and TJpanishads ascribe 
no form to God, and that as such the formless God 
should not be worshipped in forms and that there is 
no authority for worship of idols ( „syf #«»*) in the Vedas 
and thus mislead the ordinary people. Let us exa- 
mine some of these contentions. 

1. They quote a Swetaswatara text that God is 
Arupam and Anamayam. 

" Thatho Yathuttara taram, Tatar upamanamay am." 

2. A text from Katha Upanishad says that God is 
Aruptim, Avyayam.' 

3. Mantras 3 to 7 in Kenopanishad are quoted to 
show that God is what no mind, nor ear, nor eye, nor 
word can reveal and what revealeth the s e and that 
this is to he known as Brahm and not this which they 
worship below, and that the last clause prohibits idol 
worship altogether. 

4. A Taittiriva text is quoted which says that God 
is ' Athrlsya Asarira.' 

5. A Vajasaeya text is quoted according to which 
God is called 'Akaya.' " Ha hath pervaded all, radi- 
ant, incorporeal (Akaya) scatheless, without muscles, 

pure, by sin untainted ; a Seer wise, omnipresent, 
self existent. He disposed all things rightly for eternal 

years." (Mantra 3; 

6. Mantra nine which says all who worship 

what is Sambhuti {things made) enter into blind 

jarkness. (The text followed by English translators 

give 'Avidyam' and not Sambhuti). Let ns consider 

these texts. 

Jn regard to the first text from Swetaswatara, the 
Purvapatchi (opponent) translates theneuter word 'Tat' 
(It) into 'He.' Probably he did so, as he thought 
1 Tat' that this Upanishad is considered as one of the 
Paucharudrams and Rudra is spoken of as ' one 
without a second.' " Eka Eva Rtithro Nathrithiyaya- 
thasthah." That the word Rudra is simply used as 
equivalent to B rah m is apparent from the following 
verses. — " Eka mevadvitiyam, Brahma," " Sarvo Hya- 
sshu Rudra'' " Sarva/tn Kafoitkam Brahma." As such 
it does not matter to ns if God is called '.He' or 
' It.' There are innumerable texts where God is 
called 'He'- and 'It,'* The following Vedic texts 
show that Rudra is Purusha. " Puruxhovai Eudrah," 
" Purusham Krishna Pingalam," " Ttt-Purnshaya 
Yidmahe," " Purattianoham Purushohamiaam," " Ta- 
misasanam Pnrusha," " Sahrasirsha PuriisKa" as such 
as we hold that God is ' He* and ' It,' and ' Pnrusha' 
and ' Tat' it does noT"conflict with our theory thaAGod 
is ' Tatarupam.' Only it must be remembered that 
the same Vedic texts speaks of God as a Person 
and our opponents always speak of God as ' He';t 
and translate even ' Tat' as ' He.' The Tamil writers 
also affirm all these characters to God aud go .on to 
say " ©a/g»(5 fUQai msieoac" (He is nob Rupi nor 
Arupi), " E-CjaueBr^^aisBT j*" " Gfrsirfm psssaiDaj Qarpp 
fitLHrffBaieir" (His nature cannot be described) ; hold- 
ing as such that God is all these and not all these 
and that it cannot be contended one sidedly that God 
is formless. 

In regard to the second text, it only emphasizes the 
fact that our human senses aud faculties are all boru 

* Professor Max Mailer points oat how even aa between Jlantnu 
15 and 16 of 3rd Adhyayn, the Gender changes from Masculine- to 
Neo tor. 

"'Ihnt person alone (Pnrusha) ie all this, what baa keen ami 
what will lie ; He is also the Lord of immortality j He it whatever 
glows hy food. (15) 

Its hand »n;l feet aro every w here ; its eyes- and head arc every- 
where i i*s *rs ore everywhere, it etands encompassing all the 
world" (16). 

t Christians always spoak of God a- Ho, as also Yaishnnvas to a 
great extent, though tho Tnniil Christians havo adopted such 
words ' 1'arain," ' Pariparara' and ' Paraparavaatu. 



of Maya and God is " Mayarahitban" and as such 
possesses no such facilities and organs This has no 
connection with the present question whether we can 
speak of God in a personal manner and worship Him 
as a 'Person.' 

In regard to text No. 3, these simply assert that 
God is not perceivable by the external and internal 
senses of man "*<r<uii, a/.f*g, w^flpcir" as these 
latter are Asat, and Asat cannot perceive Sat ; and 
Asat receives its play and activity only whe*Q the Sat 
moves it. These same sentiments are embodied in 
snch sacred Tamil Texts as, "aawQ^^i^ss^^as-tlSSa/ 
i£evQm>,r ajr," " e^rrw p &stai&&rfip Q-aitareneyihui—ireiir" 
" @ppQp@ Q-fa>a>e# G#l1^(u«t sir™-*/' '■' t&aapifi^sa 

tBmur Jts<rg l g<er t £tw i ^.Ojygj^S Soap, fyenpeuttri 

suwunpth," These texts are all quoted by our op- 
ponents no donbt hut they never pause te^ consider 
whether they support their own case. When the text 
is quoted, "what reveals the mind, words, eye, ears, 
he." do they hold that what controls the body so, 
namely Soul (atma) is God and if so, why should not 
the body be worshipped in which the sonl so dwells. 
This could not be their meaning. As the text referred 
to the relation of Sat ( Paramatma) and Asat (Maya) 
the text by implication (Parisesha) includes the Sat- 
asat TJivatma) as being revealed by God also. Body 
is Asat, non -intelligent, Soul cannot manifest its in- 
telligence independent of the body nor can the body 
move without the soul nor either without the Bene- 
ficent will of God by pervading them all and being 
independent of them as the text say?, " s-mQaour u>n@ 
Qtu^ufL-gftuiirS" (He is in Betha and Abetha and 
Bethabetha relation with the world) . 


Some readers may ask, which arc the "Tamil 
lands "; and the answer is, the districts of South 
India where the Tamil language in spoken. Those 
that wish to know more about this language may 
study the " Tamil Hand-book."* These districts in 
ve*y ancient time9 were divided (though of course 
the divisions varied at different periods) into the 

•The Paudiyau land included the preauot districts of Muduru and 
Tinnevell; . 


Sora, Pandya and Sera kingdoms, to which must be 
added the Tondai Mandahmi, ;it times a distinct 
kingdom. The capital of the Sora kingdom was for 
the most part Kumbakonam or Tanjove. That of the 
Sera dominion was Karoo r ; while Madura was the 
chief city of the Pandiyan territory at the time of 
the events recorded in our legends. The Tondai 
Mandalam, which really belonged to the Sora kingdom 
is the district between the Palar and the Pennar. 
Ln it was Kalahatti. This region is now divided into 
Collectorates, of which Cbingleput, North Arcot, 
South Arcot, Tanjore, Trichinopoly, Madura, Tinne- 
velly, Coimbatore, and Salem, are inhabited by Tamil 
speaking people. The area of these regions extends 
considerably further, as many of the sacred shrines 
lie to the north and west; but, on the whole, it is 
with this country that these legends are concerned. 

A great number of temples, some dedicated to 
Vishnu, but many more to Siva lie scattered over 
this region. Some of these are of great magnificence, 
and possess large endowments Others are small, 
but almost every village has its temple ; and the 
stonework of very many of these attests the skill, 
devotion and liberality of former generations of Saiva 

Before the reader is introduced to a few of the 
many poets of Sonth India, it seems desirable to 
give a fact or two about the languages in which 
they have sung. These constitute the Dravidian, or 
South-Indian family of languages, in which are in- 
cluded Tamil, Telugu, Canarese, Malayalam, Tuluva, 
Kurgi Toda, and Badaga. These are spoken by 
forty-five millions of people, i. e., by all the indige- 
nous inhabitants of India south of the river Kistna, 
and by many north of it. To these it has become 
the fashion to apply the epithet Dravidian; but 
the Sanskrit term Dravida is applied to a much 
larger extent of country, and would include the 
Mahrattas, and the inhabitants of Guzerat, who are 
of altogether different race and speech. It is said 
that the term Dravidian is a convenient appellation : 
bat, what is incorrect will be found io the long 
run to be inconvenient ; and it is nsed here under 
protest, and with this explanation. In ancient times, 
before there were any Mubammadans iu India, or 
indeed in the world, the Southern Hindus knew of 
two great languages — the Vada-mori and the Ten- 
mori, ». e., the nwlheru speech and their own southern 



tpewh* The northern? was Sanskrit, with its Prakrits, 
or dependent vernsoulars; the southern was Tamil, 
with its cognate dialects. It has been almost taken 
for granted that the name Tamil was derived from 
the Smskrit Dravipa. Native scholars deny this ; 
but it most he allowed that on philological points 
their authority is not always conclusive. In regard 
to the derivation of the word Tamil, I have ventur- 
ed to suggest that jt is a corruption of Ten-mori, Tem- 
mori, Tamir, which Europeans write Tamil. A parallel 
derivation may be adduced. The cocoa-rnut palm was 
brought into India from Ceylon, and originally, moat 
probably from the Nicobar Islands. In the Tamilian 
languages it has no name except Tenna-maram, "the 
southern tree." Its fruit is called Tennankai and 
Tenkai. In this case the proper name for the South- 
Indian family of languages would be the Tamilian. 
They differ Very widely now from one another, though 
possessing in the main a common stock of roots, nud 
having abundant ■signs in their inflectional systems 
and idioms of their common origin. In later days, 
after the Afghan and other Mnhammadan invasions, 
and during the long and splendid reigns of the Mogul 
emperors, there arose, aud was spread over India, a 
composite language which is variously called Hindi, 
Urdu, and Hindustani, in which ^Arabic and Persian 
words are strangely mingled, in different proportions, 
with Sanskrit aud various vernaculars ; and this, in 
some shape or other, is understood by vast multitudes 
of people even in the extreme south. It will be seen, 
therefore, that for a perfect mastery of the languages 
of India, three great parent languages have to be 
studied, and these are Sanskrit, Tamil, and Arabic. 
The Sanskrit is the key to all the oldest Hindu sacred 
writings, and mingles itself in varying proportions 
with. well-nigh every diahct in India. Classical (or 
high) Tamil is the basis of the great languages of the 
South ; while Arabic is the key to Muhatnmadau liter- 
ature, ant. one of the chief elements in all varieties of 
the Hindustani. Tamil bad the advantage of being 
cultivated, fixed, and formed chiefly by the Jains, 
who hated everything Brahmanical, and gave it a 
highly original and most beautiful grammar, preserv- 
ing its peculiar characteristics, and developing it ac- 

• There has always been a rivalry between North and South. 
Thus in Kaladi it is said : 

" Whatever soil you sow it in, the Strychnin nut 
Grows not a cucoa.paini. Some of the Southern land 
Haire entered heaven '. iTvn'i life decides hie future state. 
Full many from the Northern land inhabit hell." 
See " The foar hundred quatrains. " Clarendon Press. 1893. 

cording to the genius of its own idiom and structure. 
Canarese and Telugu .fell more under the influence 
of the Brahmans, i. e , of foreigners, who tried to 
reduce everything to the likeness of Sanskrit. Those 
literatures are, therefore, saturated with Sanskrit* 
Malaynlam is a later development, or corruption, of 
Tamil, To illustrate the whole subject from the an- 
alogy of Greek, Telugu is the Ionic dialect, with a 
large amount of added Sanskrit ■ Canarese-is the, Doric, 
with a somewhat smaller infusion of the same : while 
Malayalam is modern Greek, and the Tamil itself is 
the pure and mighty Attic speech of South-India. 
The other southern dialects are almost wholly Unculti- 

Telugu is the most flexible, harmonious, and, from its 
illimitable Sanskrit resources, the most sonorous of the 
family. Tamil obliges all Sanskrit foreigners io become 
Uatu aridised, and to conform to its phonetic system ; and 
it has this great peculiarity, that it is possible to 
write or speak exhaustively in ji, on any given sub- 
ject without'any introduction of Sanskrit derivatives ; 
or, on the other hand, a speaker may use Sanskrit 
notional words almost exclusively, while the particles 
and inflections are Tamil, just as an English writer or 
speaker might adopt the Saxon style of Swift, or the 
classical pedantry of Johnson. Of course, in Tamil 
as in English; the tasteful combination of the two is 
the perfection of style. Tamil poetry, however, as 
you would expect, is beet when it is as nearly pure as 
possible. And the best poetry ia a well of T;irail unde- 

South-Indian verse, like all other Oriental poetry, 
presents its special difficulties, and these often repel 
the English student, who thinks (often rightly) that 
the result will hardly repay him for his toil; Yet, it 
may be affirmed that a foreigner can never really 
understand a people till he has made himself familiar 
with the verse in which the soul of the nation gives 
expression to its deepest convictions, its most cherished 
feelings, and most earnest aspirations ; and although 
in prose we do not use the archaic words, the poetic 
inversions, and the condensed elliptical style of poetry, 
we can hardly expect to write or speak any language 
with power and precision unless we hare made oursel- 
ves familiar with its best poetry. It is, therefore, a 
pity that South-Indian poetry seems to the student to 
be written in a language quite different from that in 
jrdinary use. The reasons for the exceeding difficulty 
of South-Indian verse are, partly the fact that almost 



the whole of it is very old (and most of the verses 
quoted in these chapters are from eight hundred to a 
thousand years old) ; and partly the fact that Eastern 
bards, for the most part, regard all that is simple in 
expression as superficial, and compose nothing which 
is not intended to have at least three sets of commen- 
taries. Thence arises the difficulty that commentators 
multiply, and disagree, and the poetical idea is often 
lost in the inky floods which these literary cuttle-fish 
pour forth around it. If- we take such a poem as 
Browning's Bordello, with its infinity of perplexing 
allusions, its curious inversions and ellipses, and its 
embedded genjg, we can form some idea of ranch, of 
the most esteemed South-Indian verse. Suppose 
again, that Sqrdello had been written in the dialect 
of Chancer, or Piers Plowman, and that all its words 
were run np together without division or stops, in a 
character like that of some of the old manuscripts in 
the Bodleian, and often on stained and worm-eaten 
palm -leaves instead of paper, — and an idea can be 
formed of the difficulties to be encountered in the 
study of much Oriental poetry. And the stanzas 
themselves are often like some ancient tessellated 
pavement around which you walk perplexed and 
pondering until at length its meaning dawns upon 
you and you slowly come to recognise a pattern some- 
times grotesque, or even repulsive, but sometimes too 
of rare and suggestive beauty. 

South-Indian poetry is fall of conceits and fancies too 
often of impurity. It is io deed hard to distinguish, and 
it requires the power of the fabled Hamsa* to separate 
the wisdom and beauty of most of the Indian liter- 
ature from the inanity and gTOSsness which too often 
mingle with these. Though, indeed one must say 
(and educated Hindus are not slow to detect it), that 
many books in various languages — Italian, French, 
Latin, Greek, and English— are nearly as objection- 
able as anything in Tamil and yet circulate freely 
among ourselves. 

In India generally nothing but poetry is allowed to 
be literature. Everything of any value is in metre- 
Tamilians divide all "books into the " Ulahkanam" and 
" Hldkkiyam" — i.e., ( 1 ) grammars and (2) compositions 
which conform to the laws of the grammars. And all 
—even medical and mathematical treatises — are in 
verse. This is not unknown in Europe. The reader 
will remember the Eton grammar r 

" Vb fit vi j ut volvo, volvi j vivo escipo vixi." 

-_ _______ 

As a specimen the reader of Tamil may be referred 
to the Nanniil, which is one of the best Tamil £ im- 
mars. This has a verse in which schotars are classi- 
fied in t\ way which cannot fail to interest all 
professors, tutors, lecturers, and teachers. It may be 
quoted as eminently characteristic : 

" The swan, the cow, the earth , the parrot pert, 
The pot with holes, the browsing goat, the buffalo, 
The straining fibre : these, the first, the middle sort , 
\nd last of scholars shadow forth." 

Tl io are these eight types of students. He means 
to compare the worthiest — (first class men) — to "swans 
or cows"; the middle sort — (second class) — to the 
" enrth and the parrot"; the last to the ' f pot with holes," 
"the goat," "the buffalo," and the "fibrous web of the 
palm-tree/ 1 Which - is used to strain ghi or melted 
butter. And why ? 

A " swan" — {the Hatnca, a fabulous bird) — is 
reputed to have the faculty, if yon pnt before it milk 
mingled with water, of drinking only the milk, and 
leaving the water in the vessel, A "cow" eats abun- 
dantly, and then ruminates at leisure. These two then 
are emblems of the discriminating and .effective 
student, the best sort of all. 

Again, the ''earth " yields her increase, bat only in 
proportion to the labour bestowed on it ; and the 
"parrot" retains io memory your instructions, but can 
only repeat the lesson taught, without expanding or 
applying it. Thus these represent the second anil 
inferior class of students, who are deficient in spon- 
taneity and originality. 

The lowest sort of would-be scholars is compared to 
a "pot full of holes ": what you pour in runs out us 
fast as you pour it in ,- to a "goat," which goes lYom 
shrub to shrnb, eating the tips only ; to the "buffalo/* 
that rushes into the stream, nouuders about in it, 
stirs up the mud, and then drinks the turbid water 
and to the thin muslin-like "web of the palm-tree/ 
used as a strainer, which lets all that is valuable pass 
away, and retains only the impurities and worthless 
dregs ! The Native grammars contain much of this 
ingenious trifling. The commentaries, often very 
able ones, contain the only really classical prose in 
the languages of South India. 

i>. U. Pore, m. a. 




From Kalitoqat, Palai Thinai. 


]. "tsaosnjir Loetiseuir mnti bujoCjlj 

ansirQujuei aQg;** j pniflee-_& QraiGsutrir 
sheen hjvh_i gotp*j A(jv3u i-j&ivGiijcir & 
Qpssxtaifii mipuuil) s^eoiiain® tsneSp^gp 
ffirauPir Qu(>pji/p p®wsp p<TT,/Bgiujiru> 
jra»«8gp/f ^Sstagts iSduu snQi^ek^ 

taarujBf (SjipirGp tutrppl&nL-. jsuJiOian® 
^sirui g)8ssirujtT3 nnnt. am jg ease so 
QaruQfi Qptrr.Qi—R Qaiw&Q." 

I. [Scene. Hnsbaiid jtwpoxiny to start un a portion* 
journey, having to rjvtpvi a di-.^rt, for th*' *uh; of gain, 
thr fond wife e#pa»iHta?r-j>. 

She. — > You vainly tcl] me of the dangers of crossing 
the rainless hilly wastes, so parched that the 
wild elk is forced to feed oil thorny aloes and 
travellers pierced with arrow heads and fainting 
from loss of blood and thirst arc forced to wet 
their parched tongue with their bitter tears. 

You do not know my real uatiTt*©, my lord. 

To tell me such things is it meet for yon ? 

Do not sunder our bonds of love and leave me. 

If I cannot cross the same sorrowful path with yon, 
what is there else that can give me pleasure ''. 

£t/B#pttpG? S.BSQP QfSlBQ&nsS p (Tfi<iGsVjf£ 
Osfiluui—f «Q;«tfeD*gi GeuQyg it Qn^iF^^i 
QpluQuaeo QtfujeirLDickud Q a ir Shi ij act— uj/i^ewf r. 

QlLIBSI LBM Q»T V ;*.$■'£} 'LflS: fipfSBLDS 0(65)0 fflfg}-."? 

wasxiiassip toi—ain (afuSjr&ir GunjSij 
uenajjn s£>0fi>iifiii> u<Buuat,id aAna^jf 

C^®e«» gttitvia fgtjujig/QLsa&i ofieuriuGer • 
er/pLjoa Sat often & Qpneouoitts seoet&np 

QQfKsir gjLoLos gjsuagj unrip aSaruiGeiT; 

ex en entity. 

tpp/ipnieBr wi^uif.®* Q-rarpesr 
erfD/iflSx, iSSeju eucjpiu>p pgiGoj. 

2. [A desert track. The mother of the young lady 
who had so left with her husband meets some brahmins 
and asks them and they reply.] 

She, — f Ye Virtuous Brahmins, who art carry iog 
an umbrella to shade you from the burning rays 
and a pitcher hang to a pole and the trident, and 
art so indifferent to this world, that your senses 
do your bidding- and art pnrsuing the right path, 
Ye art, not unfamiliar with this dreary road.' 
' Did you see my daughter and another's son go this 

same road ? 

'Their love w«b not till now. known to the public 


They.— ' Not that we did not see. We did see the. pair. 
May you be the mother of the well-bedecked 
lady who accompanied the manly lover through 
this fearful desert.' 

' Except to those who wear them, 

Of what avail is the fragrant sandal to the Hills, 
Though the Hills gave them birth. 
Think well. Your daughter will be of equal use to 

' Except to those who wear them, 

Of what avail is the beautiful white pearls to the 

Though the water gave them birth. 
Consider well. Your daughter will be of equal use 

to you. 

' Except to those who play on the Vina, 

Of what avail is the sweet tunes proceeding from 

seven strings of the Vina, 
Though the Vina gave them birth. 
Ponder well, your daughter will be of equal uae to 

' Do, not be distressed on account of this lady of 

countless virtue. 

She lias simply preferred her lord and has followed 

Tin? is tit u tint path of virtue in this life and for 

the next too. 




(Continued from page 94). 

Ths nahe of the foj;T. 
In his Indian Empire, Hunter remarks ; — " Indeed, 
it ia worthy of lemark that several of the best Indian 
authors, whether Sanskrit or Vernacular, have left no 
indication of their names. As it was the chief denre 
of an Indian sage to merge his individual existence in 
the universal existence, so it appears to have been the 
wish of many Indian men of letters of the highest 
types to lose Qieir individuality in the school or cycle 
of literature to which they belonged. This remark 
is doubly apt in the case of Tamil scholars and poets; 
from the days of Agasthya down to very recent 
times. The names of Tamil poets are in the majority 
of cases after tbeir birth-places or after their family 
names. Some names denote the distinguishing features 
and idiosyncracies of authors. Not one out of a hun- 
dred is known by the name by which lie was called 
by those aear and dear to him. It is bat natural 
that our poet shares the same fate. In his own time 
he was known by the name of Kamban or Kamba- 
nadan. Poems eulogizing him have athu-iffi-A, siltu 
«*Wsb'— ujffliw-eiraj and &LnuttnC-i— « j^afsh. The name 
of his country after which he is called is certainly 
Kambanadu in the District of Tanjore. The village 
in which he was born and in which he resided in bis 
declining years undoubtedly was ^©a/^^jafj as stated 
in the last stanza of «i—G*suBif/f^ — " w&rGp ljs 
(tfi $@&iQj.G^n si« Gf*> &c", and in the ^eaUiuai of 
the Ramayarf— " nanearar * * * ff^anti Qs-ntp 
a<t£.®j ^CgaiQgii^Sii eiirpQeuriax." 


About tbe parentage of Karnbsn traditions vary and 
scholars differ. There are those who assert that he 
was the posthumous sou of a small king who died in 
battle and that his mother sought tbe refuse of an 
^&*eir of &qi)a>Q^i^i. Some state that his birth was 
calculated by the court astrologers to be productive 
of evil and that on thei* advice the king ordered the 
child to be left in a jangle where he was found by the 
g}*tf-*r of $vi(t£ikigrA who was childless. There are 
■others who declare that he was only the son of an 
£# jot of ftigei'Qf i&i. Those who assert that he came 
of royal parentage reiy upfin^iiaditioa that he killed 
the son of thn king while he *as pursued by a wild 
elephant saying, " smLi^iiosr sflCi—irjini •sfifl <l,<i^b 

«fic_/r#" for revenging the cause of his son Amb'ga- 
pathy who was sentenced to capiul punishment by 
the sovereign, because be had a sort of clandestine in- 
^ e jr aa rg e. with tbe princess, and that Kamban would 
not have dared to do so, had not the revengeful 
temper of a Kshatriya been strong in him. If he really 
came of royal parentage, there could have been no 
objection for the consummation of marriage between 
his son and the princess himself, his son or L r rand son 
might have become a king, as they had every facility 
of aci | Hiring dominion over at least a small tract of 
country under any one of the three great sovereigns 
of the Tamil country. 'Bnt they proved to be only 
scholars and poets. Hence, even according to tbe 
law of heredity this proposition falls down. That he 
was an <$j-a-eix by birth is a dogmatical statement. 
There are also those who hold and believe that Kam- 
ban was only a Vellalaby birth, and that on I In- death 
of his father, hi-* mother who was suffering from 
abject poverty entered as a baitdlintid n» the house- 
hold service of Sadaiyappa Jliiduliyar of ,te k '" B ^' 
Qemoj fievgjjntt. There is not sub.-tiintiul evidence to 
prove this thesis, nor is there any in tei-ial argument 
to disprove it. When Kamban became a famous poet 
he was treated on all equal terms by liw guardian and 
patron and also by the Kings, lint [his cannot be 
held as an argument to assort that he was a Vcllala, 
because poets are in all times and ages adored and 
treated as more than equals by all nobles ami Kings. 
Q^irennam—mMSi-su tfgaLD a poem in one hiimired 
stanzas eulogizing Yellalas, poets and the chari ruble 
nobles of the Vell.-ila counnniiity and their far-famed 
gifts and valorous deels — all within the local limits of 
0^(TCTprsBjt_u)«sBn_9)u)) which StUg'S the name add fame 
ofi-y«C?ip;i^ and other poets of © i ** , efe-.'Ki_ui..-- t-e-ui 
does not praise Kamban except inridciita'lv i>i 

stanzas No. 4~> " uer. — uSjb Sic, X<» v ?i 

*' Gl-isaetiuj Q&'rptJiij) &.C.," Xo. 8"> " Gjtiirf fi J ? -i 
us^eo &c," No. 87 " pT&ipp Qr-i ^iSi^nu^n.ii &f 
This was perhaps he was a native of ff*rjfMs*l8. \'nt 
in stanza _\o. 50 and from the commentary mni it 
(vide page 264 of S^ffasrwi—iDOBi— ent 3., ii> annotated 
by #seij$i!-/uuQp t icei*iuBir J Victoria Press, Vellore, J tS?) 
there seems to be some reason to conjecture that 
Ki.iubun might be a Vellala. Then again on page 24C 
of tbe same commentary there is related an tineedott 
that Gr*iiu**ioa* Qpp^Sajttti the famous disctpla of 
Kamban visited his teacher one midnight and thai he 
irmained some days in his bouse. If this anecdote 
which is supported by the Q&tmur. : — 



aiiu>ip&& Q#«a»«* #(_*)ff*p ^Mf**,* 

is tme, Kamban sliould certainly have been a Velhda, 
because a Vellala even in a time of dire necessity 
would not even quench his thirst iu the house of an 
$e*ar. Even if *jQnQgu&, which every one accepts 
as the genuine production of Kamban and is certified 
to thut effect by the above cited stanza No. 86 of 
Qjfaeeirai)L~u)teirt—ei>ff.2ut l will not convince one that 
Kamban was a Vellala, for the reason that he would 
not have extolled the praise of his own class, we 
declare that Kamban, if he had not been a Vellala 
would not have put the last line of " ^Siu&ar j/^wA 
s"i* &c , * * Q^uBnsOas^ii^ ffanuiurar tD&SLetr 

Q'j-.&rvS" as it stands. If he had been a King, he 

would neither bear this line nor the lines in srOnQgu^ 

" QjBQf&i<$€«3£}5j 4ri—ri.(ip&. LDi& ear a. ff'S 

sr(yiiE>(9je<i0&jb iSjDifQsiBS 

"■ Q£x<t&i&>i@lb iSpkpsQs t-eVQiiJiL/ii iSjaGftrQt." 

Kamban is said to have been a Vellala in the mirasi 
Right (Appendix page XVI). mtLtf. QtuQgufi waa 
written by $i^<~s&_£pn enlogizing his own caste. So 
might Knmban have eulogized his own caste iu aOnQf 
ujB and ,8(g sanaa 1 Lp ijsir. From all these premises 
before us we are led to conjecture that Kamban was a 
Vellala by birth. 


There are two accounts of his having been inspired 
as a poet while he was yet a. school-boy under ten 
years of age. One relates to the widely known anec- 
dote of x«'s£>kiai!n*jii< fg^aan believed to be true by 
the majority of Tamil Pandits. The other is the one 
found in wQnQfug) (yasyaoir (QpnrigQti-GeiieiiniLipQppeS 
u./7.t's edition), where it is stated he was inspired by a 
Brahma Rakshasa. The inspired Kamban at once 
sang Sat-aswathi Anthathy. After the occurrence of 
either of these incidents, his guardian grew closely 
attached to the inspired youth and introduced him to 
the king- and nobles of the court. (Tradition attributes 
another incident to the origin of Saraswathi Antha- 
thy-vide eBQairpfcww&fiR). What may be deduced 
from these time honored mythical incidents may be 
simply tbis — that Kamban while yet a boy evinced 
signs of future greatness and that he was a poet born 
not made. 

These are the only traditional accounts we possess 
of the boyhood of Kambaii. Who his teacher was and 
who were his school-fellows, how his benius developed 
and what books he read with interest, what sports he 
was fond of and how he was regarded by his play- 
fellows, and whether he produced any work in his 
young days which indicated the future poet, we have 
no means of rescuing. All are lost to oblivion. This 
is no wonder considering what one knows of that 
immortal English Bard of all times, that poet of poets 
— Shakespeare. The exact (lute of Shakespeare's 
birth is still a mystery. The exact date of the death 
of the father of English Poetry-Chaucer is still a 
problem" Thanks to the labours of the Indian 
Arcbselogists in this land of myths and traditions, 
we arc at least in a position to fix the nge of Kamban 
with tolerable approximation, though we cannot 
exactly fix the dates of his birth and death and of his 


{To he continued) 



The Secretary of rho Diffusion of Knowledge Agen- 
cy has seDt these to us for a full review. And we 
have with us n full review of these which the Rev. Dr. 
G. U Pope lias kindly sent ; and we are unwilling to 
publish the same, as we Are afraid such loug reviews 
do not in any way help the author or publisher here, 
as iu England, and we wish very much that the utmost 
help and encouragement should be afforded to the 
learned, patient and hard-working Secretary and the 
Editor of the VivekacMntamani magazine and the seri- 
al publications. He has been doing in a quiet and an 
unassuming way a work which ought to command the 
sympathy of the richest of our Tamil land, and he has 
been the means of bringing to the front a. number of 
graduates of our local University who at other times 
would not have condescended to re;id a line of Tamil. 

(1) ' Kamttlambal or the Fatal Rumovr.' Published by C. V. S.iini- 
oatha Aiyer, D. K. Agency, Triplicate. Bcaotit'ullv bound. Price 
Hnpeo 1-8-0. 

(8) • Fairy Tell True.' Published by C. V. Swftminotlia Aiyar, 
D. K. Agency, Triplicane. Full Cloth. Re. 0-5-0. 

(3) ' Story of Colbert.' Published by C. V. Swaminatha Aiyer 
D.K. Agency, Tripiicane. Frill Clotb. Ba. 0-5-0. 

(*) ' (PiotftoraiuffcalardO {A twHaby) « pies. Poifoje evfra. 



These gentlemen hare struck altogether a new and 
fruitful vein of literature in Tamil and with success 
too, as is borne testimony to, by most learned Tumil 
scholars among Indians and Europeans alike. We 
have read them stories when they appeared in the ma- 
gazine and we have re-read them row-to ourselves and 
What is more important to on i' Indies at home and the 
young child ren,and the stories areas delightful as ever, 
Kaumlambal in one sense is not new. Almost all the 
words and thoughts are current coin among the people 
and it is the chief merit of the author that he has used 
such available materials with so much dexterity as to 
afford pleasure and to adorn a talc and point a moral. 
The conclusiofijof the poem is truly oriental in it* 
imagination, and touching in the extreme and the au- 
thor aotly concludes with those divine words from 
Thiruvft-chakam out of the hymn of which wo gave a 
translation of in our August number. We. pointed out 
that this hymn contained the cream of the Advaita 
Siddhanta and we failed to add that this particular 
stanza in which the quotation occurs contains the 
churned butter and its delight. Thaynroanavar refers 
to this passage in the following words. " Clausing 
it among the greatest sayings of the greatest sagos," 

As regards the Lullaby, we need say nothing more 
about its popularity except that since I put the book 
into my children's hands I hear nothing but the*e 
verses repeated ever and anon, 

/Lives of great men always remind us' of our duties 
and our own possibilities and they serve as a becon 
of light to guide and cheer us in our struggles in this 
life. Life of Colbert is no exception in tbis respect 
and instead of one such life, our Tamil people should 
be made familiar with scores of such among European 
men and women. 

The books are printed and bound in the best of styles 
and unlike our friend who is a Master of Arts who re- 
marked that our magazine was costly and it need not 
be got up so well, we think it a duty to introduce a 
good taste in respect of books, we are given to read. 
' Good wine needs no bush' but-no merchant desiring to 
win his money will dispeuse with the necessary bush 
and how would a diamond look, given the-wnrst of set- 
ting.' Yesterday we worshipped learning as a Goddess 
and why should we not give her the best dress and 
appearance. We would only wish that our Tamil land 
will wake up soon enough to extend their help nut] en- 

couragement to enterprises of the sort so disinterested- 
ly undertaken by onr friend of the D..K. Agency. 

" Onua Bodiici" We have received the first two 
numbers of this Tamil Magazine and we are glad to 
give it a hearty welcome, And this is an additional 
sign of the times It shows our English educated 
youth* and men are slowly waking up to their real 
duties and responsibilities and gradually losing their 
indifference to theVr mother tongue. .Our mother Ta- 
mil expects every one of her sons to do his dnty, as 
one of our friends put it. But still a considerable 
i-ousing up is necessary all round. The public must 
come round and do all they can to support and en- 
courage such things. If as the writer, in this Maga- 
zine, laments, there are no kings and great potentates 
to patron tee Tamil learning us in days of yore, yet in 
course of time, Demos must assume Kingship in this 
respect, as in the civilized European countries. It is 
prayed at the same time that the Government and the 
Universities may not be indifferent to the claims of the 
vernacular languages. 

The contents of the two numbers are interesting. 
And a serial story called ' ">,©&■ tot sot s&n#' ia well be- 
gun by Mr. V. G. Suryauarayana Sastri, u. \. In the 
article on the ' Condition of Tamil,' the writer would 
have done well in giving the history of Tamil to have- 
traversed the views of I'rof, 51. Seshagiri Sastrfgal, in 
regard to the existence of the three Saugams. Thu 
Pandit who writes on ' some grammar questions,' could 
afford to state the questions more fully aud in plainer 
terms. Of course, it is needless to remark that any- 
thing in Tamil cannot safely part company from 
Religion, as these two numbers themselves indicate. 
We wish the magazine every success. 


Tkk October number of the .hntkvmd India Ita- a 
short appreciative notice of urn - lust two issues and j 
cords to say, "An another side aims at establishing the 
preference of Sivite Siddhanta over the Vedatita. The 
Vedantin welcome* all such attempts null says, **oloiis 
as it is a mere matter of theory why assume only three 
padarthas, assume lliree hundred us well, if by tlml tumui-, 
yon can simplify tii<. problem and put mi end to nil ajvta- 
physical wrangling," We appreciate no doubt the Lfood 
nature which prompted the observation but we fail in •,•_;■ 
neither Untie nor truth in it ? All a/stems divide them- 
selves into si code of practice, moral and apuHtrral aad the 
exposition uf a metaphysical or natural Theory us to the 
eftttire '■!' fbi-nif*. and their ultimate origin or resolution 



80 frr as the former is concerned, in the whole of India, the 

code is the name, in spite of difference in forms and names 

and the practice is rigid. On this snbJBct therefore there 

need not be any wrangling at nDy time at all, though on this 

subject, people would fight, whether with sense or without 

.sense, as on the subject of 'Namam.' But on the subject of 

metaphysics, it has alt along been 'mete matter of theory' 

from the world's beginning and it will continue on, till 

the world's end. in spite of onr contemporary's earnest 

protest against metaphysical wrangling. These endless 

controversies have however enrious modes nf resurrection. 

in new shapes and forms at different periods in history 

suul in different -countries. Hut for this metaphysical 

wrangling ajjain, the world would possess no literature in 

philosophy, worth having. But for tins ' mere matter of 

theory' and 'metaphysical wrangling.' what would be the 

mm of the Vcdmttic literature and what would be the 

special merit of Vvdauta a( all f Docs not a writer in 

Hie September iiuniiirr iii' fhe Amiki'tivtl lutlin' claim 

J;; ■- (.■'UMii'in.-i' to Vcdanta. I?) uvei all other systems, by rii.ii it postulates only one Padaitha and that tin's 

I'suiarllm is myself and that all Hint we sec Ave., is all 

Maya, sill endless delusion and a sn:iiv'r .Ale I liCsc 'matters 

11] uteri* theory or not. and sulijrcts t»f 'metaphysical 

wiaii^liiiu-- Did nut tine •jftm.t Sankaia CHtntilislj this 

MiiM'i-i'ii ilifus-y after jjfrtsit trouble and expenditure of 

Ifiil'iin'. Nay ih-l lie 'ml give forced interpi flat ions 

to lexis, urt.-ordiiii;- hi the tipiiii m uf several 

Kiifnpi- 111 ami Imliaii Sit Villi I ~„ to t'«.f Jlltll- li his theory mi 

the mo-i and- tit mil linril \ And ivus lint lhi> llu-orv 

alh.i:.!] lat i r than I'iiiMImmi) and derived Iron) il in 

partr A- tiii our article Anothvr side tin* \n-v 

lille was intended to rotii ey tn>t mi iilea ul pre-cmi- 

inciire u!" prelerenec. and do not timleishiud I lie point 

■ 1! run- eiJiiteiiip.iraty rel'eriniL.' In it ;is 'Siviic Siddliautu' 

tlmn^l. uiir whole article ut> spoke t>f it as KesliW'Uui 

.Sauk by nr Th<*Ktic 1'liilo^ ■•phy. tind wt qtiutcd Inlfpclv 

frutn the tiita. Ol course, the plirusi in t>i,e sense is 

'nntoliigieal as Siddlianla, mean-, in the Tamil l.tnguayt 

at any late "Nttivaim and Snidhanfaii. Si\;i us anv seliunl 

>'"H i-iiiary will *liw 

• * 

However, it may not be, out of place, to observe here, 
that in our ' metaphysical wrangling', we will comtfue 
ourselves most, to human reason and human arguments, 
so far it is lifted for man to understand them, and we 
wilt never appeal to our own individual experience and 
intuition, not capable of proof and demonstration, nor 
would we appeal to authority, except as corroboration of 
ooi- views, and as showing the historical basis on which 
out views are based. We maybe allowed also to contro- 
vert the position, if possible, of one school of men when 
tbey assert that such and such an authority favours their 
view only. We may also observe that in regard to logical 
methods, and roles of interpretation, there is a consensus 
of Opinion among the majority of mankind, 

* * 
tt is with the greatest regret and' sorrow, we record the 
death of Professor Sadhn .Seshnyya, n, a.. Rao Bahadur 

It was only in our -last number we quoted him and ex- 
pressed oar hopes and wishes. But sucli is the nature 
of human stability, "©aren^*©©**^* <sc&trsB($uu 
QjrsiiQpGx?*niG»i.ir0L-L8-M2miG'tJ." Philosophy apart, the 
loss to the country of such a good and noble man at such a 
time is a great misfortune. Our heart is full and the 
words stick at our throat and the pen refuses to write. May 
the All-Merciful Sankara rest his soul in Peace ! 

* • 

"But what was it tlmt the agnostic Buddhists worshipped. 
What "'as the concrete form which Gautama's religion took in 
the early age of which wc are speaking, before vast monasteries 
and ar unwieldy preisthood replaced the primtive faith ? What 
was the actual form of worship which drew and engaged the 
multitude who could not all luive appreciated or worshipped the 
abstract idea of a holy life ? The reply is simple. For centu- 
ries the people worshiped holiness and virtue as typified in the 
life of Gautama. The? revered the memories of the Great 
Toucher, they worshipped hie invisible presence. The sculptures 
at Kuiichi, at Amaravnii, at Bltarhut and other places, represent 
humane jiaiil to tree, to serpent, to the wheel, or to the umbrella; 
lint in every case the object represents the presence, or reli- 
gion nf Uuddha. It was a worship "paid to the invisible presence 
of the Teacher, or to the power supposed to reside in his teaching 
(the wheel.) It is a worship uf association or of memory. The 
fspias rendered famous by Buddha's presence (taring his life-time 
lire censeernted in 1 he mind nf hia disciple to saeicd rccoliec- 
linn. and worship is niKercd ou those spots to the invisible 
object uf faith." Thus early Buddhism was the worship of holi- 
ness ad tvptlied in Buddha, and of his holy invisible presence." 

VSuch is the defence of Buddhistic fetish worship by such 
a scholar anil uncompromising agnostic as Mr. Roniesh- 
Chainlet- Dutt. Why could we not defend onr symbolic 
worship, on similar lines when in fact our symbols are 
sy pregnant with meaning! and is non-historical and 
purely philosophic. 


* * 

The language of a people has been called '* a moral 
barometer, that indicates and marks the vice and fall of a 
nation's life. Says Bacon ' men conceit that their reason 
hath the mastery over their words, bnt it happens too 
that words react and influence the understanding. Words, 
as a Tartar bow, do shoot back up on the intellect of the 
wisest and mightily entangle and pervert the judgment." 


* # 

* Forget' and ' forgive' are the key words to the res- 
pective moral standard of the Indian and the Christian, 
according to the learned contributor on the Ethics of Ku- 
ral. In ' forgivenees' there is an active remembrance of 
the injury done and the sense of your having done a nobis 
thing in excusing your enemy ; who for ought may remain 
your enemy still. Then to love hirn, may be impossible. 
But when you forget, nothing cun impede yon in y..ur 
duty to love and do good to others. „ This moral standard 
has also affected onr ideal of God. Our God is not a venge- 
ful God. HeisVeuiisnair' (has neither likes nor dislikes). 
His name is ' #»*r«w' (Doer of Good-Beneficent), And 
not one moment passes but He is doing good. Evil and 
darkness of mortals are not reflected in His mind. But 
under His Supremo Law, each one reaps good or bad 
according to enrh one's work and deserts. 





A Monthly Journal Devoted to Religion. Philosophy, Literature* Science- &c- 
Commenced on tlie Queens Commemoration Do*/. 1897- 

VoL. I- } 


) No 6- 




{Continued from pay? 7-0). 

13- Vishnu who measured out ih^ earf-h, and 
Brahma residing in tne Lotus, and the other Devas, 
though they have been thinking of Siv» iinrneHRiir- 
able time, h>ive not Ween aljle to think (mi. Siva, None 
has measured out Siva trtLnacendinsj rill h^av^ns, with 
tho iutenti'in nf Hi* fyes ; Siva sees nil hiiH s;ts jHb'iv^ 
all, pwv*ding ali. 

This rene (rives another reaion for Siva's mijierifrnty. Reference 
ii—nerein io Visb uu'iwiciiping the whole earth with a font 
of Hia with *■ view u> crush ihe Emperor Bail. Such n. i^rfffw bcrn*; 
its Yiahna could oot fi«d out ihc fnofc^pf Siva in spite of effort 
that direction. This itorj is explicitly reFerred to in Sarafifcepain- 
* ^JiikI - 

Fit/ jjictfl.mb 1 ioj'"f*pa duwuJa'am, fAri^ya/i' l^iAnu nadhuna, Stut- 
vq. itHtyam mahtsa.nuiM.vang mnrtiwi goi-tifiriirn. Hhaklyn nam. 
titanor L>«ri4bh, praiada Mafcoi'odnuAKA. 

Tliifl hi-.'b iiuthnrftv es;ifi«-ii !v ■ :i_vs tlmt Pi' a is ht-vrmd the 
n-:'--ii «if ivnril an*i miml nii'l hi-, tivi.i lotus frit :\>t^ snu^lit for by 
Vi^rnnL ; awl living uji^ tn fii.-l them out, Y^lnm pi-uiaed Siva 
with (k'Vfftinn iincl Wfirshipfnlitf'tsi, and Siva alu.-.i d Cfm-r h> Him. 
In ttjitf ennnrvtion rtiuffcainfl :i J"f- Hrahma. 

% IciiiLT 'In* Iih:i,I iff Sis;* while Vishnu ui* puj;a^- i m srukiii^ the 
hmi* fret nl' -Siva. ThftBP stories Ii&vp tin f^ortrit* si^nilirHnre. 

X r i t\\v human binli'. ihr |»ft>i*f Ixsi *t'i**n cl:<*lf:i ■ upper CX- 

Ii-ciniri(-s of i he thighs, fnrmiih/ .rul Iikvii,^ 

four fiii't's, U lli£ ]>Lrf_ n.^cii -J [■> Uinlimn. i'l.- LriAfl^ttlar 
pare it'itfjv* i* is tin* part ■M*riIjt»J to Vishmi Tn Ern' of 

Yoifn-priutire, ifcr© pnctilior er has to c-un-ive bin.sHi" as Tlrnlmiajn 
conceives Bralnna who in Fubfitnnce is Uk"} U fral with himself arid 
in seeking fcir ;i kffcowletfg" of Siva who is ^r.rni-l i;i BriLh.:i:ir^ndhni 
( fitftttiiffrtfTtn P'trtun ftrtihrna fly : hrctu rnk.-hifijff} he 

hae to rial 1 up fhronirh HinliMiTi N";:ih of the tuhe in ihs Rpin:il 
H*rv*rt up 10 Br;thm;iF:! mli>r:i. Til** ^utiip pf'.'n'i n ionor h^£ ii> dcflCOnd 
from The trian;^u!nr »'**ai Viftltitit r . » ling s)|4Uijt FPtit of Rrahm.i 
for th^ sum* 1 -inrposp Thu» Visimn In-: i-i ik*.*et*t?d »hd Brahma 
h-is tn iis'-oinl lit urih-t* 1 ■ f s«'i j I'uimu, it mih- flp, n^ lias hrcn said 
is uiinniehnbl" liy wm'J, (mil niiii>l P but leachnbh.* l>y L-sncentratetJ 
defntifiTrt whi*- 1 scrtirea His Gva<v n**+l tlu-i'tlrv rovrnls Him to 
tin* devote*. As is oisflerfKil L" ypiritiuil Jitannni re- 

8'iltiii^ I'rom Vf<:.'u-prncticc in iJ^T'emifuT iillininlt*K* *>r n( lens' 
in prcrt on 1I1 h (Frape Pur^unalmn- T.v> t^w^tfjlimniir-ppr^-'ii 

tniimer^tcB the vnriona ge;\is (if J)hvan;i m tlu. L hotly frnm tia k tun 
th^ (Tciut to Br:ihmnniri*Jl' ta ifi rh« hi ;id in rfic *K"-^ni+**««f oruL-r 
This doffs not fl«*h with t he vii'W wi; hn-vn; »\pri^> H d. Kmuitf: - 
ation of Pbyiinfi-rx-ntrPS In .in .^, ' hjiUt ivith ni\i«;n^ t 
phv siolo^ical pn^itinn doea n-ic cunrtict wiili url 

development iu the coarse i^f v^a-practtre. 



*i_i^y.«?ar ™?«r* -** tutsraatQesrisi u>iriuar 
mi—H^iSar (n?arantm muL/p iSfar 

14. Brahma, stands far beyond (fur niperinr or far 
.great) ; Visbnu further on Brahma (superior i<> 
Brahma} and Siva further than both, superior to 
both; Siva sees all everywhere. 

As shown in the translation tbil view is capable of double 
interpretation of the senso indicated. In the Purati* there is a 
reproduction of the Vodie tent from Sni-uttltvpiiiiifhad regarding 
relative superiority already quoted. The other sense is ona 
based on Briliodartthyop'iiiT.-liad and forms a third reason for the 
superiority of Siva. According to the Inst mentioned L'jj.ii: iiljuil. 
the world of Brahma is situated ut'Iatv the world of Vishnu, and 
the world of Yishnu id situated below thi." World of Siva, and further 
those worlds are related to one another in the saute way as warp 
and woof in a cloth. The croaa thread represents the particular 
world of a particular deity mid deva. The longtitudinal thread re- 
presents the eirunt of influence and permeation of a particular 
deity not only in Itis nwn region hut nlsn in the region appropriate 
for deities below II'. 1 n't hid sense ton the region of Siva is higher 
than the rc-g'on of Yisim ami Hralima. and Ilia influence, extends 
not only all over His o« n dominion but it si's© permeates through 
the dominions u. Yi&hnu and llrahina. 

^$tLj tfi.Tujr (g)-V— . ^wsKesSatp 

15. He w,is me Beginning, is the Hara (The Des- 
troyer), IS Brnhtna Or tlia Beilig knowing t'rom within 
body. He is tlieli^ht of ^niceof tti-se <vit«ar« unfold- 
ed and settled iu a condition of peace, l. L - i- ikmi- 
comprtssible, all-expaniiiiig uatiirc; He is uu emolu- 
ment of Justice, and He is eternal. 

The only pari requiring comment in this vet-.-e is Ilia being a 
light of grace to those who Hie unfolded and settled in a condition 
of peace. A yoga-practitioner is unfolded ass he Pr.paiiil.s his idea of 
self, confined to Ilia body, tn cv-sry thin £ in the universe, ami this 
idea of self as cn-extcnsivc with tlto universe ami Pu-auiatma re- 
ceives a real and practical sanciiuit only in the peaceful and settled 
condition of Samudhi. 

ajffjjj (giu'-a? n-'iir™-:- Qgoi^ik 

1:J. Devaa praisttijr ]Jim wiili J;ira (matted flair) 
wenriitg Kowrai flowers shiui'ig with pi-tals, witii sakti 
■ noorptf rated with Him, with the fore-head eye ever 
bring iu Him, will get rid oi their sins and experi- 
ence great benefits- 

The meaning of Jata as representing innumerable laminous TBTS 
emanating from Him a »n central mass of light has been already given 
Himnya Smnsru, Hi>'(MlWlteni! (Chunduipyopanumdd), Some expla- 
nation is needed of Kowrui doiver. I happened to express in nj 
contribution to one or the issues of the Sidd'mnla Dtepikn ( probably 
the first N"<i.) that i!ie lefereuce to Kowrai flower implies suppression 
■if ilfsinv:. Tliis view ni declared wronji in Its Tamil edition, aod 
the writer who contributed tbo Ta,inil version observed that in case 
an esoteric meaning ia deemed neceasary for the Bower it resembles 
I'nina I u in appearance, and so it may 'Stand for Pranava. He also tt»k 
o^jectiini tn my explanation, as erroneous on the ground that the 
idta has been expressed already in a prior verse. He tin ally asked 
us to accept the cunelmioa that Siva Wears the (lower in its, 
physical and literal souse. 

1 do not see how the flower bears any resemblance to Praoara. 
J will be very much obliged to him if be can quote o single authori- 
ty in support of bis observation- My view is certainly supported by 
authdi'iry. The name uf the fluwer is certainly derived from the 
root QkitkS (to kill). I n Sanskrit, the Jtower is {Aroijvndhn); 
the tree E«r*«H Ft*titt,i largely tised ir. medicinal recipes — /.iiijiiWiDt. 
if(?;i'i and Apte'a Saintrrit-Enirlisli Dictionary; and it is called Arng- 
vadlta fur the two reasons given hi Liagabhnttetifn 

The IfciWer ist'itlh'il .1 wjruflhit asit kills skin disease which makes 
the hand red (including I. ::|irosy J. Th» Slower is called Kujuvriksha 
(king of trees) as it kiMs the iring of diseases or the chief disease. 
Tin; rliictf disease- is staled to be Sauisara iu (Jopoln poor nata pin - 
grtpnttitkoat. Hero mental diseases and physi'-al diseases are 
idiMiiirieil with the ner-:iu nl' Sainaara- Accordintr to Muhopanisliad 
" It is Chirta (l)esirej i hat constitutes Samsara, spoiled by atfach- 
mimt or dis(;:t.^e and surrow or misery.'' 'i'ite saoie Cpaatahad 
further on .s.-iv.« '* uiy liriu couviL-tioii is that the distributinu in 
diveise aiTiiirs is Sauisara.'' V ujkh vTA. in addressing hi« introduc- 
tory verse to lsu-aru describes lliui as the Primeval doctor or Yuiilva 
Ho describ.'s (Ind iik the inigiuul doctor *ho kills tho disease 
of attaeliuient itc. Nothing can be a greater disease than 
Samsara which ia nocessitared by desire replete with ever re- 
c lining and over crowdiuu; mlserios. Dositi! ic. is tiiu nurst disease 
pnssible for mini, and Kovvini flower referred tn as an effective 
medicine for the same, means nothing more titan the (suppression 
of Desire &c. As 3f<r/i0/> tatsfiad sny.s, Nirvana is iioti-desii-e 
As a K-.tjavriks.iia, it kills ekin disease iu the hand. The disease 
of Itnj is which necessitates tho iutiuite round of Sauisara is called 
a skill disease as it affects Siva without affecting JVramutma; 
but being in touch with I'arauatma. Tim akin Implies all the 
souses which are just the modifications *»f the sen so of touch, and 
so it implies all the desires enjoyable by sill the senses, and then the 
skin disease bemmes in fne! tho disease of desires. It is called a 
akin disease reddening Hid hand us desire develops Rajagmia 
m re than mi; <u her li ana. Desire is called a skin disease in the hand 
is I'm- m<hh] way »f Mating anything which is Hiiniistakabl* 
[E>.sl:,>i'san<j QtsJj.iSixesft'JuTai'). This is k.sclf an Upanishadtc 
idea uii'Mtas ii.& exact connterptirt iu one of tho Upanishada. The 
it-lie under comment tells us that- the forehead eye of Siva is ever 
living. ihaL is, His eye nT Jnniia (spiritual) is eve* netive, ever 
asserting itself , aud this is punsible only in Sinnndbi, which, denned 
by M<it'''[nini.iit(t<l rererence to desires, means an attitude in 

wh ; ■■ atiaL-linieui or desire, hatred Ac, have dropped. Siva as 
''aiaiuatina or a personal being absorbed iu ever-living spiritual 
■I i cannot be said to wear a physical llower, and the idea is 

nut nf q nest ion at such a st ;iee. Vtc ha'e authoritative Vedic 
iwri rei:uion i\*"\I for Bilva leaves which Siva is said to wear as 



much a* Kowrai Bomr- Aragvadba Suwer (Vadha-Qtir uh *nd •■> 
the light of thit interpretation by a parity of reasoning wo may fan 
permitted, X think, to give in esoteric significance to Kowrai 
Bower u I had occasion to do in a former contribution and at I 
persist in ao doing in this contribjtion. 

Bilva ia colled Tfimtparna, literally of three leave*. According 
to PatujnttabrgSfKopanithad, Hamauli (breath) internal, ell-per- 
vading internal, ia the half-form. The word internal ia twice 
repeated in tbAVedic, teit to ihow that it first go** into the lungs 
and thence it g oes farther inwards with the blood. Breath 
inward atone ia recokoed the leu-form rlamaah, and that it it 
clear that Beehaka, Pooraka and Knrnbbnkn proceaaet alone are 
referred to in the text Theas three processes are the three leaf- 
lets in a Triaoparna or Bilva leaf, I shall refer to these processes 
in full Later on in the sequel. The three leaflet* in a Tnso.[>nrna. 
or Bilv* leaf being the processes of Pranayanm, the question i» 
whether Si** wears them, nnd if ao in what sense. Paramatma ia 
■dnrajtaA- without Prana (r-asnopa jimluid.). 

eVtveaa identical with Paramatma cannot wear Triauparna a* 
He it devoid of Prena. Siva as a person »1 being Gas Prana and 
consequently he wears it. Tikchoolah ubps the word Siva both 
at identical with Paramatnta and nt identical with Knurs, It there- 
fore behaves ui to see in what sense Siva as l'tramalfna hear* or 
Wears Prina. According to Faaupata Brahmopanirhad -. Brahma 
aumrotrpa Bamtak. that ia " Ham sab (Prana) ie the form of 
Paramatma." This is affirmed in ao many place* in Ckandojyopa- 
tithad and other Upaniahadt. Paramstroa can bear hit own form 
which ia Hamsun, or Prana or Suparna, or Bilva. According to 
Pantpata Brahmopaniahad again Hnmtc pranavayvrabhtdttk, that 
is * Hamaah and Prenave are not different from each other". Pra- 
nave ia the nVme of Paramatma v Hia symbol, why Purnmntrna 
Himself {vi&t Ckandai)yopunithad, the very hejfinnintrj. Cannot 
Paramatma bear Himself or Ilia own transformations? 

According to Bhatmajabaliypani*hod ths tliree 1e»Heti in a Bilva 
or Trituparoa represent the three VaJas. Veda* ari< embodiments uf 
Jnana, and to Paramatma bears Jnana, for He it, Cblt and 
Ananda. Trisupariie, though divided into three leaflets, is after 
all one and the same leaf in nature, and Jn.ine in Pnra- 
jaatnuv ia not divided bat continues one and the same, nnn- 
dasJiatic in character. In ceremonial Yairna implying iloa^istia 
conception* the three Tedas play theii' own respi-O.ive parte- The 
Sic ii employed in inviting the Doras and the presiding Deity - 
ihe ra.iai it employed to pr.iiMi them when they arrive in pojsn- 
ance of oar invitation* and the Soma is tung to please tltem. In 
understanding the aame with reference to its esoteric side, the Bif 
invitee the Self buried in the flesh and so afar off from at; thcfojti* 
praise* the Self ■« the tnnltifurhras forms found in the universe, and 
the Saw- phases, it with Brahmannnda on altruistic gronnds The 
faections of ibese Veda* are essentially the aame. The K/c as-erta 
the Beality of Atma orParmn-itinanSone; the Yajut prtiaea Him 
ae everything aud thus connrma the Hie idea by illinrraticn, and 
fhe Sama indicates the bliss attendant «n sat.i< a knowledge. 
That all the three Vedaa indicate the same idea of unity and reality 
ef Atma or Paramatma and the Jnana form bliss in Him on the 
nasi* of non-dnalistie spiritnnl Jnana. It is thus plain that Para- 
nuttwjft bears Trisaparne indicating the three Vedaa. Except in 
the Tirabheveio period, Pnramitma nut only lives as each but in 
certain formt, with rrain as His body (rid* ChandofyopanUhad). 
So he bear* the Bilva or the body of Prase. Siva a* identical 
with Bairn, it a personal B;ing. and at inch can bear the physical 

leaf. Hut the probability ia thar the r>iranir idea it more esoteric 
than esoteric. Sndra ia admitted by the Yngi of Vogia and 
accordiig to TmuirooLAWv He has an ever-living fore-bead 
eye or the eye of Jniuia. Evidently, such ft great yogin can* 
not derive any pleasure or c»i. hare no incentive jo wear- 
ing Kowrai Oun-er or llilva in a physical sense. Trituparna 
ia called Bilva as it removes the tint of perrons who have 
regard for them in a religious way. This is explicitly nsterted 
in Lingabhattetya. The Power of I'ratiayatna.practico in 
removing tint is emphatically asserted in several TJpanishadt, 
in SMtasamhita, in several Smritis and Puranas. Trisupari.a hat 
several symbolie nipauings- For instance, Laltshmi is adored a* 
ititva-ntlnyam, (or one sented in Bilva). The seat of Lakihuii it 
frikoin or a Triangle. Triauparna represents a triangle. It is 
needless in this eonnevtion to give all the symbolic meanings of 
Bilv» or Trisupm n;i. If Siva can wear Bilva or Trituparna in an 
esoteric nentse, can ,.u not wear Aragvndhain a simitar sense i* 

The objection on the ground that* the esoteric idea it simply a 
repetition 1b worth nothing if we bear in mind that repetition of 
tevural things in several places is found in Tirutaantra. There ia 
esoteric, meaning for Nirya (toirfiir-Deer^ftc., borne or worn by Piva, 

The effect of the Cpnsana of Siva is said Lo he clearance of Jfolu 
(imparity) and the iittainment of henefit constantly experienced 
or repented. This part of the verue will be dismasted in hnol her 
connection in full. 

uiirtusj mjjsrfi \ug>iB<5 wiiailfi 

Qf&m «B0«O^/r(5 C^o/Oooeir OjivsoJlgi 

i£& ggxpa/ii Q«^S/fl«iSt' 0bQ*s. \*®\ 

17., pHrliC', white and red, boil together, 
the* smell of civic rises above their Bxnell in and thruagh 
it. Though there is only one Deity (or Chit-^ejpleud- 
eut Atma) pervading all bodies, there is nothing 
equal to the friendship of Isa, us Siva. 

This verse is intended ta show the superiority of Siva by meant of 
an analogy. The three smells, vis, the smell of white parlic, that 
of red garlic and tbat of civic, correspond to Brahaia, Vishnu and 
Bndra. Each smell is stroiig by it sell and the fragrance of civin 
(Kaaturi) is'so strong as to assert itself above the smell of white 
nr red garlic or both, when smelt in and through the tame. This 
is in fact the teat for finding out genuine Kaatnri. Similarly, 
though Brahma and Vienna are great and powerful, still the great* 
ne-s of Sivo it x-eaier than that of rlrahma or Vishnu, or both 
jointly, and su there is nothing equal to the friendship of Siva.Tiatt- 
mintiK acknowledges that the tame Faramatn>a is found in or 
p«rv:ides the Deity, nnd notoithatanding this fact, he tells as tbtt 
jost as the smell of Kasturi which in supercesaiou of 
the smell of garlin white and red, appears furemost, the power of 
<rrace of Siva stands forth foremost. There it one beauty in tt* 
analogy which rennot but be referred to. The color of red garlic 
represents the Bajognna of Brahma whoee color ia red-. The color 
of white garlic represent! the Satwaguaa (euernal) 0% Viahna 
and the color of Kaalori, which is black, represents tbe Tama- 
guua (external) of Bodra. The diference in odour ropretentt the 
internal character of the Triuitj. 



JlJBuf) Qsiujf mmm* Ga/ipaBi 
ufia£) utrpifij f.fisiLB fiirsQ 

18. It is my Lord Sivii who, in view of the strong 
Tapaa by Kabera, the Lord of riches, ruling from Al*. 
kapuri, supported his kinjjdorn jind strengthened and 
enriched the same and blessed that in liis devotio" and 
tanas, Kubera should continue in the condition of 
affluence and power. 

Verse lfl states in general terms thn benefit, accruing from the 
Upasanaof Siva. This verso givea » special instance of grace 
■hown to Kubera by Uimforbis davrtion and tapaa. Wliile the 
world of the Devaa which is under the special protectionof Vishnu is 
ever open to aggreieinn by Aauma, the world of Kubera Full of nfllu- 
ence and riches ia free from such :it' nets, being -nider the protection 
of Siva. Evan Bnlimi and Vishmi have been, it is said in I'titiinit, 
molested by A suras. No doubt it ia miid in mir Porauna that Siva 
gave an Asura the hleasiiie- that on whosnever's head he (Aaura) 
placed bis hand, his liead should burst and lie should die. that on 
getting this blessing, lie pursuwd Siva Himself to placo his hand on 
His head in order tn Kill Hitn, and that on His running away, Ha 
took shelter under Vishnu, who by His Maya made the Asura. place: 
bis hand on his own head which thereon split and brought about hit 
death. This story ia tn be understood in its esoteric sense and not 
literally. It mnirts that a person of murderous fjr<>; »*-natl J. , haw* 
ever powerful might have been li ia ' p upH.s in prior days, cannot 
catch hold of or liml out Siva, that Siva is indestructible, thut 
Siva recedes from him whoso character ij Tumaaio, who thinks 
that liv destroying head, lie can destroy Alms, the all powerful, 
ever-esisteui anil invulnerable, and that a p rson who confounds 
body with At nia kills hinsoif and thus hoVnuvt .IfomsunJin (self- 
fcillcr) condemned by l§ttf-vsyopanixha4, Siva tu^ea shelter under 
Vishnu as Hp ia Areardtng to Rviph >\opiini*had an embodi- 
ment of Ajeijtt Vaiihnavfe mnija. The Asura is an offshore of 
one of the features of Maya, must be vanquished bv the all- 
powerful Vaialinavec-Mayn, and regard to audi an individual, Siva 
or Paramfttma takes shelter under V'aishiiavee .Maya (tin; all- 
embracing Maya), hides Himself behind the thick curtain 
of this all-comprehending Maya. Is it proper for fiivn to give such 
a gift of power to the Asura. who applied for it with a view to kill 
every body on whose head he placed his hand ? As urn is an embodi- 
ment of all evil propensities (vide Sankara's commentaries on 
Ohandoj'urpa-nishad) and all those who were touched by these 
propensities tnnet meet death und destruction. Unless ^iva or 
Paramat nia gave this power n' destruction to evil propensities in 
touch «ith individuals or inHuenetu;.- 1 licit' iutrfir, will, and deed, an 
evil will cease to bean evil, and an the very object of introducing 
evil in tho uuiverse will be defeated. Why should Siva Himself 
ran away from the sisht <>f c.-il wh-.M lie Himself introduced iu 
the world and bless<."l 'vith a power of nYstructt'.m iu respect of all 
affected l>v it r Siva us a I'l-i-.ival Rein™ is subject to all the ilia 
tn which Cesb is heir tr order that lie migl.t keep Himself 

from the dangers of cs i', in tin- from of wicked propensities or illu- 
sory dualistic notinin, confounding body with Atma, He has to fly 
awuy from the sight of evil 

Can we not apply similar esoteric interpretation in tho eaac of 
Cruhros, and Vishnu and give them pre-eminence over and 

Si«' No. Brahma and Vishnu are beset with Maya which is the 
greatest eril so far as their individual selves are concerned. Being 
subject to the greatest eril, what avails it to vanquish snbonlinevte 
arils ? Vitlmu no doubt puts down subordinate erils which ar*> 
turned in uninst aggressive directions, but He foatertj Haya in 
regard to sislf, when the evil propensities ant not directed in 
agprcssiie ways tu the injury of others. For tnstanoe, Banaaara 
W« overflow ins; with Ahanknr, and Krishna <Kd not ictTfere 
with him till Anintdha was stulen away and kept in custody by 
him. When this wrongful cofiuement took place, Sri Krishna 
took' liiinaelf to his slan>;hUr, Tb« same may be said of Havana, 
JarnsKiidh.t, Duryodhann and a host of others within the domain 
of duajistic cmeo' nns. Vialinu fosters them in so far as they are 
limited to just an:l joopei- Uhnrmaa ref^nlating intent, will and 
deed in practical life, cuieluctod on the basis of dnalistio notions, and 
with llna object lie even incarnates Himself every Tu(t» ; whemai 
Siva not mindful of r rcne' DbaKmas S.H really due to Adhvastha(illa- 
(ion), ever takes Himself t» spiritual Jnana and so to the destruction 
nT everything within the domain of Adhyostha. The Symbolical 
forma of propitiating these deifies: indicate the above destruction. 
Whereas Vishnu likes or is propitiated by Tuhasi leaves. "Biva likes 
or is propitiated by Trieupaiira or Bilva leaves. The Tulasi leaves 
conic out in seta of two on parallel axes indicating thereby the ever- 
reenrring |«rallel conrpe of rhinlisii™ illusions, whereas the Bilva 
leaven indicate the Triune principle establishing unity among 
Be9niin;r diversities? While Vishun has to vanquish Adhnrtna* (..'evil 
propensities turned in improper orunjnst directions! fur the purpose 
of maintaining Uliarmas or evil propensitiea turned towards good, 
Sivs disregards both us illusory, and desiies in Himself the Sover- 
eignty of Atmu Jnana and freely interprets it to those who seek tha 
same by Him. He is JVuditni t)ri<crd*fcu«a harann {infirm as the Great 
Sauknra heautifuHy expresses Himself. > Even for putting down evil 
torned towards Adhnnoa, Vishnu llna tn pnt forth a huge strtipgle. 
He is not Hble to put it down without such a strngsrle, 1 regret I 
deferred the discussion of I he effect of practising the Upnaana qlf SUvs, 
rclntively to that of practising the Upasitna nT ^'is^lllu and other 
Devns to a future occasion. It may be stated in this connection that 
higher spiritual or Arma Jnana is solely within the gift of Sir-i and 
Hisiipasananlnne will lead to it. Tho Upaaaim of Vishnu mav secure 
riches, may gain a seat in the world of Vishnu, may take the disciple 
near Him, and may givo him His form, but His npasnna does not 
suffice to give him spiritual Jnannm and gain him the higbeet condi- 
tion of'^ayujya. According to Cfcandoi/yojMm'sjKtd there fs nothing 
greater than Atma,Vidya, and the whole sublunary wealth in this 
ocean-girt earth is not equal to it. According to >tnnnnoorno- 
jjoa'shdJ, the profit of Minn, is the greatest profit attainable, 
and this rati be reached only by spiritual Jnana within the gift of 
Situ- The Epnsana of Vishnu lias not conferred on the discipla 
the sa oe extent of influence and affluence as that of Siva. Vishnu's 
gift of airSienee to Kuchela, to India and others is nothing when 
conipared to Siva'* gift to K ubern. In the chsb of Kubera, not only 
riches were vri ee ; but also i he jereat wealth of devotional Topes 
was given ranee. Tent with the gift of riehes. It is on account of 
Vishnu's ineapaci-y to give us higher Jnnnam and thereby Savujva, 
getting rirl of fit imira, 5arail«ij)iinii'Vi(I tells ur 'Tusmat ^arran 
pari't>.j'j/n dhwir n [".'.-fiBfrttiitirn jnrun, 5;ro tva tndadhfitTfah sart-a 
««n.sarn muchoen.i : thnt is, itn»ks us to give np the Upasana of 
Veilinu and iithtr Devasandto earty on the Upusana Siva, ttjio it 
alone coinpeteni to rid ua of the rounds of SHiniara.CAaado^o. 
pii;its/iad,afLes- ilest'i^bing the motion of the sun and his rising and 
setting in the cittva of thefocr Dikpalnkae, states thai the dcratsori 
of iife iu the city ofitubera though double as much at iu Samvamaui. 



(tie Orty of Yaaaa) is balf as mmeh as in the city of Yaruoa, This 
liaiitotioD affects the history of thowa who ore lifted into the world 
of Knbero for their deed* on earth, bot it does not affect the condi- 
tion of Knbern all. It should be carefully borne in mind that the 
Oa*a»*m of "v-nWiTo ma Peromatom ii efficacious in gaining the high- 
er spiritual Joint and thereby miration in thefforrn of Saynjyn- At 
toe him time the FiMMM of Vishnu ae Paramatma ie different 
:n effect froen the Opaaana at Vishnu ae a Pergonal Being. We see 
in Puraaaa and in Itihaess that Vishnu showed His form 
to Hit diecrp'es. bnt nowhere do we heai of Hie having taken His 
disciples in Him.-etf- Thia ia one of the reasons why Vaiahnavites 
give up what ia called Sayujya Solvation. In Rampttaraiaj*ny/ 
«MMUf*ad, it ia caid that Riv a wi th a ball-flag, practised the Upaaana 
vt Bamai and Rama npprariog be lore Him asked Him to request of 
Him any Vara or gift from Him and tnld Him, He woald give 
Him the tame; thaf Siva nsked Him the following gift: Hn uttarr. - 
yam saamoiiketre. Ga« j>i jiumvu tafepMnrfc, Mnyatf dehin'jjnuto. 
M-uktiirtTta wammtaram. 

S. RaHASAWMI lYBK, « *•, B L. 
(To be continued-) 




Bwctation of (Sactkaktika) Bapddha. 

(Continued from page 1Q£) 

34. As the worid is & product like a pot, we re- 
quire a first canse like a potter. Vedas and Agatnas 
are the moat ancient works in Sanskrit, teaching our 
duties in regard to the four great, Pfirusharthaa and 
they enlieht^ti our understanding and action. As 
these woras had at first been proton I g.tjed by the 
greatest god? and se*cs, a. p*pp4»r;\ qu*»lriied ieaeber 
shonld be found- to teaeh-tfleii OMUHHogs. "We require 
& witness for nEeatui'g- iHe Iriito. # ttie Vedas them- 
selves. Such a person and author <>t the Vedas is the 
Supreme Siva. 

35. You said that trees (Vegetable kingdom) are 
lifeless- '1'he J* have life, as tbey fade when tbey are 
not watered and grow when they are watered if not, 
even dead trees must grow by watering them. It is 

35. We know that the Buddhist's logic and Psychology were 
faulty enough but never knew ere this, thnt their Biology Ac. wu 
also "faulty. Hindu philosophers class the vegetable kingdom 
witji living organisms possessing only one sense, nomely touch. 
European scientists have now no doubt about the point aod the 
characteristics of plant life are most analogous to\anima llife, nod 
they ate most varied and carious, nay, they manifest each adapta- 
tions to conditions and circumstance* Ail; spiny ing the gfeati»t 
intelligence. And if we want ko stpdy God's handiwork, we could 
no. find a.petter and more beantiful subject than plant-life. The 
root and fibre and bark in plajota correspond to the alimentary canal 


the nature of bodies with life that they grow with 
food and decay without it. If you .*ay that the trees 
have no life as they have no external organs you 
foreet that eggs and spawn which contain life have 
do tense organs. If yon say that when the eggs 
are hatched at lesat, the animals come out with orgins, 
but we do not *ee this in the case of trees, know that 
trees have Howers.and fruits, they have organs and life. 

36 If you ask, whether one life divides itself into 
many, as when we cur, the branch of a trpe and trans- 
plant'it, no;. souls enter int" seeds, mots, branches 
ainl the eyes' oi ti-st'o, as tneir womb and are born. 
If ynn say that oviparous and tilth-born animals have 
the power of locomotion after birth and the trees 
have -not, then why don't hme men and animnS* walk. 
The variations in creanon are nftiAite. 

37. Bamldhsi, joti assert that it is no sin to eat 
killed ment Does not, the sin nttncl, mi vour »eeonnt 
to those who kill animals, knowing that you will eat 
their meat ? If you were not known to ^if, no b"dy 
would kill animals and offer it to you. It you a«_-ain 
"Ay that it is only those who kill are blamable, 
where is your charity when you earn sin for your own 
kind host. Why don't you offer meat to your God ? 
When yon despise your own body as unclean, where 
is your sense when you eat the nVsh of lower animals'* 

33. It vou say That sentience j* *j»aro bor o as the 
shade of an umbrella and the image iu a mirror, to&n 
know, these shadows will disappear with the umbrella 
or thing itself. So, when yoor five Skandbas die, the 
sentience will also die and not be born and there will 
be noue to attain Nirvana- If you say that the senti- 
ence is a^ain generated from the embodiment yf Kar- 
mic memory ks the -walking intelligence aftei dream- 
sle*»p : then, the spawn and the eggs and the blind man 
will indeed attain MMritta aitter losing their vitality. 
Hence, the soul will never be separate from the bodv 

39. Bauddha jorj defined your Mnltti (Nirvana) 
as the annihilation of the five Slcandbai and their asso- 

in animals; the leaves to the respiratory organs ; flowers (con* 
taiuing-the Pistil (ovary, style arid Stigma), and stamens (filaments 
and anthers) to the reproductive organs. Host flowers contain 
both organs in each flower. In some plants the male and female 
■lowers tfre different, tbf commonest. example of whioh aresopp4ied 
by the 'gourd species,(*aBjp,y^«*af?,Lf(f«*«)4 C ). There are also 
separate male and female plants, as the female and male palmy re Of 
all the flower shrubs, the orchids are the most wonderful in creation 
possessing every variety of from and adaptation to needs. There 
are aotue moat oeautifal Specimens in the Ooty Government gardeae 
one ef which is of the exact shape of an insect wcnpULiJf) which 
is itself a mimic, bat in most goijgeoae coLears. These flowers aum^j 
birds, doves, pigniies, 4c, 4c 



elated sentience and the. burning vp of oesire and sor- 
row as lighted ckftipnor. We *St v«»o It is then thill, 
attains Nirvana? Vou reply thai there is none. Then 
who rWl« the Bliss of Nirvana? It It f* the sentence 
burn of the Hvft Skhandhas, then it cannot die. and can- 
not lose its body, and you will never release yourself 
from Band ha nor attain Ylokshit. 

40. H.-ax our idea of Mukti. Our Purameshwara, 
who is eternally purr, the supreme, the immutable, all- 
'titelligeiit. all-pniverful. und nll-benebcent, appears as 
the Divine Gum to linn who is balanced equally in 
<;ood and evil, {@)Ts*$%3rQivfTu<-i) and grunts ins Grace 
.*£$esft uirgiii) .after burning uj> all his evil by his Eye 
of (jnaii, destroying thereby his asternal and internal 
census, and showing them the four pnths of adoring 
Hinij lifts tliiiH by his hand of Grace, out of the slough 
<>f birch, int.n eternal Miss. 

jifjjjsu& i $ '.p'th ^jj/*©j<t Qf>i—±>ai ear tfewmm 
JS.'^V)?*^*' Q : ?j£fe8t—p Qfi#a$$uirf 
j^ea^iSf £> LOo-u-E*Qe(r«u«Vff ^usaQmrriQ 

«fifJ?(_iS.5«v .^j&iai^jetfi .sniitn^anrm smmiuwe* 
QgSjjtSpu tS'aA&sRergi QmQfgiLDrrty 


It The Yogachaia, not throughly learned in 
Philosophic lore, states that it is Buddhi that is evolved 
mm tJie senses spd the forms of perception and tha( 
this intelligence is manifest only when in union with the 
een*e experience (Vadana) and that intelligence is 
form lew, and affirms therefore that the world is a 
dream and intelligence (Buddhi) is alone Sat 


1- Yob asserted the existence of Boddhi »nd 
•oioathiog else which you called sense expe- 
rience (Vadana). 'Phey must be different according 
to yon. If not, say that Huddjii ayd sense experience 
are one and the same. If so, know, that Vadana is 
the renewed activity displayed by th« Buddhi whan 
induced by Rag* (desire), it once unites with sound, 
light ttc. Dreams arise in tfre'thind after an original 

If you say that Intelligence is the body, then 
must exclaim 'I am the body.' These are different.' 

B. The YogscbMHe the follower of the 'Mahayana School and 
oalled as such. M»baynoika.o in Tamil worki. The fousder of this 
Peboul was Aasnga oiVnjra Satwa and. it was iatrodnced Tato 

If you say they are different and the intelligence 
stands apart fr no the 'body and the oDiv«r»e. no; 
w^ien the body 1« iimnetfTo the mtefligence, the intelli- 
gence will not he apparent,, an the crystal is lost 
in the ooloors rer/ecteri in it. 

J- H- NallaswaHi Villa i, t. a. b. lb 

(To be continued.} 


{Continued' from page 108). 

uirQirir®seBrsii>'jtT$ Qiu 'airO(5'Oj_iror(y*C , oi 

LjtbrSaiajusnw Qu/rjdafiio 

ujOoierflaSar mgjsiPau'if &p:n.ipQaisirgrt}> 

% fl §jtan paid** i—a-li $ < £?*etor®0&i{?<i/fr.#jfiSeu 

<3p l?(t eSsi utorr© 
Qsi$.\UQpQQei>Qgu> uff£g;eu(ifai£aQ(2s»tr 

jaeorreStap^ j2aBruS@|ar 

eSpx *#■?'£ fi.iawaQ is. {(§*) 

59. O The Host of Siddhas of Divine powers who 
have attained the noblest order of viewing the Ve- 
danta and the Siddhanta alike ! I would now disclose 
your sitnati >n at the end of a Kulpa : when the ele- 
ments earth ^heater, &c. dissolve and disaappear into 
one another, you will soar high in the sky ; and if 

Clnn;i from Ceylnii about 720 A, D., by Vajrawati wtjose great, 
pupil was AmagKi I'u.kung. This is culled tin.- 'X'sintru School and 
they burrowed rlirhr rituals from Brahinaiilam and Shaiviam eoni- 
biuing wich die diHTtrine nf Dhyana Buddhas (tf Nepaul) uad tba 
Uuliiiyana Philosophy. (EdkioB). 

t'adanrf is what ia usually aiiswiitten :ia Vedaoa iu Baddhiat 
IVxt boufct. 

The statcDioiit and its refutntioD af this school is rary brief, as 
i his school virtually accepts all that the Sautrantika affirms and 
utiy rec'ipitiilaLioii ia ihiTefere uouecessary. The points wherein 
they diftw a™ ctoTM sec forth here Accordinjf to the Sautraottka, 
Kuddhi is a product and not independent of tin- sensaa. The foga- 
■ hurn is inclineil to tbinl thut it mitv be independent of thaaensea 
Ion liokn it in ;i ]>eiiiliar manner with sensations (v'ndauu). Any 
how this is hd advance ou the Sautrantika who is a thorough 
fuWjfUTtnit and Mayavadi. 



the Final D»lag«* should take place, yon will whirl 
round iu water like the sea- beetles »nd b- in Siva- 
yoea-t Whoa there is a heavy dowri-pour of rain by 
aJA the (even cleuds together, yoo will inhabit your- 
selves in the mood-planet If the Trinity, Brahma 
Aa should cease to live, y*u will live by the Grace of 
Supjprae fiiraj who rides on the white pull § When 
the endlees world* or univar-e roll up and down 
*wUn»t one another by the force Of the Great StormH 
yea will remain in yoga) unshaken like the M£ru 

O Great Siddhas, your glory su> p isses tny power 
of defioriptioo. 

era*tmfi<ui9pe8jtatla> misfit— uiSpaS^n fir 
Qut3fp*3fui$Q Qmui$pdanr£ii(g(iu>ir 
mem &**,£!$ *>*&*« gpmwQurr(ifG piuQtL 
mitjarsr fiSA jvQuirttf) vim* fiQfiSQ sin® 

tS^itsafie*afia^ajQf-0 Q&.t ffitiuT jgiQuir^tuQoi * 

Qa,f<Tip&jfifai/S rwffffarsifittoQupp 

sQ0,6*&£j/fim*arQi£. (*o) 

oO- The Host of Siddhas ;>f Diviue powers who 
have attained the noblest: order of viewing the Vedanta 
and the Siddhanta alike ! 

• Final Deluge ia the Great doluire that takeB place at Lh« end 
of a Kalpa nr Maha-Kalpa when til including the Trinity Brahtaa, 
Vithnn and iUdra are destroyed, the Turiya^lfflni (Ki*a or Para- 
brahman] alone remaining. 

t Siva- Yosts ii the contemplation of 8iri the Turiya H'lrti. 

♦•Supreme Siva is the lurd over Trinity ahcive mentioned. 
BmUma of the Trinitj and Kudra of the Trinity should be dieting 
eniahed from Brahma or Siva or K'ewara (the popular name or 
8iva all over India used with refereui/p to Siva-Temple Bay Esw&ra'a 
Temple {m*gar (?»ra0tv). He (Siva) is then called Turiya- 
Milrti (i.e.. Fourth Marti or Brahm or Parabruhmam beyond and 
alro-e the Trinity, Brahma, Vishnu and Kudra). "Siyu' is used for 
Rodra in many modern |inbli:»f.ions, wbich ie e<msi«t«iit Kith >t» 
■umtiita and anauchorised by 'Srmi' tin meant by the Aiudi 
«. f. Notes to 21st verse. 

\ c. f. Pattanathu Pillai our beloved Saint where he says or Sir* 
Thy riding on the Bull is to shew thai Tliou art ihe IJirtl of floo'i- 

|| That »iiieh takes plave at the end u. the worlds. 
_ $ in the teit c. f. Notes tu 81 « verse. 

Of raoltitiidicous births, the human birth is roost 
Valuaole nil. I ue^t hi ted iur the attainment of spu-itua- 
lity. O! I cannot know my future life or plane of 
existence if any ! ! what toils ami troubles I should 
then be subjected to ! May you, my masters- of 
perfection, therefore, grant me, before I should discard 
this body, the diviue state of being absorbed in tho 
Gracious Lord of Love and Blessedness; whose mercy 
flow* like the' heavy showers of ruin from the thick 
olouds in the sky. Aud I will, until then, try to 
preserve intact the fabric of my present embodiment 
by isiva's Aral S&kti Gauri,* .so as to cause the inces" 
eant flowing of ^oma'sf nectar in the Cliuliikae.J 

Quirnj£*ig (Jp«»s*en:_ QajarOfiri^Qm QartwQfirm* 
'Quir(lpjpQurr<iQ* QpeiraiRQ&in [Qmm- 

i~fi pptSmtttm egg/ pm*& 

maaQtLLi—Qui *f»;ijQ a/eSajrr mi 
m ear L^S^sSvkrtf. saps xm>t$-£'jp'& QpQsvi 

mirm)9iaBBti$arnf>gi3^.<Bii, Qtuispaai_iQxiisi 

Oi^<u,©*'_^U)(aj,LT»« C-L»r*yuS*(5sir«i«irn 
Qtnii/fQi^swrfir %pQg 

iSjkjfmt»Ji0itumrQa. ;«■*) 

SI, () The Host of Siudhaa o\ DiviD« powers who 
have itttameii the nebjest order a( viewiuir the Vedanta 
and the .Sid'thauta ulik 

Painful it is to coiisitler the vanities of this worldly 
life. To depict the same i<i linef, it (.onsista, to the 
detrimeul >if our aifns of existence, m nothing but otir 
Struggles for food and, when fond secured, in stuffing 
up our iieilie- therewith ami sleeping a-^av our 
precious moments. Mven tlie tjluni und i^nnntiiL are 
alive to this fact. 

O Benefactor.-;, in whom th« .Satvi? 'goorfne^s' ever 
preponderates, I do not know when I will bn able to> 

• Gauvi is the [»'rsrJnifVrni«n i«T Snkti nl Sum t )v it IWr1 nt 

female entiyy of Sim. (V""'» nlfo |isi<<* 74 ,.i' ■ h'n -,,n i,',i <hr<~ 

my leained brr»th»»i. Mr. S Riiiun.*..' linv \-v.t: ,-th i;|I p. tn r w , lt r 
well on aut hiirit yj . 

f Soma Ut.'on Vidrt 3S^h fttrx** ttn't tirn^n 

X CbidaltaE SpSiere '*f wi^dtxi, in hn. 



disentangle mywelf from the ties of these wordly 

May you help me, O Yogi-tsas* to whom the dark 
masses of clouds obey and gather to form at once a 
beautiful parasol overhead aud who distinguish 
Yourselves is warriors in the field of Ashtanga 
Yogs,t while th© banner of your Yoga-dandaX will be 
flying not only over the golden Merit but also over the 
Eighty L-haiMs of mountains. 

Qissirf tc^fiiui serr.iuj jf 

c «sroJ) .-!■ i (SJ u- -f j-~ -QbjJ 

T.XVn LTT.J. fj 

uSi^ j.T^G^a.i^Oi^si 1 .; ii> 

• A Yogi-Is* is a prince of Yojrins. 

t Ashtanga Yoga=Yoa;a of Sight Align* orpurtB. The Ei rht parts 
M beat stated bj 6w ami Vivekaoanda are: — '(1) Yuma, — non-killing, 
trnthfulnes, non-stealing, continence, and non-receiving of any 
gifts. (2} Niyama, — cleanliness, contentment, modification, study, 
and aelf-enrrender to God. (3) A&ana or Alhtmn, — posture* learn- 
ing to have a firm erect seat, (i) Pra-nluirma, — learning tn control 
the Prana or vitvl ftrrcet in one's own body. (5) Vniliiniarii,- 
learning to control the mind completely . this is a difficult tusk 
requiring & cnntiuuone struggle for years.' [ HCflCe the true 

Saints like our Thayumanavar have sun hi 
and sung- over and over again towards sub- 
duing their minds, which may appear to 
the unwise to be nauseous repetition i '(t>> 

Dhtirano, in holding the mind ; en enbdued, to certain (mints. All 
these 6 steps are necessary to bring as scientifically to Dhyana and 
Samadhi. {7} When the mind has neen trained to remain liscil on 
one point, internal or external, there comes to it the shiwpi- of 
flowing in an unbroken current towards thai point. I'M* state is 
called Dhi/una. (8) When this power is so much intensified, :ia to 
be able to reject the external power of percept ion, and remain 
sneditatinir only on the internal part, the meaning, that 
■tate IB Samndhi or Guppr-rou*cimieneB£' or knowledge or self. 
(After knetring the self, one shall be intent on the Divine Ami nT 
Supreme Siva. c. f. the taint's couplet ■< ^em^Ptu/Si/B^Q^ 
■pirjiemHitLi&iougiQtu, u^ewSauiufl? pp <§<-itiuju> uTrtt-isQio, 
O The Supreme, to know ene's self and he 
On Thy Grace e'nr intern helps to know Thee. 

t Yoga-danda. Tide note to 56th verse. 

& c. f. Vide notes to 57th verse. 

eSgjiufgtuggujQai eerssr at" SIQ&itfii Qtv Qtitfji 
Qaitsukp&ppttip eisijrfiseitGimyevQujbiD 

62 O The Host of Siddhas of Divine powers who 
have attained the noblest order of viewing the Ved»ot» 
and the Siddhanta alike ! 

O Svva-Raja-Yogins,* I can hardly find space to 
write in the greatness of your psychic powers. Like 
a sovereign's four kinds of forcest war-chariots, horse 
it?. Your four Antahkaranas Manas% and tbe rest 
submit themselves to y,our control always. 

The greatness of your Siddhis§ spreads itself over 
the dominions of the ?ii. centres|| and the three 
Maixhila* 8 you fix yourselves in the lion's seats of 
your lii'iuT* ivherefrorn Anauda^l flows as pleasant as 
the fragrance of the seasonal flowers ; while amidst 
the musical sounds of Dasa-natham ** all the Devas 
Jndru &>:, prui: e you with acclamation and joy, yonr 
Snwa'f or oft radiatinff its bright rays of light in all 
possible »iivwt.!rnw( 

O ! Praise be to your Sivn-ttaja- Yoga of eternity 

It Sirn\unr,nA Mcdatiar. 

{To hi' ci>uti)iited). 

* Siva-Raja. Yttjsn is the MiiJcentriitloli of irnn>! imnieiliatelv con- 
ducive to t.hc niie's uuiuu with tin? Supreme Siva [ TM» VPrs* 
defiiii'S the giiitl llujji Yfii»a which can he only better enjoyed than 
told or described. The initiated unly' tan host. It is 
called also Ashtvuign-Vctjjii vide Gist verse. 

t The 4 kinds of forces are: — infantry", ch-iiiois, linrse Htnl 
elephants. The tuinil eotnpiiiind is f @ff^S *S? JPJ« upirfit.' 

X Miimis, lUuUUii , Chittum nufl Ah:\nlcnrn. Vide 5*6 Tat w;is nntler 
verKe IS. 

§ S hid 1 1 it--- powers . 

!|<icct.ties niv ll) fc'nms. (1) private part. 13) the n;uel, 
{■t) the heart. ;5) tin" U>ul« raid (6) the forehead. Vide nines 
( (i 'sutiiiiiinii:i' iiHil 'tonni' iinder IlStl: verse. 

fi The 3 Jliimliilnt or orbits ure (1) Solar circle. {1\ A«ni 
circle or circle of lire or hi-ut mill (.1) Lunar circle. Tlii-se I hrce 
;ire said to remain, rriepeeiii elv, betwixt the tw-o of i be s[\ eeni >-e.-f 
honi below. Vide nuic In .Siva-Jl*ij:i Voiru nhovo. 

^ Ananilu bliss. 

•• IJnsii i :"i(l:i in Icn-I'olil are saiil I I'.-li |.r the. 


t* Suinti's urli nuion'a oib or clirle. (Vpk - ttnle. t«i oiiu-llMN'i 
Voi;a ahoic). 






Siddhanta Deepika. 



The question baa ugain com* to the front, in a mas- 
juer unexpected, by the strongly pronounced views of 
Hia Excellency Sir Arthur Havelock. winch in the of the Mail, 'have caused some commotion 
among educationists, and have mystified not a few;' 
and a regular war of correspondence has ensue J in 
newspapers and magazines, displaying not much either 
of remain or of decency ; and the innocent Pandit on 
the one side and the educated Indian on the other 
bare also come to receive an Amount of abuse which, 
coder the circumstance*, is altogether unmerited and 
unwarranted. The Pandit ia not such an unprogres- 
sive creature, at be i« supposed to be, believing in milky 
aeaa and juicy oceans, but od the other hand Pandits 
are much more intelligent and shrewder than the aver- 
age educated man turned out by our University, and 
they possess as much of general knowledge on scien- 
tific anbjecte, as any student of our English schools. 
Oar old school Pandit (uearly 2 decades back) could 
also lecture to aeon Human Physiology and Anatomy. 
1« fact we know more than a dozen Pandits of our 
acquaintance who know English. Many of these be- 
long to the Tery old' school, and half a dozen of them 
•re actually living the life of recluses, bachelors for 
life, devoted only to the caose of truth, rt-ligion and 
learning. We wish we could feel the joy our Benares 
Pandit felt on receipt of a rare Snnskrit manuscript 
we aeut him. And our educated friend scorns to live 
laborious daysin the cultivation of the sciences and the 
arts, and he talks of these expensive days and his re- 
duplicated wants. But it is not to be supposed that 
are blame him either. He is merely the creature of 
hie environments though departing far from the sim- 
ple ideals of his ancestors. Taking the matter how- 
ever out of purely personal considerations, such as the 

merit or demerit of one party '>r the .other, wt> wil 
turn our attention solely to the higher and truer ms- 
pects of the queatiou. These who have read on* first 
contributions on the subject » Vul, 1, Ko.i. 1 and St, 
may remember that tliv quest ion »r. one time was (morts 
thwn DO veins back] whether English or the Vernacu- 
lars should b« the medium of <omiiitinii , ; iho hrzl 
knouirdgr.. and whether use should he made of tre 
existing vernacular literature itseif < r not for effecting 
this purpose. Jr. whs tacitly admitted and it is 
not denied now that there was much in the aits and 
scieuces and civilization of the West which h»ri to he 
imparted to the Indiana to make them fit to taketlieir 
place in thei senile of civilized nations ; and we have 
summarized all the arguments on the subject in our 
two previous articles, and not one of the several cor- 
respondents to the Mail seems to bo nw»re of such, 
though thw name of Macanlsv is frequently dragged 
io to conjure with We will request our renders to go 
over them again, aud in the hght of Mr. Hodgson's 
views, the meaning of " The People's Governor/' will 
not be far to seek. What His Excellency actually 
Buid was this. "Iu niy humble opinion, education in 
the Madras Presidency has gone a little too fast, and 
has been a little too radical. I should personally 
have preferred, if I had tho starting of an educatiun- 
b! system in this country, to have duilt upon whut al- 
ready existed, rather than hav« destroyed and begun 
on a new foundation I should have preferred to ex- 
pand and improve Eastern ideas, and not to substitute 
for theru in their entirety our own Western ideas " 
This was at Ernaculam. At the Maharajah's College 
for Girls H,t Ti ivt-ndram, His Excellency again observed 
that the aim of female education should be to impimit 
upon existing socml and family conditions the im 
provements and the enlightenment of the West and 
that there should be no attempt to destroy what al- 
ready existed, they should try to improve, brighten 
and perfect it. At page 43. we quoted frcn Mr. 
Hodgson to the same effect. !'he best and .ureat 

means of effecting this needed ehanijt is not by ignor- 
ing their past life and jiasi literature, which are in- 
Beparablv intertwined a nd inter- reflecti-d, not hy da- Ike warp and ii\wf"/ fhrir Mttinn6l ftisteme,bat 
by a process of preparation, conci 'iation and compro- 
mise by finding the mentis of cloimv thxt golf \vhi:h 
separates Kuiopean and Indian affection and mtfllf-ct 
— in tlie use >jf that literature, which I shall venture 
to sny ennnot be dispensed with, and that any other 



attempts to remove the woof and w«rp of Indian so- 
ciety wotllti disorganize society and insure our own 
destruction " This i» the highest phas«a of (he ques- 
tion. And Mr. Hodgson spoke of * necessity :i tiling 
50 yearn hence, incase hib suggestions were nut, acted 
upon, to retrace cursteps. No doubt, the calamities 
he foretold hive not yet occmred, but theevils thai 
have arisen are already serious enough to demand the 
attention of the rulers and >he ruled ; and wt* are glad 
that the mnttfr is utr-racting their attention. We have 
observed then also that we do not wish to retrace our 
step* in our present discussion, bnt simply to reconsi- 
der and remedy t.hft defects. And His Rx^el'enry has 
dow observed that what hns b««n thine cannot be un- 
done we must accept thing-" as they are, and mah the 
btst of them — and after all they ure not so bad. The 
next "nest thing was, what bus been iittempted till now, 
a combination of European and Indian languages and 
literature, instead of attempting a purely vernacular 
medium. Bnt the result bus not justified the expecta- 
tions Not. that the system itself is bad, hut the course 
of study has been too much one-sided. All the induce- 
ments and encouragements for learning have been in 
favour of English, and dead against the vernaculars- 
The vernacular subject was only one out of many in 
thfl school aiid college curricula, ft wa« verv easv for 
the students to secure a pais by devoting all their at- 
tention to the English .subjects and very little to the 
optional language. It won't pay to the vernacu- 
lars at all. No honour was to be acquired by scholar- 
ship in the vernaculars. And neuil we wonder that 
the school-!*. iy who is very acute in these things has 
eoine to neglect his vermicular* to such at extent that 
t% formed the subject of -i ritms comment, even within 
'„ lie very walls of the Semite llou«° ? No less a person 
than the late H -ad of the LTi J m-;it i( >n Department of 
this I'le-i'lrncv, we mean the late lamented Mr. H. B- 
G i igg, in hm Convocation address, delivered in 1 St)2, 
advising the assembled ahnnm to improve their 
v<ii imi-iiliirs, observed, No one can feel more stromr- 
\\ '.Iiuii I do thut, if the jicoulesof India with their 
Mini'MMiis vernaculars, are ever to rise to » nobler life 
:<:n| i;rt*xt*n wen-lth, the proportion of those who know 
"£"*•■ Uh must he ten, nay twenty-fold of what it is, nod 
Lfc equally distributed among men and women : but no 
«*1 roiiifly believes that the great mass ol people 
Mni?t»r. be regenerated until each vernacular is made, 
i P-; vehicle for carrying on that knowledge'' The 
•■"■I v le;n d.K :!; , lUl.adm r..' I' ({align i.ntha Mudtiliitr 

than whom we never possessed a hotter irnf.ti.Ti.~e of en 
Indian, cultured in the lore of the Ujhsu au<i itie Went 
equally so well, conveyed them the same advice in 
the following words: "You have to cultivate the study 
of your mother- tongue, and to improve it to such an 
extent as to make it a fitting medium for the communi- 
cation of Western ideas in Science and Philosophy. 
And time after time, every University Orator, has 
dinned into their heads to educate the masses, "to 
carry joy and gladness into a million homes, and 
become a potent means in helping on the regenera- 
tion of the country," " to carry that lamp of learning, 
of which we spoke, into the caves of superstition and 
ignorance, casting its beams into every cranny and 
crevice." And how is all this possible, except by 
possessing the power of expressing oneself idiomatical- 
ly and vigorously in one's own tongue and interpret- 
ing through it, one's new knowledge and new ideas. 
We are also «lad to add to this the opinion of an Ex- 
Governor of Madias, whose soundness of learning could 
at any rate never be questioned. He questioned the 
assembled graduates "Are you satisfied with what you 
are doing for your own literature ? How many of yoo 
are seeking to obtain a large and scholarly knowledge 
of the Vernaculars of South India?" mid he remarked 
that this University will not have done anything like 
its fair share of work till South India too ha« many 
Actors; and after instancing one or two cases of encour- 
agement of native science and native learning by Indian 
Princes and nobles, he regretted that 'the great names 
of the laud tin ve not yet begun to take the place they 
should do, either in the 'accumulation or in the 
encouragement of learning.' And to-day, the 
opinions of gentlemen like the Hon'hle Dr. Duncan, 
the Hoti'ble Mr. Justice SnurantnYtia Aiyar, Dew an 
Bahadur Kaghunxtha Kow, the late lamented Rao 
Bahadur Sadhu Seshayya have taken the same trend; 
and the question arising as tn the hrst ways of 
effecting these uieded reform-- .n.'i improvements, 
the hrst two have proposed, 'v's*>i we consider the 
least that can he done at present 1 and the least coatty 
to boot. Further it is actually sheer necessity that has 
pinched the learned Director to propose this. The 
old class of Pandits are slowly disappearing aDd there 
are none coining to lake up their places. The verna- 
cular lin-rut.iire; if they aie to be formed and made 
intelligible to future generations, require the un- 
remitted attention sod untiring devotion of the few wko 
rv nso it tlitr-sttidy. We are inclined tn think witS. 



oar Ei-Oh*no*Uor and Governor that nit their learning 
is not trneh «od we are inclined fc» repeat the questions 
** Trash, what is Trash ? Who has a right to say that 
tiU 'hey (old hooka) have been examined ? " and this 
when we find that rnottc rrf those who hare joined in 
the discussion, we beg their pardon if we are wrong, 
■ire persons who cannot claim to be ;my authority on 
die vernacular literature We have discussed th« 
•object with a lar*e number o> cultured mea, both 
European und Indian, both inside and ontaide-the 
Educational Department, and they alt command Or. 
Duncan's proposal, only they think it to be a very 
small measure." We do not wish to lengthen ti.e sub- 
ject further, und now that Dr. Duncan has returned 
from home, may we hope that the Committee of Senate 
appointed tn consider the proposal will soon muet, 
deliberate and mature * scheme with, the least possible 
delav ? 


On tkf Primitire Religion of Mankind. 

I propose to b-ing forward for jour consideration a 
course of lector** on religion. I intend to examine to- 
gether with job. that great subject, for which all men 
entertain a supreme interest. p., religion. We shall 
look into it from a philosophical as well as from a theolo- 
gical point of view. We sKull ask the general opinion of 
mankind on tne subject. We shall carefully peruse the 
tenets and aphorism* of the (treat est sages and phi 1 0*0- 
pbsrs of antiquity. We ahaJl try to search deeply into 
oar own minds, whether perchance we may still bod id 
the recesses of oar besrts s glimpse and spark of that 
tree lig'it with which Almighty God, the Creator aad 
Father of all mea, enlighten* every man that comes into 
this world. 

Gentlemen, to search after truth, to folio* the sonny 
path of troth, when fooofl. tn obey the dictates of truth is 
every man** doty. God will condemn noose to ever* 
lasting punishment for the mere fact of his having been 
born in a false religion. Hut everybody i« hound ia cons- 
cience to search after troth, 10 embrace troth, and be i* 
■Wsponaible to God for his coodocr, sbunld he, mailing 
after the perishable pleas a res of tins world neglect the 
proper means to onsets htmawlf to arrive at saaa's last 
eaeveal sad, eie. t Amsl union with God is the everlasting 
bap pi aesa of beavaa. 

' 4 series of leeteni in at- * lay mm UoHeg* Hill. II m^ion 

kind im The existence 
of God. 

Gentlemen, this evening by way of introduction *r» 
shall attempt to sai-vey from the setene height of d. story 
the opinions of mankind oa the existence end nature of 
the primitive religion of mankind. It will be an historical 
rather than s philosophical lectors. The documents 
I shall bring forward are most trustworthy. I have die" 
carded altogether the donbtfnl ones, as troth used not be 
dressed in the meretricious epparel of falsehood. These) 
document* will 01* inly consist of ancient hymns, which 
have ' a b«en handed down to as by ancient peoples shoot 
2,000 years B. C. and bear evidence to the fact that thai 
first religion of mankind was monotheism, not polytheism. 

Gentlemen, snpposs I summon around me in a great 
fiirde all the people that ever ap- 
The verdiet nf aim- pes red on, and passed away from, 
the earth— the old Semitic, Bgyp~ 
tian, Chaldaic and Aryan nstioeu, 
all the men that now live in Europe, Asia, Africa, 
America and Oceania — and propose tb«s question to them. 
Is there a God • Is them a superior and infinite Being, 
the ere* to- and ruler of this eni verse, the father of 
all men, the ebestieer of the wicked and the rewards*" 
of the good P The answer would be undoabtedly teas 
one. Yes, there is a God, We must sdmit the exist- 
ence of God. This idea, this belief is deeply rooted 
in onr hearts. We cannot bo bo foolish as to deny the, 
existence of the creator of this beautiful world . and 
the reason is because man, in sll stages of ciiiht 
sod among sll race* of mankind, is irresistibly re 
by an inward impulse to assign a causa or sn sat nor 
for every phenomenon and event. Man, even in the 
iofaney of civilisation thus 1 en s un s . There is ae> 
effect without s cause. A meeeioa pre-eapposaa an 
architect, a painting sn artist, a statue a ennlptor. Tb* 
earth with its gigantic mountain*. it< fertile ptsins, its 
lakes, it* rivers : the sea with it* immensity and its foam- 
ing whvOS, it* tegular esiTent* sod its monster inhabitants, 
the heaven* with their resplendent, nornosi ionnmar- 
able world* »ll pre-sappoaa an omnipotett caasa aad 
wari'* of so many wonders. What is this caaaa ? An 
these wonderful works their own cause ' No, All ere ad 
beings reply to a* in their elixjaeat l*ngaaj|e, "It was -*od 
who made oa snd not we o»r»elv»<. " No. the/ did not asks 
themselves. no r are I 'ley God Ths esrth :» nut fix), tee 
sea is nut God, the hea\en* are not God, Iter* see sll looi* 
creetorwv are limited *nd fint'e, «n t (,—t is anlituiWl sad 
infinite '-bay are penshsbie mil God is impartiable, 
they are subject to nmnt and itisUnt 1 h»nir»», Owl i» 
immotahle tbey have no 1 n lei 1 1 jeooe, ao Will, and *••*! 
■s the first most *b*<luLe aad indrpe'idont Beink, «h -e 
intellect do ». 1 *ed slid whose will rsi«erij a;i Vjrn f,r, : , K < 
sll to*-*- 1 m bl<- thirg*. 



Gontlemen, this is the hnswer of mankind. All peoples 
have a name for God, all hate believed and still behevein 
the existence of a Supreme Being, who is the source of all 
other beings. Go to the human race in its cradle follow 
«t though all the different regions which it has successively 
inhabited : let do climnte, no tiation,~iio class, escape your 
observation: pass from the civilized to the baib;i«ons; 
search among ihe degenerate tribes that have planted 
their tents on the burning sands of Afiica, or the savage 
hordes that wander over the vast savannahs and pinnies 
of America, everywhere yon will hear the name of God ; 
everywhere you will 6nd nations heliev ing in a Sop; erne 
Being find dedicating to him temples, altars, priests, festi- 
vals, sacrifiVes you shall not meet a single tribe, however 
savage it may be, without EJime kind of worship. And 
wbiit i.i true now-a-iinvs was likewise true, nineteen centu- 
ries ago when Plutarch, a Greek philosopher, wrote as 
follows. "You may find cities without ws-lls, without 
literiitnre, without laws, without palaces, without money- 
without schools, without, theatres ; but as for acity which 
has no templesor Gods, which makes one of no player or 
oaths, which consults no oracles which offers no sacrifices 
tb obtain the blessings of heaven or to avert the evils with 
which it is threatened, this is what no one has ever seen ; 
it would be easier to find a city built in the air than a 
people without some religion (Plutarch Ccitra Colote).'' 
Nor are the conclusions of modern scienie different • " The 
statement," says Professor Tiele, " that there are natious 
or tribes which possess no religion rests either on inaccu- 
rate observations o:- On a coniution of ideas. No tribe or 
nation has yet been met with, destitute of belief in any 
higher being, and travellers who asserted their existence 
have been afterwards refuted by^ facts. It is legitimate 
therefore, to call religion, in its moat general sense, an 
universal phenomenon of humanity." [Titlr, Outline* of 
Rehynts fft'stor;/, page 6.) Indeed the belief in the exist- 
ence i if God ii an universal phenomenon of honianitv, be- 
caii»e God the creator of man moulded in such a manner 
his heart that even when reduced to the condition of an 
irrational bea»t and wallowing in the miie of the grossest 
vices, allows nevertheless the nunie of God to escape him. 
and raises bis suppliant lot.ks to the abode of this eternal 
Being, Snch is the remark made by Tertullian to the 
Pugaim of his time " Do you desire." he says, that I 
ahuuln prove the existence of God hy the simple testimony 
of the soul alone f Well, although bumu in the dungeons 
of sin, held fast by the chains of prejudice; weakened 
by passion and concupiscence, tbe slave of false divinities, 
y«-f, when the soul awakes from its languor, like a man 
recovering f r( , m drunkenness or fe v er, in the very first. 
insfMit ot hiH health it pioHainis the name of God and in- 
vokes the only Being who can nisitit it. Great God. Good 
G«Hi. »« the wo ds that coi-.r n;.tura!ly ti> the lips of 

every man. It ia the voice of all. O testimony of the- 
sonl naturally Chi istian. And wfcen it utters tbislangn- 
age, it is not to the capital it look*! b*t to heaven, the 
abode of the very God from whoni itcomea"— (Apolog. 118.J 
Gentlemen, I shall not dwell any longer on this subject. 
I am sure the gentlemen who this evening have f roared 
me with their p;eience are n^t atheisti nay, they axe 
religious people. Atheism could never take root in this 
laud whenever 1 turn, my eyes meet, with undisputed 
monuments of the faith and belief of the Hindu penple in 
a Ooe and Supreme God. '' There is but one BeinL-, no 


But it being universally granted that God exists what 
is the nature of the worship by 
Monotheism or Polv- which ancient nations hononred 
Him ? History tells us that in 
times previous to the Christian Erst, all nations with the 
exception of the Jewish people paid devine honours to 
many and different Gods. Now, was idolatry the pri- 
meval religion of mankind ? Was the first religion of 
mankind monotheism or polytheism ? Did man soon after 
his appearance upon earth forget his creator and Lord, and 
debase himself so as to worship the works of his own 
hands ? 

Now, gentlemen, on this question we heve the, 
first of TheopbrastuK one of the moat ancient among 
Greek writers. Describing the religion of the first men, 
he Bays "In the beginning no mateiial image was 
worshipped no Woody sacrifices were offered, no nse was 
yetmadeof tern pi eS, alters Of of any particular class of 
priests. Men had not yet invented the names, the genealo- 
gies of different Gods. The worship which, at the beginning 
of mankind, was offered up to God, consisted in acknow- 
ledging Him to be the First Principle of nil thing?, and in 
presenting to Him the homage and the adoration of a 
pure heait. Herbs, flowers, milk, fruits weie offered to 
the invisible Deity, and those ancient men lifting up to 
heaven their innocent ha-nds used to pour ont in honour of 
God the choicest liquors, and each one waH a piie-tto 
Himself " (Theuphrastus In Ettfebius.' Siromatum V.) Gen- 
tlemen, the traditions of all peoples folly agree witb 
TUeophrastns on the primitive religion of mankind, as we 
shall presently see. 

Fancy yon are curried on the swiFt wings of thought to 
the distant, land of the Pharaohs, <o t he land where the 
renidins uf the enormous pyramids, of the stately palaces, 
of tLe gogeons temples fill the learned traveller from the 
West with wonder and admiration. Egypt is ihe land of 
Thebes, of Menpbis, of Heliopolis, 
of Abydos, of Philae, of Karnai. 
It is the land where about 26 
dynasties of kings held the sceptre for more than two 
thousand years before the present era. Listen to the high' 

lie Setipion of I lu- 
Ancient Ep> yli.iir*. 



priest of Tha'jea whsn, clad io anow.whife pn'eitlj rohe, 
he thou addresses the 80 pre cue Being under the nume of 
Pufa-t&nn : " to tlisw Pt*h-tano. Great God who con- 

cehlelh bit form thou sn, watching when ut res' 

the father of ill father-* and of all Gods. Watcher 

wWtfWfwFSM* the and loss ngt* of eternity. The heaven 
was jet uncreated, uncreated wax the earth, the wnWi 

flowed not ; tboa hut pat together the earth, 

What thou hast found apart, 

thoa heat pot into it* place. God, architect of the 
world, tboa art without father, begotten by thy own 
bJeaaings. Thoa art without a mother, being bora tbmugh 
repetition of thyself. Thoa drivest away the darkneas-by 
the beams of tbioe eyes. Thoa aicendest into the zenith 
of heaven, and thou corneal down even as tboa hast arisen. 
When tboa art's dweller in tbe infernal world, thy knees 
•re abote the earth, and thy head is in tbe upper sky ; 
thoa saetaiaeet tbe substances which thoa hast made. 
It is bf thine own strength that thoa movent . thou art 
rained ap by the might of thy own wran. The roaring of 
thy voice is in the cloud, thy breath is on the mountain 
tops ; the waters of the inundation cover the lofty trees of 

every region Heaven aud earth {obey the commands 

whiob thoa haat given , they travel by the roads which 
thou bast laid down for them, l.bey transgress not the path 
which thoa hast prescribed to them, aud which thoa hast 

opened to them Thoa restest, aud it is night ; when 

thine eyes shine forth, we are ill u ruinated... let us give 
glory to the God who hath raised the sky, and who 
canseth his disk to float over the bosom of Nut, who hath 
made tbe Gods and men and all their generations, who 
bath made all lands and countries and the Great Sea in his 

name of " Let the eartlt be *' (In a papyrus at Turin 

translation by Le Page Renouyh.; Hibbert Lectures, page 221). 

Such were tbe teachings of the ancient Egyptians abont 

tbe nature and attributes of Almighty God, and their 

worship was therefore monotheistic not polytheistic, 

because although we find amoug them a very old belief in 

numerous divinities, yet this weie rather God J « personified 

attributes, and were always subordinate to One su- 

p re rue-uncreated aud creating God. But alas they Boon 

fell from so high a conception of God , they soon fell 

from the true knowledge of God. They had known God, 

but they did not glorify him as God, nor give him thanks: 

therefore they became vain in their thoughts and their 

foolish heart wan darkened hv these beautiful things 

that are seen, they could uot understand him thatis, 

neither by attending to the works, they acknowledged 

who was the workman, bat they being delighted with their 

beauty took either the tire or tbe wind, or the swift air or 

the circle of the star*, or the great water, or the sunaod 

moon to bn gods that rule the world , and they changed 

the Klory of the uncorruptible God into the likeness of 

the image of a corruptible man, and of birds, and of foui - 


footed heasts, nnd of creeping tilings; and changed the 
truth of God a lie ; and worshipped and served the 
creature, rather thtm the creator, who is blessed for ever. 
We may until up tbe religious belief of the Egyptians in 
the words of the eminent scholar Marietta..." On the sum- 
mit of the Egyptian pantheon hovers a sole God, immor- 
tal, uncreate, invisibe, and hidden in the inaccessible 
depths of his own essence. lie is the creator of heaven 
and earth he made all that exists and nothing was made 
without him. This is tbe God, the knowledge of whom 
was reserved for the initiated, in the sanctna lies. But tbe 
Egyptian mind conld not or would not remain at this 
sublime attitude. It considered the world, its formation, 
the principles which govern it, man and his earthly des- 
tiny as an immense drama, in which the one Being is tbe 
only actor. All proceeds fi-om him, and all returns to 
him. But he bss agents, who are his own personified 
attributes, who. became deities in visible forms, limit- 
ed in their activity, yet partaking of his own powers and 
qualities" — . Jlaijetti* quoted by Max Mutter. 
Lectures on the Science of Heiigion. I*ctnie 1I[ — 
This is the history of religion in Egypt, and it is likewise 
the history of religion in Chaldea, in India, in Persia, ia 
Greece, Rome, in China. Thus may we account for the 
strange mixture of monotheism and potytheism which is 
apparent in the religions worship of all nations. The first 
religion of mankind was monotheistic. 1 1 was God him- 
self who at the first break of human life, vouchsafed to 
reveal himself to man as theeelf-eststent, the one, the one 
witbout a second, the father of all men, the rewarder of 
the good, the chastiser [of the wicked, £who had instituted 
from the beginning for alt men one and tbe same path of 
salvation. But in the course of time, thejpremitive tradi- 
tions were altered by tables, the knowledge of the true 
God was effaced from the memory at a large part of 
mankind ; and idolatry at once r.he d^ujjhter and the 
mother of all passions, began her dismal reign. 

The primeval revelation of a sole God was still flourish- 
ing on the hanks of the Euphrates 

The Rel'S""! <>f the w j 10n rhe itt y der „ of t he mighty' 

Ancient Llia.lde,.ud- 

Assyrian Empire, [standing, witb. 

their hand* and eyes tainted towards the starry heaveu, 
were wont ro close the toilsome day with following prayer 
for forgiveness : — 

" O Lord, let thu dreadful wr*tli of tUy hiaJrt be appeased. 

** 1 feed upon the bread of terror ttud J drink the wai-ar of 

Borrow . 
11 I nourish rafkelf with trespasser; a^u-innr. wry It«m'1, without 

attnndiiiEFf to them, J walk in sin ami 1 do not mind it, 
; 'OLord» numerous ure my faults, lieuvy aiv tin siiis* 

heavy are i»y faults mft*l Uuvy «#a wy 
■' Lord, thfiu that knowe&t rriiin. tnoit In*" 'V Fs* •"■ I r J . 

** I Litre fallen intusin, and I do jmfc 'rniml h. I hw* 1 iti*tr,«'J, 
arid 1 do not miud it. 




• Tb. Lorf .n hi. ipdi^.tion b« fcirfled bis wrath *E«ta«« m.. the otherwise able scholars. The collection, ver.fica- 
Qo& has crushed me in his fnry. t; on an< J publication of these lone; forgotten heirloom 

ll ^\iT^;~™?iTZX^£'^ Q *£*i of literature would have paralysed the energies of 

•pproaeii my merciful God. mid T Give rent to »* W(W« mBnv » literary giant. This task, however, wai 

' a,lce - , . ... ., „ „,,„, reserved for Mr. Swaminatha Aivar of the Knmbbako- 

• I have committed many faults. Lei the wmd blow them a««r < reserveuit a . 
BiyalMphemiea a™ tubiiv. thou () Lord snatch tb«m fi-rmj |mffi College for accomplishment. His apprentice- 

t&^Zr^tfJ^+A'EL *«ip in editing other works previously and the 

none else knows, mv sins ore seven timed seven, acquit publication of other accessories by other Scholars 

menfmv sins! Tliv'heftrc is like that . of n mo'hcr that is r »v-1— - 

™st delivered of nn infant bnbe. lite that of » father who have considerably lightened his task. Nevertheless 

beeot a cbilil let ihy heart he appeased he deserves the highest credit for the indomitable 

' ° Lp ;1; k P e 'd :U'; , , i Z'SXr^Z JSo^J«ft2 courage with which he has succeeded in the attempt. 

mv Borrown : let the birds of the air ocatter them to the jjj H masterly edition reveals his vast erudition and 

"winds let the tisliinsr net entmijjle them and the river - 

roll them aw HT in his waters." Lonormant. JWory of scolarship of a rare specimen. hcholars cannot tOO 

rae Ancitat Orient. V 304. well thank him (find that other veteran. Mr. Damo- 

S. J. Bvrtoli, m. *., d.o. daram Pillai) for the immense benefit conferred upon 

(To be continued). them. 

These Idyls are not enjoyable in parts. It is only 

when you have mastered a whole Idyl and grasped 
its central idea that yr-u can understand what the 
author wishes to convey in his Idyl. Encumbrance 
On* of the Ten Idyls in T*mil, of a number of clauses and cub-clauses, many words 
An Idvl in English is defined to be a short highly and phrases now out of fashion, very strange pram- 
wrought descriptive poem, or a short pastoral poem matical endings and forms, and the difficulty of finding 
This definition is closely applicable to the Ten Idyls in the connecting links render the mastering of every Idyl 
Tamil, except in that some of them are not 7ery a very enduring task. Even mature scholars have to 
abort nor alt of them pastorals. Every one of pore over these Idyls as schoolboys over their lessons, 
these Idyls is one highly wrought complex sen- But such patience and labour do not go amiss. They 
tence in blank verse with one 1 central idea in each, have their own reward. Some familiarity with these 
This complexity is rendered still more complex by Idyls in one way enables us to understand the inherent 
the commentator whose linking at random the vari- beauties of their ancient classics very easily. An- 
ous co-ordinate and .subordinate clauses puzzles other important feature of these Id\]s generally is 
even scholars of the highest type. But for this that the descriptions are life-like and pimple, and not 
coin merta tor, however, these Idyls as well as ninny forced and far-fetched like the tremendous exnggers- 
other valuable works would have become only i»v- tions of modern authors. Our ancient classics genW 
gotten things of the prist and would never have been rally, excepting in point of diction and style now out 
rescued from oblivion. Within our own time* we of vogue, are very simple and enjoyable They 
know of » whole class of Pandits who neither knew would net repel refined scholars of Europe who abhor 
nur heard of any of these Idyls except the first £% oar recent poets, 

(yt&mrpjltuumu-, which, as part of the XT Book of One half of these Idyls come under that class of 
Saiva lore, has ever been popular,, though not well literary productions called uppiuumi- i*-, a poem, the 
learnt and understood by all. When w&eafsan®® object of which is to conductor introduce one to a 
was first introduced as a text for the B, A , Elamina- superior In jB(5&><g*it p&uua>L- one who already 
of 1894, we know how even Pandits of first obtained the favour of the deity Subrahtnanya explains 
grade colleges were grumbling and murmuring against the path leading to the nbode of the deity and con- 
it. We know also of some cases in whttJi somn Pandits, ducts a votary to that place to obtain of Him salvation. 
v.ho cwn*d .-.tray oopies (Mss ) o* some of these Idyls, In the other four QunqsnuappCumt-, Pgtuw&ppu 
jravtr up in despair all hopes of deciphering what the u9>l-,Ququu.t & p&6 uatt.^fe.ufl.L.^ (^/^ 
ifvnwr.* their tWents wern. Even in print nr-w, tfumL.), tb* favourite* and adherents of kings and 
.Uvotit o,.]y Mttw ct^.sin Ae hands of mot* of , .,!,!>, guids the wavrior.tho musician and the dramatic 


I3- P 

to the palacesi and mansions e*f those king* and nobles 
to obtain princely gifts. The object of these Idyls is tfa« 
praiae of the deity or tiobln whose favor the anther had 
won- Of tbe remaining fire, four treat of love and 
heroism incidentally)- These are Qpeifenuuiftl.9, QgQmii 
m*«»i—, QfjS®&uLMrtl.Q, Mild uiLif^touvntw. m^ensm 
wr&ff*, admonishes worldliness on account of its trans- 
itoriness and the Pandiyan to whom it is add reused is 
strongly advised to keep in view the method of ob- 
taining salvation- We now propose to review une of 
the above, (jowViu^itlL®, rather briefly here. 

To those who are net familiar with ^^uQuir^sn — 
that part of Tamil grammar which draws Rules for 
amatory poems, the following brief introduction is 
necessary (which we propose to treat more elaborately 
in a separate article in some' subsequent issue). j>jsu 
Qunr^m is developed m these three constituents, viz., 
I _ Qpp pQurQBr , primary arrangements of nature with 
regard to {>) rf«ni, soil, in five varieties (a) <§$&&, 
hilly tracts, (6) i-wflw-»rid tracts (desert), (e) (je«i>*w- 
aylvan tractB, (d) u><g^ii-agricultural tracts and (e) 
Quitpat- man time tracts and ; (2) Guiropgi-Ume, iu two 
grand divisions (i)— OmjiiOuffgf^irjji-the six seasons 
(a) crir-cloudy ( \ugust and September), (0) *_,flff- 
cold (October and November), (<■■) (yKarusjfl-evening 
dew (December and January 1 , {d) L9«ru«rf7-morniog 
dew (February and March), («) gt*Gwf*$mt milder hot 
season (April and May), (/) (y>£>Qaiegf) A -hot season 
(Jane and July) ; (ii) ftgiQ'-'irQgf/Tjp — the six different 
portions of tbe day (each four hours) — (a) twite the 
first boars after nunset, (£>) lutrmik- midnight, (c) 
<mmima>p-i,he Jast boar- of night, (d) *(r3w-rnorniug. (e) 
•wuCaJ-midday, (f) 9fiuir<S~e veiling. II — m^uQuir 
(3«r-natnral peculiarities incidental to each of the 
divisions of the soil under fourteen heads (1) ^fnrig 
tutelary deities, (2) •.miiQ^iii chiefs, (3) ggStaSSjjww, 
(4) L/ar-birds, (5) eSeiii (5 -beasts, (0) n«if-city or town, 
(7) f£/f-water, (8) y-fiowers, (9) u>jru>- trees, (lOi *-$w>- 
food, (11) uffli£>-drum, (12) iturij stringed musical 
instrument*, (13) uair-tnne, (l-t) G^^Jiv-ijccupaDion, 
trade or mode of earning a livelihood. Ill — a~tflu 
Outr^ar-essential characteristics of lovers- The sub- 
ject matter of a-<f)uQuir(g&r, to which the two former 
are auxiliary or conducive, is developed in five disposi- 
tions or actions, either mental or corporal, via., 
(I) 4«wff^#»-unkm or the state in which husbands and 
wifes are together in their family, (2) iSS^»>- separa- 
tion when for lawful purposes, (3) g)(3,*^in>-the state 
1 in which they continue solitary, especially the bride, 

(4) wiri_«-love quarrel*, (5) @jK«60-wpeping and 
lamentation in any period of their life for an; ettnsfr. 
These five cliaranteristiriy are respectively ascribed to 
the above five species of soil, as appropriately adapt- 
ed to their nature, as L/aw.i^w to <5<PQ®, dSpm to 
urrflw, $lr!$jpev to (y>n>&o, «Ki_ifo to m^^ti, und @j«««s 
to Qmdjpea., When these five dispositions or actions 
are set in verse, it is bur, proper t.hnt, the poet should 
describe their respective m^uQuit^fir. 

Now then, QpG/leouutrLl®, the subject of our present 
review, deals of the disposition ®™>pprt or the state in 
which the bride, continues solitary. The king— her 
lord requssts her to forbear his separation until hi.$ 
return from a military exploit His consort accordingly 
forbears with great paries this separation without 
failing to perform the household duties. This 
forbearance is the subject of this poem. 

The queen was on her bed in the lofty and ppaci- 
ons sevsn-stor'ied p dace. The lamp held in the hands 
of a gold vtitne kept burning ne*r her- The n"ise 
of the adjoining rivulets reached her ears There 
was not her lord beside her- She was all alone The 
thonirbt of her husband crossed her rnind. * A confu- 
sion came ovur her- She sighed. She adjusted her 
bangles which were slipping t-ff. She shivered like a 
pea-hen pierced with nn arrow, and her ornaments 
consequently, were dislocated. The queen however can. 
not help this j they must forbear separation from their 
lords ; otherwise, kingdoms will fall down. This 
thought consoled her. Such whs her plight every 
night. The days had no charm. The rj|<mts were 
long and tedious. The appointed, time of the arrival 
of her lord is not yet come. 

Where was the king all the while? He was in his 
camp in the battle-fluid. The scene of action bordered 
on a wild torrent in a forest tract whose tall trees and 
thick shrubs were cleared away. The fortifications 
therein of wild clans who gu irded the dominions of 
the enemy were also pulled down' Just imagine a 
large tract of land encircled on all sides by a wire 
fence. Substitute bones, spears and bucklers for iron 
posts, and ropes for wires. [The b-'Ues on which 
quivers were suspended resembled the treble stoue of 
a Brahman hermit with his uchre-colored cloth sus- 
pended on it. The heads of spears were beautifully 
engraved]- Id this enclosure foi tified bv a fence of 
such we-ippns was encamped the army of the king 
composed of warriors of various nationalities. The 
entrance of the enclosure was guarded by ruttiug 



.-tephants, which stood at r-.^e fanning 'heir hfjwls with 
(wigs, caring not I" piw fcod nr sugar-canes, rorn shea- 
ves *nd swept tender giass. and «vre fed with morsels 
o f ricfltT iiruoraut tn ah omits who threatened them to eat 
;iil S;tti>u words familiar to elephants) with goads 
in their h>iinls. In the middle of this encampment 
was pitched the tent of the king screened apart 
from the surrounding din and confusion of the army. 

After the day's exploits are over, he enters his tent- 
The beautiful maid -servants snuff up the lamps. His 
body-guard £0 round his tent and keep wa'.ch even 
at midnight. Every now and then his time keepers 
inform liiru the time rtllttWfi by his hour-glass, lie 
paces into his dormitory adorned by ft Yvana servants 
■rd lit by diamonds. The screens of rope are let 
down. The mute mlechas wa.tch his bed room. He 
is oti his hed recounting 1 elephants whose pro- 
boscis Icive been chopped off, dutiful soldiers who 
have fallen in bat'le. and horses which stand wo F ully 
without feeding on orass, having been wounded by 
arrows With one hand on hi* bed and th^- other on 
his head, ^leepk^s he sits pondering over his loss and 
the probable plans of sitcce.' t s. 

The lust day of iho appointed time is come. There 
lias been heavy showrr m the i-vening. The lady 
wImiid we b:ive K ft in the palace just now ho^ins to 
rtt-ep as her l»»rd has not returned yet, iti accordance 
wilb his promise. Old wturititi who' have been despatch- 
ed with flowers and sacrilices to the gods to consult 
f.rnens retiiritPil to her and said " ( 1 beautiful lady, 
[ilcuse dispi.-n-e with vom' sniTOW, we have had a very 
good omen. While we were praying the gods, a 
young shepherdess, who clasped her shoulders with 
■rnssed arms on account of the cold breeze, seeing her 
"nk-es ea-iiitig aloud th 11, wus soothing them 
■.vilhth" ml-. Be not troubled, yf mi- mothers will 

her»i in-iriTitlv I- this not a. good omen? There 

s doT'l i ili;»t our lord will returii e>e long with 

l-jlef" success KvP'! the=e words had no effect 

' *lv> ludv sitlin-^ iiMindv posture, when n 

ambling sound tie kits her ears. Hark ! What is it ? 

U i-omes from * di>tan<'e. The blowing of trumpets 
and ciich.- ' The weather is clear Ulne lotus and 
[C'limti arc blossoming: otttu fori-st flowers are opening 
th»ir psfa'*. The di-er -fefllpnig oier plains of 

■niller In th»* tiuiif.diiia oF horsca is dis- 

itiftly In .ii d. An army ppronrliilig .vLtli uplifted 
lia^s The king In.s cotHjitered hi.s enemies and won 

rh'dr dominion^. T^o ! his chariot stands in front of 
the door-way 

The above is the suhstance in English of this pas- 
toral of 1 05 lines. We have omitted certain qualify- 
ing phrases and clauses which mav seem awkward in 
Hnglish. Now, I'Pider, try to put the whole of the 
abovn in one complex sentence and note the result. 
We do confess that it was with considerable difficulty 
that we patched tip in parcels the above humdrum 
translation. Even now we arc unable to comprehend 
bow the commentator links the clause? into ooe whole 
intelligible striner. His linking is a kabra-cadahra. 
It may be that our scholarship is not up to the work 
to comprehend him. We rpneat this only to show 
how much patience is required to master every Idyl. 
T. Chet.vakesavaraya Mddai.iah, m.a. 


?(S^eS weargtu w^WjifiiQ^ wirfil&tQ&iuiu 
uxjfrth L/(LfffSsrr ujrsyi^fiy u)ws»«u>«r«Br 
Q sjj^r gismirip a/ trQ our jJjssdis pirarOsirQseeBrgjuh 
a-'Q/S (&j$£? tSsisn am <&(¥,$ jpiL&rQ p. 
According to the Vaisbnavites. Tirumangai Alwsr 
is th" latest of tbf Alwars, and was born in Kali 398 
whichisabout.^n'OOyears a |ilace called ^(^aoreff, 
p-obabK- south of the Can very in the Chola territories 
near £l<g<§ , 3n. T -»jt, ft piaoe celebrated for 4 Qpeitrtrt*. 
They havp also recorded, in their short biographical 
notes of him, thit in the counte of hts travels from 
shrine to. shrine, he had met Sambandha's discioleg 
who took him to their master at Shiyali before whom. 
he s-Mi'* what was then known as fi(Vjf0iraiin—Xii begin- 
ning with the following stanza: — 

pnu-um&st j?,nstr%siireSrr pis Sirpfi 
iupTjOiatnpuSiir $p6irGireir(3)ii> QoioreiS asuu&gi 

Qp^iSeiineSI eSiptrvetrapii Spirit **$& 
Sutras ^eaeremx j@ G^ffuflaifCJj-. 
Then be asked Sambandhar to sing, which he did, 
but. which is n^t preserved by them. This seems to be 
the true version of the interview between the two 
Faints at Shiyali as given in their authentic books. 



The truth of this interview, it seems, has been 
doubted by ttte late Mr. Suadaram Pillai, thmgh 1 liad 
sot so opportunity of knowing the weighty reasons 
which induced him to suspect the genuineness of the 
tradition, and it would further appear that the 11th 
century has been fixed as hie period; 

If we rely upon the following stanza giving the 
date of Tamil Ramavanam, viz. 
at&rtaSiu &mnup Qiorir jgjyr p QptfiaiQu>p #e»t_iuenr any 

Kambar rvuat have lived towards the end of the. 9ih 
century; aud Sfeandham umst be datrd the 8th century 
if the following stanza iu the preface is true. - — 

Qua pi&(§ QaiiLSapQujirasr sit-SfS ciirftpio 
suff^fuSgJ LjalaiiT(gi£ir tuSgijp Curt pp 

ii5«(5*i^ L/tirmrtGjrm QapjB^Qsr, 

Then the result would be the Alwar, whose date is 
the 1 1th century. is about two or three centuries poste- 
rior to Ramayanam and Skatidham- 

I propose at some length to teat this astounding re- 
sult by a method which is none the less reliable be- 
cause it is novel in Tamil literature- If we jn-t turn 
our attention to the metres of the Alwar and rompare 
them with Saraband bar's and his undoubted contem- 
porary Appar's Qfmwgm ou the one hand and with 
Ramayanam, Skandham and other such work- on the 
other, we shall arrive a.r, reliable and substantial re- 
bu Its, instead of literary conjectures hazarded some- 
times for the mere pleasure of contradiction or through 
sectarian animosity 

The application of this method is, I run aware, beset 
with a great many difficulties. In the first plate pro- 
sody is considered :in extremely barren avid unin- 
teresting subject, not only by the general reader but 
even by men who have made a special study of Tamil, 
inclading Pandits, and one will be surpri-ed to hear 
thatTelugi proSodians are, in this rerftmct, Ear in ad- 
vsuca of ra'Tiilgram-narians, and h-ive don" fnll jntstre 
to their subject while Tamil, with a wider and, [ believe 
a more aucieot field in prosody, not havingr be**? watch- 
ed and treated by Tamil writers, 1ms hdlen !>-';«: alii! 

grown defective. Perhaps Tamil scholars are not 
altogether t<» blamt' R8 »- vera! 'causes in the history 
of Tamil literature may have contributed u» Inis 
deplorable state of things. 

In the next place, the Tevamm metres are not 
marked in the book, as they might have been, by 

*ii>Lfliu.T»«»'i_/riT jflolS who was in the most favourable 
circirn'st ''iices and would have been the fittest person 
to do ifc- Nor has any other editor attempted to do it, 
as^wighf have been expected, from the extreme deffi- 
-uHy » mi complication of the task. While on the 
otoer hand great credit is due to the original editors 
of the Alwar's Piabhandams Tor the laudable wttempt 
tlu-y have mude in pointing out the metre of each 
uir*jrLD, T regret I am compelled to remark, in the inte- 
rests of Tamil lifcerature, with very threat deference to 
them, that their indications of metre are faulty in too 
many places as may be discerned even by a superficial 
render, and hs I shall shew fully on a future occindon 
These faults mar th excellence oftlie Prnphaodam and 
the metres therefore should either be omitted alto- 
gether us in Tevarani, find the reader left to grope 
in the dark as best as he can, or stated correctly 
so far as we can »t the present day. In a work like the 
Prabhandani, nothing should proceed upon conjecture. 
The Alwars themselves if they were now alive, would 
be much amused at, the metrical arrangement. 

But in spite of these difficulties, an investigation of 
the nWves of the Alwar And of Tevarnm is not alto- 
gether a hopeless tusk as it may at first sight appear, 
if we only net-severe iu the helief that substantial and 
interesting results will be obtained and that 

aud all Lhaf, I require <jf ihe reader i.i to Lave the me- 
trical forinuhc at his fingers' ends as 1 shell studious- 
ly avoid technicalities hnd try to be very Simple m 
mv treatment of the subject even at the expense of 
elegance mid conciseness. 

Perhaps it is r i • ■ t generalJv knoAnrhat the Tevaraoi 
metres belong tn an ancient period of Tamil hreraturts 
and possess many metrical t.eciiliHtities which, not 
having survived to us, appear to the student ol modern 
poetry us irregularities inuul^td in by the sacred 
poets to characterise their p'ety or as so ipioria] em jis 
aud so on, as vrruusly conjectured »«, ta-urv dictates 
by modern readers that i-ver [irnip.ened to 
turu their attention to CLt metrical construction or the 



lines. Of course, the classical works extant upon Tamil 
pro-rodv are «ingul*rlv conspicuous by their sullen 
silence on these metres, on which, from the extreme 
importance of the subject, they might be expected 
to be minute even to disgust, and cannot there- 
fore be appealed to for our help. That such indiffer- 
ence on their part, or. whatever it may be, is not 
•leasable will appear from * slight reference to Telu- 
gn prosody, where not only the Sanskrit metres, bor- 
rowed in common with Tamil, are fully explained after 
the Sanskrit model, but even the pure Dravidian 
metres, as I may call them, such as MadhyAkkara, 
Madhurftkkara, Dwipada, Taruwoja, U"tsnhs,Antha- 
raccara Ac-, of which, curiously enough, as I shall 
have occasion to shew, there are counterparts in 
Tevaram and other snch undent wets, are fully 
described and named without the aid of Sanskrit pro- 
sody and will* Ibflieve, lend i>.s*ome help in our 
investigation, nod throw much light on th« subject. 

TeV'r^m consists mostlv of Vrittas with a few 
fssmp here and there. These Wittfis, as we know, 
are only g)«w^ ° p subsidiary metres that seem to have 
entered the language much Inter than the four main 
metres Qataruir, jfmaipuir. meSuu.r, and u*}Quutr. but 
have been so extensively sol exclusively used as to 
have thrown the main metres long a.go Altogether into 
the back ground. With reference to these Vrittas, 
Tamil literature may lie divided into three period* vis, 
>i* The tien'od preceding Vrittas. (2) The period of 
ancient Vrittis (3) The period of modern Vrittas. 

Agastyar and Tolk»poiy«r apnear to belong to the 'st 
period. and we may safely assert that Vritt4« in Tamil 
wpre unknown to them and that the sotirinus works 
in Vrittis that pass under the* name of Agastva are 
works fathered 'lponhimby modern writers of little or 
no reputation, and are instances of rnetrir-al anachro- 
nism, llanv old works written in non-Vritt,is may 
also be, assigned to this 1st oeriO'l. 

Tt'Viiram ivU'ild apppear to belong to the 2n<lperiod, 
an I. I am inclined to believe tint Gipnwatf) is u]so 
> f this period and that Qafi'uijjjiem-ij> marks the dawn 
of the, modern period. I shall not here digress by stat- 
ins mv reasons for these propositions. I should here 
julv fi«k the render to discard the notion that Tamil, 
belongiuu »s it is to the so-called unchangeable East, 
ha* remained unchanweH evor since Ags^tva. That it 
\mt been ""hnngiug, is nowhere more apparent than in 
rhe origin and growth of Vri'tus, though it is to be 
regretted that Tamil piosouiaus beyond recognising 

the advent of" these metres into the language have 
done no justice to them and have failed altogether 
for some reasons or Other not very evident, to watch 
them in their growth through centuries. There ia 
a futile attempt madn iti Virasoshiyam at an expla- 
nation of Sanskrit metres, but the subject ia not pursn- 
ed,~firobably as being beyond the scope of thework, be- 
yond indicating what ar* long and short letters for the 
purpose of Chaudas. I am here concerned only with 
one point, viz., that Tevaram and Quiftiu ^^QwiryS of 
Tfrnrn^ngai Al war belong to the same ancient period, 
and I hope the following investigation will make it 
clear without more reasons. 

I may here tell the reader that I shall not din- 
gust him by entering into too many details and 
taking him into what he may here fitly call a deeplabj- 
rinth of metrical complications, I am aware I am not 
entitled to a more than passing attention from the 
general reader of this Journal, and shall therefore 
confine myself only to a. few salient and interesting 
points, shewing- thut fiambandhar and Tirumangai 
Alwar flourished about the same period, leaving the 
snbject to be treated fully elsewhere, 

I shall first take a metre which is very common both 
in Tevaram and modern poetry, «V, what is called 
^(^QsBifiesif in Appar which forms the main portion of 
his 1st jBQfjQp&ip This name is given to it only in 
Appar and the name ha* not descended to us, and we 
now call it by the long sounding name jQ j&3ir mm $Qm 
^ «»,T©iflitja9(3^#ji which is a name applicable equally 
to — I do not know — how many stanzas. This metre, 
the ancient ^^Q/siflemr, is the identical and the only 
metre employed thronghnut the twelve parts of Smtm(&, 
I shall, for the information of the general reader,pomfc 
out the identitv, by scansion, between the App&r's 
fi(njQtgrfies>ra.T\<l t>e ■timemfy metre, hoping, however, to 
be exenst-d for the comparison of two snch extremely 
dissimilar work"- 


J Sift (J 

sgavo'o) L/errtuw 

nr or 

]• Quir&rgglK *r maraftit/ 

tfipjStwjm soitefr 

3. usaraiBiu &* 


iBs&gl QsssrtBsr 




With ttii* ccrapare the following Gaftmr of jfuur. 
(xr Qpwtr 

jF*t5wr fup.a>ti> aSm%» 

% mxmtott pi* i— siSsiitw 

«(5^?«ff(r saw $5*<3 

8. *ff«Br«iHr .*(5<?5 Jtksfo* 

4- .J[«B-«wr £tiei Sgjeiteo 

In tbe«e stanzas- the 1st foot ia either t^eSar^ or 
«_e9«rii> indifferently, ao the 2nd is either Lfuflieir or 
Qjtoff and the 3rd is Qpwr only and should not 
be l/WIuwt. Those three combine io the same order 
again, and the whole six feet from a line consisting 
of two equal halves. Four suoh Jines from a stanza. 
If we examine the whole of *?s««r®, we shuil fiod 
each line running most rigidly i» the manner above 
pointed oat, without a single instance of the slightest 
deviation fnun the Ltw above laid down. This metre is 
equally perfect in g)#irunriufi«'ii l j3(5«fl*nu/ri_« yinc 
mrii, QuMu^girmmiJe, wnrji, Skandham &<>., where it is 
foaod dispersed in various places. Snudarakaudam 
with ufi£fc»Mir dB, yiQmtitpei ui_wu>, fffsffirti/ril 
(Buui_*fti, and C*ir *tf»*ir«arui_«ii in uireiairt^L^ii, 
commences with it. The 1st seven Sutrama of W& 
mttot Qpfivirr are in this metre and awaijanui and 
flaiijiSji/r^ii for more than ODe half of them are also 
in this metre and aiTanBajfc — ii and Sitkndham abound 
in it. In fact,. ther« is no modern poem of any 
importance without this metre. In all these works, 
the rule of scansion above laid dowu is most rigidly 

But on turning to Appiu 0'^Qf^sor, which is no 
other than this very same metre, we find peculiarities or 
what appear to us to be deviations from the above lasv 

or or Gputr 

I. QeQtmi-* mpsap nppp? 

sTfuftfoir fspai itnjgt 

3, lo«5#€bii_ <?#,tB«»* fienSeo 

4- ^/^^«._ tS^eirSifiiu^ 

(jfuui Q*n,iSj>ft (3 Qmtflea., stanza). 
Here, note the underlined word aS^Q^joj which 
is incapable of division into two wrttk as the rul e 
requires- A modern poet would have §)@m-9t#i* 
which is. two feet of wj&i each- This line (4th) sounds 
rathei- odd to our ear, accustomed to modern poetry, 
hut i»)Dst have sounded as h perfect line to the poet 
and his contemporaries. 

This peculiarity of using occasionally an indivisible 
s^eStrrmmtrii, or s@G$*irm*triu or (to use better the 
other formulae given io Tolkappiyam commentaries) 
«(r*(5«/r(u or LfsSoi^airiu, in the place where we ex- 
pect two +z*8i, is very common to Tevirum and 
other ancient works. The following are other instan- 
ces of this peculiarity in jfuuir $QQ<siRaa* ; I. 03* 

iSXIQiutir (QsiruSjbflQQziflgDr, usirOairwrf stanza 3, 
line 1) 2. loireoai^t-j (Do. stanza JO, line 1.) td^Qmrn 
(Do line 2) 4 e$M$tpoi,Tar (1st .S^ai^sc* eSsd-ir^ta 
stanza 6, line 3) 5. sirwfm&m (Do stanza 9, line 3) 6. 
Qicgismirst ^(^Lceojois/rS, $($Qsifleaf stanza I, line 2) 
Ac, Ac. 

Let us turn to Tirumangai Alwar. There this 
metre which in Appar is called ^(^dmSaig: is called 
&®i<5ffiipir*ari-*u) at the end and in another place 
where it occurs bears no special name. We have on 
the whole 40 stanzas of this metre in this Alwar. We 
shall scan one of the stanzas to prove their identity 
with jfuuir r Q(^OmflaBf and rfiairfi metre. 

cgeSwii LjeSmir 

or or Qjuttr 

x-tSsrw Gpwtr 

2. «.TLDUj«H— « (Vforp Gtcii^i 
*Qwsa>Lp *«f? Qaiip/riu 

3. tJiiL/sreit Qunaregft ("tfipgiui 
Li(Sji£jQu<rar tufftmi^. Gained 

4. QjiiQs-iirtflmi *">(3 .»T««_ry- 

As this scansion shews, this metre is no other than 
Appar fi(i$Qz&se>.F or tf*KBi© eSt^Jf* 1 weare consider- 
ing. This stanza of (he is as perfect to our ear 
as tfcnrS and free from any peculiarity. But when we 
examine his other staD/.as of this metre, we find pecu- 
liarities of the same type as has beiD above pointed out 
io Appar fi^Qtmfim^ viz., the occasional use uf &*m^ 



air £i or L/eSm^miriu io the place and stead of two 
iter?* [«• e., lor 2nd «nd 3rd feet or 5th and 6th feet) , 
Tie following are the Alw^r'e stanzas iu this metre 
containing peculiarities : — 

or or Qpwir 



(4-upg,, C-sj^/j sfcanjia 0, line 1 ) 

4»aj^^ uesifiiuir Gil/ij^jj 

4. j/jfSeir sary-BDUi tuwmineo 

{(ggvifireniri-xut stanza ID.) 

Note the underlined words ' er^tp^^' and 
'tosMpGt*' used for two Lo/r#?/f exactly as in Appar. 
The word» in brackets may also be considered as be- 
longing to this peculiarity unless we consider the 
letter gj in then to be long, and divide them into two 

I may also mention that this ^gdVw* or ^gji 
(jji'/s^f *w"i— *"j occurs also in Hinw^^eiifi though not 
under any of those name?, with the same peouliarities 
as we find in jjuljH av.d 0Qtjiomaox y,goiir.r, Kote the 
following peculiarities in /Siiu/rynnirif I. ^(iPj-tcTr (10-us 
£i. 2-ai^, stanza 2, line 4) 2. jytar^L/jni {Do. stanza 3, 
tine 3) ;>. Gu/r^« ( 5^«_'f (Do. stan/.;* 11, line 2) 
4. jjMFJoSio (Do. line 2). The words here used are 
fill *_ Raffia or KQsSariixiTdj without a middle con- 
stant or long vowel which would make them divisible 

illtc tWO i/iffi"?*. 

T. VnuiaiADi.'A Muhaj.iai:, la., iu,. 


{CimttHurdfrtm pagt US.) 
T"t A * <iY JIM,. rt*T ANH HIS CjWTEMI'ORAiUSS. stiite that Kiribati lived in the time, of 
l:-ij*i,d'-a i bulii, who according to one inscription as 
S!.»vH:i- s l,-npiige4l4 ; Vol. Ill, of catalogue K^isocie of 

Oriental manuscripts, lived in the year 460 of the era 
of Salivahaoa, i r„, about 540 A.D. This means that 
Kamban lived 1,350 years ago. As per stanza pre- 
fixed to the R&mayaDain "er«Ar«flit/#«f,£#©ui«ir 
jpjr pQpy$«ir QiDp&estt—iUGbr suirgsy &c-/' Kamban com- 
posed his Kamayauam about 895 A.D-, and so should 
have lived 1,000 years ago- Mr Duraisamy Muppanar 
of K:ipisthalam in his aiiujiiruinajaar Jj@isiss8 eS«rr*«ii 
savs that the above stanza has >dso a reading eTswrarfu 
estrpp Qp& gsr pQ p tjj! ear Guippexi—iLifirLainyseij &c , and 
this makes Kamban to have lived 1 , 500 years i> go. 
Bishop Caldwell says that there is reference to 
Rnmatiuja in the Jt—Q*nugipn£il of Kamban. and that 
Kamhan should have lived therefore after the age of 
Ramanuja. Ramanuja according to Gnru Ph nun para 
Prabhavatn was born in the year 939 of Salivahana or 
about 1018 AD. But authentic history points out 
that Ramanuja. converted Vishauvardhana of Mysore 
in 1113 A.D. From this it would appear that Kamban 
lived about 700 years ago. 

The first of the above statements is neither support- 
ed by any reliable tradition nor by facte. We are led 
to think that Ra.jendra is perhaps confounded with 
the (father T) immediate predecessor of Knlotnnga. 
This is also inconsistent with the approved chronology 
which places with a degree of certainty S»mbandhar 
and Tirnmangai Alwar* between the 5th and 7th 
centnries of the christian era. .Tirnmangai Alwar 
from his reference to QairfOfms^/ar in his QuAu 
.©(jQm/ryi' appears to have lived some time after the last 
Madura College as may be understood by stnaiifi mjip 
u£j. i-/*Gtp*^, a contemporary nf Kambun has 
borrowed "3f»«i (gffSp Quan_A<g£i Su«@ Sjpi igsrm 
Q&L.i—n€$ <4(g6 <uy$ : i£liLi-iTev' y evidently from the 
7'b stanza of jztQanaas* luirifiaiirir'a £S@Q<5®.ipiratrL~ 
*J> — '" Qi_»r.s/«irff<2iosJr .. .^Q/fiksirenuiL^.ui-fptDu3 Ou«hjl_« 

This unvarnished truth refutes the hypothesis that 
Kamban lived so early. We are sorry we cannot also 
adopt the statment of that great Dravidiari scholar 
Dr. Caldwell, because we searched through and 
through the text and commentaries of fi—Qaiius&pwf) 
and could not Hod any allusiaft.?to Ramanaja. Dis- 
believing ourselves, we enquired of certain elders 
well versed in Vaishnava lituratere on the pdint, and 
their answer corroborates our statement. He is in- 

* [ Fit in what 1'iof. Setliapiii SaBiiigal pu..:t; out they could not 
havpl'i-pii ccntiMii]i(iiiiiifs. If TiruniHTipaiTolwai- wai later than 
1004 t. ii., ihiMitl.c whole faeti of our friend will hare to be 

liauled up fivtU. — Kf.f 



dined to place all the Alwars of Nalayim Prabhanda 
fcftftr Raman ojn, assnming that Raman uja was the 
Aitt foamier of Vaishuavism This is against nil in- 
fernal evidence of tbe NaUyira Prabhanda. and against 
all evidence of the Sanskrit authors The very ft— 
<Jhmtrujji0*0, from which the learned Doctor draws a 
faltaciat evidence, has in it" V8th stanza " maiif-pim 
Jtcx, *&si(gi$.p*(§j0<L> ieir jDuQuojiri Q*,T%viu.T8»r &c " 
that the schoUra, of the Madura College were deprived 
of their pride by Satagopa. If the .tradition involved 
to this staux* be tare, then it comes to pass that 
Satagopa lived about the age of the Madura College- 
Thaee were-otber Alwars preceding Satagopa, There 
is also a tradition —and there is some truth in it — that 
Kb,™ ban's RamajHoam was published and approved 
ib-tbe presence of Sriman Nadamunignl who lived 
at lease a generation or two before Ramanuja. lo fact 
it ws< the commentators of the N»)ayira Prabhauda 
who lived in and after the age of Ramanuja, All this 
tends t'i refute the bol'i statement of the Doctor. 

T. ChelvakesayakaIa Mddaljak, w. a. 
[To he continued). 



A rJtTBioBs Tamil p)em called Silappadhikaram : 'the 
chapter of the Sila-mku' fan aoklet worn by dancers, 

-hollow and filled sometimes with pebbles, sometime* 

with -choice gems, which give forth a tinkling sound) 
baa long been known to a few Tamil scholars. It is 
ia three book? and eighty cantos. 

This is an elegant, but comparatively little known 
composition, one of the five ancient Tamil poems, 
being a romantic story like ' The Lady of the Lake,' 
aed not rising to the dignity of «n epic It is often 
obscure, sometimes very tedious ; but it is full of 

The following ie a specimen of its Hyle. It is the 
dedication of the first canti to the S'ira king ;— 

1. Praise we the Moon ! I'raiie we Hie Muon 

It affrt 1- ih grace to iha fair and spacious world, like the cod 
wiih umbrella orer t!,e fla^raiit-flower-^-arlsntletJ heart 
(of the king). 
' 2. Praise we the itJX ! Praise we the el's ! 

Like the chariot of the Lord of Kaviri't domain, 
It wheel* around Hern'* gold'n heights. 

* Edited by V. Swuminstlia Aiyar, Tamil Pa-njii, Kurabhekooam 
College, 1892. Price B». 5—8-0. 
_t The river Canrery. 

8. Praise we the vest cloud ! Praise we the ntt ctntto ! 

Like hie prace it poor* down blessings or the world begirt by 

the fearsome sea. 

4 Praeie we flowery P«yar ! Praise we flowery Payor ! ■ 

Tt uplifts itself, and spreads, end grows together with hie (the 

ling's) clan, 

A bore all thfi world auiruanded! by the swelling octtia 

Of this work a very complete edition has recently 
been published by that admirable Tamil scholar, V. 
Swarninathaiyar, Tamil Pandit of the KnmbhukontftB 
College. (Madras, 1892). 

The author was a prince of the Sera royal family, 
hence often called Sent man- He became an ascetic, 
and is commonly known as Tlanko-Adigal (the young 
prince ascetic). 

There is »n exhaustive commentary by Adiyarkka 
Nallar, of whom nothing more is known. The religi- 
ous ideas are a Strange medley of Jainism, Hinduism 
find r>re-historic .Demonism. 

The poem is divided in three books, which bear 
the iitie of Pugar (Kavcri-pattanam) Madnra and! 
Ksrur. being the chief cities of the Sora, Pandiya 
and Sera kingdoms respectively. In Pugar there 
lived a merchant whose name was Maeattnvan, who 
had a son called Kovalan, married to a most beautiful 
and excellent lady whose wis Ksnnagi. This 

young- couple lived in n splendid palace, and had 
great stores of wealth which they employed in acts of 
piety and beneficence. Unhappily there was a great 
festival held in Pngnr in honour of Indra, which was 
wont to be celebrated with surpassing pomp by all 
the citizens. At this fentival there appeared a female 
masician and dancer of surpassing beautv and accom- 
plishment!'. This stranger diverts the affections of 
Kovalan, and in her soeietv he squanders awav the 
whole of his propertv. When he broke loose from bet 
he returned to his patient wife penniless, and found 
hpr worn away with sorrow and distress Pilled with 
compunction he resolves to leave the city, repair tc 
Miidnra, and try to retrieve his fortunes. Kannngt. 
whos<* lovelv character is exfjuisitel v rlrawi', has ai 
anklet Silamln filled with precious stones of preal 
value, and with this which she tjives him as his capi 
tal, he hopes to retrain his lost fortune. She consent." 
to cnnioanv him. artd that vert ni(jht, in the mid. 
night darkness, thev s»-i forth unknown to ;inv O' 
their kindred and, gviing along; the north bank ol 
the Kaveri. proi-eed westward tilt they reach a park- 
* The capital at thit rime Pumpatlaram '5*r frr St). L«t). 



like wnclosnre, where a number of Jam mendicants 
were performing penance ; amongst them was an old 
lady whose name was Gaunthi, who, learning thiit 
they were on their way to the renowned Madura, 
resolves to accompany them, that she may hear the 
wonderful lesaoos of virtue taught by the Madura 
sages. They proceed onward till they reach Arangam, 
where, to a boat, they pass over to the southern bank 
of the Kavcri and enter a thicket full of blooming 
flower plaDts. Of course, every portion of this his- 
tory of their pilgrimage is tilled with descriptions and 
digressions sometimes very beautiful, and often not a 
little tedious, throwing light upon the life of South 
India in the olden time. 

The second book, which is entitled 'Madura,' relates 
how they passed to Uniiyur. There a messenger 
finds tbem, giving them tidings of the sorrow which 
their sudden disappearance had given to their kindred. 
By that messenfer Kovalan sends suitable greetings 
to bis father and mother and all his relations. They 
then pass on till they come to the river Vaigai, which 
they cross on a raft, and arrive at the hats of some 
ascetics outside the walls of Madura. The next morn- 
ing, arising early, our merchant commits bis wife to 
the care of Gaunthi, and after a touching fitrewell 
(one of the gems of Tamil verse) proceeds to Madura 
to begin his commercial enterprise by disposing of 
tbe precious anklet, 

In the street of Madura be meets a company of 
goldsmiths, at the head of whom was tbe King's head 
jeweller. To bim Kovalan shows the jewelled anklet, 
and asks him to estimate its value. Now this jeweller 
was aD arrant rogue, and had recently made away 
with a similar Hnkelt belonging to the Queen, and 
was living under daily apprehension that be might be 
called to account whenever the precious trinket 
should be missed. To him, therefore, the sight of 
Kovaiau's treasure suggests a way of escape. He 
made the stranger wuit a while until he should show 
the anklet to the King, who might very probably pur- 
chase it: and then, making his Way to the palace, he 
exhibits it, saying " There is a thief, whom I have 
detained tonder, and on whum I found this auklet, 
which is ODe missing from your Queen's trinkets.* 
The King enquired, and found that an ankelt was 
really missing; aod, blinded by the influence of unpro- 
pitious fate, bade his guards go and bring the thief. 
This king was called Nedun-Seriyau, and renowned 
for justice : but alas no one least of all a despotic 

Asiatic sovereign, ]'b at all tiroes wise. The guards 
went, and seeing Kovalan, whom the pol<JBmith 
asseverated to be a thief, one of them despatched bim 
with his sword. 

Soon tbe intelligence is brought to where his no- 
happy wife (the virtuons Kannagi) is awiting hia 
return, and sbe rushes forth to tbe city, making tbe 
streets resound with her cries. Sbe finally finds her 
husband and embraces his dead body, when he opens 
bis eyes — restored for a moment to life— and after 
tenderly bidding her await reunion, closes them again, 
and is received into Paradise. She rnsbes sway 
filled with fury, tears off one of her breasts, and flings 
it with curses over the guiltv city, and then makes 
her way to the King. 'You have slain my husband ' 
she said ' who never did wrong or injustice. What 
gems were in your Queen's anklet, for in mine are 
rnbies V So saying she broke the anklet, open, and 
exhibited tbem to the King. 'Ah !' cried he in my 
wife's anklet were only pearls. I hare slain an inno- 
cent man -, and am I worthy to be a King ? May I this 
day perish ! " So. saying, he fell dead at her feet. 
Kannagi, raging in her despair, cries opon the God 
of fire, who immediately appears. virtuous matron, 
who hath wronged thee? The instant thine bus- 
band was unjustly slain, I hsd the command to 
eorjsnme the guilty'— Slay not Brahmans or the vir- 
tuoas, or kioe, or women, or the aged, or infants ; bat 
consume tbe rest.' So the conflagration raged till 
guilty Madura was wrapped in flames. Then appear- 
ed tbe guardian goddess of tbe city and thus addressed 
the raging widow: 'I am tbe Goddess of the City. No 
king before this was ever guilty of the least injustice, 
and in this case I will tell thee the secret of thy suffering. 
In the town of Siugapuram there was a king who slew 
a merchant named Sangaman, accused by one Bh«r&- 
tan of being a spy. His wife was called Nili, and 
she wandered long on the mountains, praying that he 
who had caused her grief might in another birth 
suffer as he had caused her husband to suffer. Kova- 
lan was that Bharatao, and was therefore born again 
as you know him, and has suffered for his crime com- 
mitted in that former birth. Ou the fourteenth day 
from this thou shalt join thine hnsband.' Thus 
comforted Kannagi left Madura, went to the moun- 
tain country, and on the hill of Tiru-senkunru under 
a Vengat tree waited till on the fourteenth day 
Kovalan appeared in a celestial body, and bore her 
away to Paradise Here ends the story as connected 
with Madura. 



The tat book connects the history with Vanji or 
Earur nod is evidently composed to account for the 
worship of .Kanoagi, as it in now performed in a mul- 
titude of temples in the West. Her image is to be 
seen with the lacerated bosom, rind she is adored 
under the name of iha 'Ohaat Matron Deity.' The 
idea that any one cruelly wronged becomes af rer death 
a, powerful demon, inflicting r>ore calamities unless 
propitiated, is at the very foundation of the snpf reti- 
tions of the South and Wear, as indeed of all India. 
The people who dwelt around the hill upon which 
Kannagi went op io the chariot, forthwith instituted 
a solemn dtfhce in honour of the new Divinity, and 
hastened to inform their king, who came to the spot 
and erected an altar and ordained sacrificial rites. 
He__U»en proceeded to the north. «ud after a variety 
of wild undertakings brought, buck a huge StODe f'om 
the Himalayas, out of which the statue of the Demon- 
ess was cut. This worship is srill paid. 1 1 is said 
that the son of the k>ng who so cruellv murdered 
Kovalau oflerd iu sacrifice 1,000 goldsmiths to pro- 
pitiate the Demoness, and instituted the Feast still 
celebrated in her honour. It was only then that the 
plapue of drought was removed and the 1'andyan 
land again became fertile, t'here are donbtless some 
grain! of historic trnth here, and it woold be very 
interesting to have the matter scientifically investi- 

G. TJ. Pop*, M.D., D.D. 

Indian Institute, July 1&»7- 


Thk title chosen, perhaps, is not quite happy, nnd 
to the ordinary man educated in English, it conveys 
the ide* of Rituals and the worship of the Elements. 
as set forth in the Rig 1 Veda; and this in the case of a 
philosophic work, which repudiates the ritual law, as 
beiug altogether insufficient to nffect one's salvation 
And Sankara takes (treat pains to establish that the 
whole object of Krishna is to teach that perfection is 
not attainable by work but by knowledge of Atma 
or Self-knowledge as the translator puts it, and by 
'Nainh karmya Siddhi. However we welcome the 
book for more than one reason. In these days of critical 

Vol. I, Part 1, with tbe comroeDtary of Sri SauLara, 

trtnilated by A- MabadeT* S&atri, m. *., Cnmtur. Government 

Library, Mysore, 1997, Price 3 Eg. — Meun. Tbuiii|uuu A Co. 

knowledge and study, it i*> a great desideratum that 
we know directly what the great masters wrote 
and taught, instead of having to depend on the 
unreliable version of the pandits, who themselves take 
their cue from more modern glosses and tikas. And 
it was a special difficulty in the case of Sankara's tea- 
chings. We demonstrated in a former issue how 
badly agreed were the several European admirers and 
followers of Sankara, among themselves, as to the real 
meaning of Sankara; and we have met many a pandit, 
who sought to save Sankara from certain absurdities 
which flowed from his particular positions, by saying 
that Sankara did not say so and so, or that that he 
could not have meant so and so We now give 
thanks to Enrope«n scholar-hiD and Dr. Thibant for a 
valunble translation of Sankara's famous SutraBhasbya 
and it is a matter for sincere congratulation that an Scholar has brought out a careful translation 
of Sankara's next groat commentary The work is as 
well turned oat as it can be. A*»d we noto with plea- 
sure that, the learned translator has given mostly the 
Sanscrit, in brackets or otherwise, of most important 
terms, which are more intelligence to ns in the 
original than in the English form. English transla- 
tors freely translate such words as Maheshwara, 
Parameahwara, lshwara, andlsa as Supreme Lord, 
or Lord, and Bhava, into Reality, and Mahadeva 
into Great God, and Shiva into the Gracious; bnt 
why they don't take such liberties with each words- 
as Vishnu (The »U-pervader) and Narayana (one 
lying on the waters) we cannot understand. And 
perhaps, now tbe vice of translating Atma and 
Paramatma into Self and the Supreme Self respective- 
ly is ineradicable. And oar friend h'>s a new 
equivalent for Brahmagrian- Brahmitguan (StvaGnan) 
becomes Atmagnan, which becomes knowledge of 
the Self, and Self-knowledge ! No donbtif every body 
could know the reasons which induced Prof. Max 
Muller to fix these terms, it may he all very well. 
Bnt how many know his reasons? Ac d is not the 
word itself ambiguous, and does not the word in 
ordinary pnrlance apply more to the lower aspect of 
man's Egotism than to the High and Supreme spirit 
to which Atma and raram^tma stflB applied? The word 
itself originally meant animal life arid man and God. 
In the Upanishads, Atman is used bnth to mean Jiva 
and God indifferently But in the Gila, though Atmai! 
is used to mem God, yet a deviation in tbe use of the 
word is perceivable, by describing God as the Para- 
niatrcan. Atma in a reflexive sense, equivalent to the 



Tamil {f*&), is a, mnch later u-e. Why should we 
therefore import a Inter Kignifical ion into au earlier 
use of the word? Bat *s we said shove, the rice 
perhaps is now ineradicable, though we have thought 
it our uuy ti> convey the warning «s eveu now the 
con fusion of thought arising from ambiguity of ei- 
pressians is plainly perceivable We will go into 
Snnkaia's particular comments ou the Gita at some 
future time. 


Dr. R. N. CrST contributes the substance of a Paper on 
modem Religious conceptions, which he read before tbe 
last Orient*! Congress, to the Calcutta Review. He pro- 
pounds two questions for solution : — 

ft) If the name religion! concept too good far all time? In 
the.e no room for evolution? 

(2) >b the turns religions conception jpwd for all climes, races, 
physical peculiarities and peoi;r:iuhical environments!- 1 

He answers that there is romn for spiritual and intel- 
lectual evolution, and he illustrates it f;om the history of 
Judaism and Christianity itself; and he-affirms the exist- 
ence of difference in Religious thought as determined by 
distance aud time and peculiar environment and he re- 
views the various forms of Religion as existing in different 
countries at the present day, by classifying them under 
two headings .— 

(1) The old systems purified, refined and adapted to the en. 
vironnieiit of civilized society; nod 

(I) Modern conceptions funned from the Mending of old sys- 
lems with Christian doctrines either consciously or. uncanfcci<Htsitv. 

Unde^' t'e first he includes Islamiitn, Neo-Judaism, 
Neo-Hi'iduisrn, Neo-Zoro*strianisrn. Neo-Bnddhism, and 
Xeo-Coufueianism, and under the latter L!i all man ism, 
1 henfonhy, Mnrmonism, Positivism, Agnosticism, Unita- 
rian ism and Theism. He notices the A,rya Saniaj rauvt- 
metit under Nen-Hinduism> though he fails to bike note 
of the changes in modern Hinduism itself. He points mil 
that Buddhism is gaining ground in Kurope aud America, 
more on account of its Posit ivist aspect and that this does 
.'iot fail in bringing nhout a revival in Ilndduism in the 
R=isl. But he feels doubt as lo its ultimate success, as it 
ihW estimates the power of the human heart, in its 
oimte intuitive search after and percept ion of a sutirrnie 
'.■■■ii'iolling Power, and its allegiance to and dependence ou 
Mini. It m*y be true that the Buddhist Ideal was its 
-piiii ur universal charity and henevolenrc ;md meicv and 
ply, liut he it quite wide of mart, when lie says that this 
'hfi'tt'ine was totally unknown till then. We have not the 
iciist, doubt 10 our hi i ud that the At ah'tfmratu whs mute 

anterior to Buddha and these doctrine* are set forth in 
it on a much IDoie valid basis than by Baddha. As «oy 
visitor can see, it had no power for good in Ceylon or Chios 
and us Br. Edkiuu remarks, '"Tbe Power shown by Bud* 
dhism to win the faith of the Burmese, I should rather 
trace to the superiority of the Hindu race over the moun- 
tain tribes of the Indo-Chinese Peninsula. ..The superiority 
of Hindu aits and civilization helped Buddhism to make 
this conquest." Bishop Bigandet says '■ I f the Buddhist 
moral code in itself has the power to influence a people eo 
far as to render them virtuous and devotional, indepen- 
dently of tbe element of intellectual superiority, we Still 
lack the etidence of it." Col. Olcott published annul 
statistics to show the relative criminality of tbe Hindu 
and Buddhist populations in Ceylou and Bnrmah, and 
the latter class were the more numerous; while in Candy 
our Tamil friend informed us that his wife would bat per- 
mit him to go to his estate frequently for fear nf the Cin- 
galese rycts. We ctn as such possess a perfect morel 
code (a well-known iSouth Indian Prince published recent- 
ly a beautiful religious and moral code) on paper, but 
whether it possesses all the spiritual and intellectual safe- 
guards to work it well is ajrothei matter, and actual expe- 
rience alone can-furnifih the supreme test. The Binds 
nation, however, low it may have sunk, is not so bad and 
utterly ungodly and brutal as the submerged tenth in other 
countries of Europe xnd A.sih. Br. Cusst agxio praises 
BrahmanUm very much, but why it is so very unpopu- 
lar iu Bengal, and jailing so little ground elsewhere, re- 
quites investigation. He thinks that the position of Ag- 
nostics is hardly tenable ; and according to Posifcivists, Grod 
or ninn must he set. up as a deity > and (hey piefer Huma- 
nity t i God. His criticism of Tneosophy that it is absurd 
toexprct people to believe in MahJUmns, wxirking wonders 
uiueen, in tins kg end of the 19ih century is quite just, 
and Theosophy would gain more in India aud everywhere 
if it jibiTidons this fart doctrine, as modern Hinduism 
did long ago. 


As advertisement in" Theosnpky' the orgaa of the Thep» 
sopliiral Society itJ America, states thhfc that great enthn> 
riast Charles Johnston M. it. a. s., a frequent contributor 
to the columns uf the Madras Mail, has opened schoul in 
v .rious parts of America for the study of Sanscrit) ''Tbe 
culture language of the coming epoch, as Lntin was of tbe 
Middlexges, mid Creek of the" The reference 
to the Indian .Section of the Thei'Suphical Society in the 
pages of this muga/iiie is not quite coujplimeutary to the 
p-jpulmitj and success of Col. Olcott's mission. 

Mu)HtM Printed Ijv I'. C K.W.UA.v.i Sinuari Nil) as, at iba 
(' S, ['loss, 4. liiiruviijipeu Street, Mlark Town, and Published 

hy T- A.tfwmi.viTii.i AniK, Ariiii-oiau Street, Madru. 



— OB — 


4 Monthly Journal Devoted to Religion. Philosophy, Literature, Science &c. 

Commenced on the Queen's Commemoration Day, 1897. 





No. 7. 

T R A N 8 L V T 1 <) X S 



A *anslation of a poem uf TfiTutn,,var, >i saint 
who lived about 150 wins aL r <j. His verses imbued 
with high spiritual experience and of rare metrical 
beauty and melody, enjoy h wide popularity in Tamil- 
land, being on the lips of young and old. 

This poem, which may be said to contain the uimn; 
of hie writings, is, according to a fancy not uncommon 
with Bhakti- Yogis, cast in the form of a low-song. 
Tbe Soul is the female lover and the Lord the beloved 
The Soul, cleansed of all taint, rid of like and (lis 
like, rid of " I " and " mine ", blends with the Lord 
long-sought, long-pined for, transported with bbss, 
she gives vent to it in song and dance, — a Revel in 
Bliss', j^mtpi-n&LHj, as the scng is called, — in which 
she pours forth her supreme happiness to a sympathe- 
tic friend. The words in the refrain 

" S'ankara S'ankara S'ainbbu S'iva 
S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu" 


the u. inns •■{ tli.' 1 ,i..i-i I. meaning that He is b]i<s : ( |id 
;trti e;uis'- of bliss. 

The -"ii<r describes the linnl realization Mini ■ _\ j.-.- 
rience in much the sumo languageas Mi'nul-kti I'f'rhrtim 
in the hymu " The House of God" ■(ls-uSp£(B;u<-ifa*u>). 
It also shows how the Bhahti Yoga or the Way of 
Love merges with the Ju'nia Yoya or the Way- of 
Knowledge. The Soul, ripening in the pith of Love, 
meets the Lord a.- Gun: a mi initiated by- him in 

the path of Knowledge iivr.-es 1 K -4 »ih| -jn; 

Tavuuianavav's Guru, whom he u-tmlh falls Maim-t 
(thi-h. or The ''.Silent 'leather" is identified by linn 
hero as elstwhe'.'c) with [lie Lola. Il nrw the Lure! — 

the Liirl.i which the bVjriiuurttr ami ha* no begin- 
ning, whi h sallies lilisv ;, mi ]],u- .dice" 
— the htei'iia) toriide-S One, win. griil'tou-ly lui-.-aled 
Himsett t.> him latht I'crflll ■■! tit. ^il.-tit Teaclui" 
(V. i), uf old He yj>|'Cai vtl i'"/,-/c i. '-M'-it , to 
the siist'i ulid -it the -ti.'iii-biii.yaii-l in 1- \vt 
is ihe Lord free J rum all .itls !'■ He is the Abso- 
lute. It is Hi' eht.Jijf* the gJ'aejou- 8u,:H, that acts. 

The and the Lord ;i|juarently distinct, but in 
fact nun -dual, the Soul " not even tor he twinkling 
of an L'\t havi>i» mteiligence of its ow "and owing 
its intelligent'!, wholly tu Him, and finally by ]li = 



Grace merging in Him and attending there non-dual 
(v. 20), He, all the while remaining unaffected as the 
magnet is unaffected by the iron which it energizes 
or as the sun by the flower which opeus under the 
genial influence of its rays,— this is the doctrine 
of the Saira Siddhiinta, that is, the more ancient 
interpretation of the Vrdi'mta than that which now 
passes as the VvdthUa, the interpretation, in fact 
by which Masters like Tiyutnanavar harmonize and 
reconcile the seemingly conflicting positions of the 
Vedantic and Saira SiddhiLntic schools (Gaipir/ifl &? 

In the Siva-jufhia-bodkam, which is the greatest of 
the Saiva scriptures in Southern India, the Highest 
Love (Para Bhaktt) is based on the- soul's recogni- 
tion of the non-duality and of its debt to the Lord. 
The Lord, standing non-dual with the soul, enables it 
not only to know external objects hat also to know 
itself and Him. " Therefore must the soul place 
Highest Love in its benefactor." " By unfading love 
that forgets not this non-duality will be reached the 
feet of the Lord." 

This song of Tayumanavar is the expression of that 
Highest Love and of the bliss of the realization of that 
non-duality. Only such as he have attained " Liberty, 
Equality, Paternity", and in a truer sense than is 
understood by those who talk oi it in the West. To 
him there are no distinctions, for he eeeth his 
Beloved everywhere. 

ueKfearen Lfaeaa' u&ireu&t wis0irth 
ti-i sbs em (Jo\> /§ ea Got qk sir £u&.6uffr&Qii> t 

" Whatsoever the eye seeth is Thou. Whatsoever 
the hand doeth is Thy worship. What the month 
uttereth is Thy praise. The earth and other elements 
and ail living things are Thy gracious forms, Lord." 

P. A. 

<^,63T J&& ids erfl u u . 
A Bevel ra Bliss. 

&th&!r 9-sse tm&tt #=uiq. 
,$£ if.'gj^liif ma® - M siesi& 

aires isp traiujB enndjSan ,s960«>(g<6j 
Q&ir$ QmsireSuJniup Qpuer - jysussr 

O^tA'oDc^ cvtriTgijir: < r emu& O # a fin (SSj^tct^l Q^irtSAris) 

1 . The Light which is the beginning and has no 
beginning, which shines in me as Blis3 and Intelli- 
gence, appeared as the Silent One* He spake unto 
me, sister, words not to be spoken. 

S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu S'iva 

S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu.t 

Q&itekenrfQ&n&i GsiQpBsrjpi Q^treeQevea - ereirdars 1 

fjftjBp&Qh&iu QfbQiuSesiLi upjBsQ&nsai i — itfrvtQ.. (#s)) 

2. The words that were spoken how shall I tell ? 
Cunningly He seated me all alone, with nothing 
before me. He made me happy, dear, he canght hold 
of me, and clung to me. 

S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu S'iva 
S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu. 

ujsjBtu upppsyshGsir - fte&t&Du 

u<bp&Q&<rm fg)B«upj8u uai'pp fSi—fiQf 
Quppsap QajQg esr jp Q&ireoQeusm - f/QjpU) 

3. " Thy clingings pat aside, cling to me within/' 
He said. What I got as I clung to Him, how shall 

I tell ? He spake things that should never fee spoken, J 

S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu S'iva 

S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu. 

Qu&ir «9 f Bii«3u*s»f Qu&& - G-ppu 

Quiuma witSu iSfipjS/S fd&mQpsr 

asrut_uSfcstrA Sjj<?tp aJi^sSsQsstsimi—weaai.. {&&.*) 

4. Speaking fearful things that should not be 
spoken, jabbering I wandered, just a devil-ridden 
body. Driving away the devil desire, the Lord held 
me down at His feet, dear. 

S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu S'iva 
S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu. 

Af<—4@u i^&sjtu (SiRfiQfi,- JjGi 

UBL^dSsQsnsm t^nQe&esr&trp peirg/itl. - &pjpiw 

wtrujGu&tr ausnraar lditlj^ Q»iupaeisq.. (*«•) 

• Mawna Gum, "the Silent Teacher" w&a the name of tie Sniat's 

t Names of God. Sfantara c&neing happiness; S'ambhu being for 
happiness, canaing happiness ; S'iva, auspicious, happy. 

t " And confessedly great is the mystery of godliness." Saint 
Paul's first Epistle to Timothy III, 16. 



5. Holding down, withdrawing the eeaie», I ohe- 
rifched lore toward Hi* person. Into Himself He bent 
me, nater, and blended with me so that I could not 
apeak at all. 

S'ankara S'ankara B'ambhn 8'iva 
S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu, 

tar mum Q-tSfpartir 0«<J.Ci_er - Qpaup 

owaJefiC®* Qfrit*4)$.A B/ttjQwari SsuSw 
*fmf U(TifaAg/r~La*}t$eir - a alters 

6. Blending, my race He has ruined.* I am 
undone. If I apeak of it openly, farewell to happi- 
ness. Bat no lemau is He, sister. Lo, He is my 
guardian God, the Supreme. 

S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu S'iva 
S'ankara S'ankarajS'ambhu, 

«c_«fi«r u>«i-a9a9r(— Qfiarar - @(ffl 

csir«3 unsemkpm atarafr Qta&u 
S-t—jtLn Ljm&jf wra - srrar 

7. Like sea that has burst its banks, my eyes 
shedding tears of bliss, the hairs of -my body standing 
on end, my heart melting, — thus He contrived, iny 

S'ankara S'ankara S'atnbhn S'iva 
S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu. 

•.ejrfrj-^ lSwcoje tutsLitjfitir 

tittrimj! sun ni or gtsvaasai— Qgi-jenTLO 
fmCtmter^ Q^ffeueSQiuar Ssrtuear - erssrhzp 

8. " Whatsoever thou seest objectively before thee 
as real and as unreal, cast away," said my Lord, and 
He made me Himself. Behold His cleverness, sister. 

S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu S'iva 
S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu , 

uoiSffi ^ifltuis safari ojaiata 

9. " The earth and the other elements art thou 
not. Reflect. The organs of sense and action and 
the inner organs thou art not- Thou art the 

• The Bonl, losing its characteristic mint, hns become divine. 

Intelligence vrhiofa investigate* and knows."* The 
words that the Lord said in love are bliss indeed, 

S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu S'iva 

S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu. 

JfflirL/(T£m **w uncut QmtuujGBr - «?ujfw 
paBus ptQ QgcB ed?u9ai *Bfu0pnm - &ertisp& 

1 1'. To those who love Him, He is love, He is true, 
is ray Lord. The blissful, silent One, the gracious 
Master, placed His foot on my head. Lo, I knew 
myself. I died to thought. 

S'ankara S'ankara S'ambha S'iva 
S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu. 

$,81-11 f to tSpuuw QutQiif - feaa 

11. Death and birth how came they to join me. 
I considered, 1 hey grew, my dear, from the treacher- 
ous, delusive mindt which stands as thought and sleep. 

S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu S'iva 

S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu. 

warQfiatH eofQeimrd serO(tp - Qpajeu 
Qtow&r QQa/itQ 6igf)m& srnlia, 

gwsrgei Q<a/a>tr& f&Q/ifjiamifi /nary., i*™-} 

* Thou art not " the earth and other element*," i. », Che SffcAJa 
Sarira or gross body composed of flesh, bone, blood Ac. whiah are 
resolvable into these elements. 

Than art not (a) the organs of action or (») of senae or (e) the 
" internal " organs, which together constitute the subtle body or 
SUiUh-ma S^Ttra. 

(a) Organs of action (fiTnriiitrtrfWyu) are bond, foot, organ of 
voice, organ of generation, orpn of ouretisn. 

(b) Organs of sense (Jnanfndriva)ntt:'JtbB organs of eight, hearing. 
smell, taste and toacb. 

(c) ' internal organs' (antahJcarantr) axe chitta, mind-stir* ; ma », 
the vibration therein caused by the impact of eitej I objeeta 
conveyed tlironih the organs of sense ; buddhi, the ian-un foUow- 
iny the vibration, the determinative facility; and akan-tura the 
itiea of " I" that flashes with the reaction, the l-m&king faculty - 

;.r) und (i/i atx- not the visible organ* bnt brain centres. 

(r) and [el toscthor cooetiturc what in English psychology is 
called, 'mind,' beinz hmvevor understood to be s anbtlefonn of mat- 
ter, fn verse II I have for wart of a better word translated «- 
iuis us 'mind,' but it is of coarse not correct. When there ia Bo 
vibration (i. t., thought) in the mind-Btulf deep sleep snperTenea in 
ordiuarv mortal*, in all save the Jn&n\. Therefore the mama* Is 
there describedaB ' standing as thought and sleep.' 

Thon art the Son I, fun Intelligence or Spirit, which by the help 
of (<il and (;) is able to know eiternal objects and eiparienoea 
twins and pleasures, and stands apart a* witness of all these ex- 
periences in waking etote, in dream, in deep sleep, and m the two 
further states called Tmriyan and Twvyarttam. 



12. mind, was it not for me that God came 
under the stone-banyan tree* as Silent Teacher and 
with dumb show of Land cured me of acts called my 
acts and placed me in the blissful ocean of His Grace ? 

S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu S'iva 
S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu. 

jffiujitQfi «f^lfOsj«f erjfiawGeit lj tr fi pQ p or 
GjQijGn-irar Qi-iiT^erraaitfi— ^eeenrsu - ««s»i_ 

13. " By Grace behold all things," He said. Not 
understanding, by ray intelligence I beheld, differen- 
tiating. 1 Saw but darkness. I saw not even me the 
seer. What is this, sistev ? 

S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu S'iva 
S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu. 

si so; Sot */ k ^■SBT&ruyio Qs^frrf - aeffer^ 

Qftoxrargi Gi£ftQeuir(irj Q&n®iGe& . j^ib^i 

0#/rei)SD(T«w escorts? sutjimpCZtueir Q&neuQoieir .(&/&>.) 

14. " Of me and thee think not in thy heart as of 
two. Stand undifferentiating." This one word when 
He uttered, how can I tell, my dear, the bliss that 
straight away grew from that word ? 

S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu S'iva 
S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu. 

QtiuiLt- Q en eftis aw ot)?^ gn_L^ ^(merrir/Ei 
-scares: ids &%&' <*£tiS(ir ufr^ Qp «jr - mojiir 

15. The Held where grew the bliss of Sivam, that 
pure space 1 drew near. Weeding the weeds of dark- 
ness, I then looked. Save the Lord's splendour 
naught saw I, sister. 

S'ankara R'ankara S'ambhu S'iva 
S'ankara Sankara S'ambhu. 

iT=Tt:<_<r,'f f?niut-/j$ti ^ntpdao* - (girts 

■jiai&aem iisia^jiEi ftis^i^ais giuSpaeir 

Qstreivi-irirQuiip Q ^ v (eJjjuiii Gungu - [gl.fijj 
(gmtStA^f *ssvQ"t*i J & «.<3>uJ,£ Qpirdti. 


•The manifestation of the Lord (known ns Dak-ikhii-Htrt;) to 
the sagos Sanaka, Sanatkumara &c. 

16. Life, the laughing-stock of all, with both our 
eyes we see it depart. It goes away as in sleep. 
What good, what meritj is there in it, say, sister, 

S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu S'iva 
S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu 

n irfi (r :e -g (Jtoirairtiiff t&ffLLt—tipfi Gjf&fgfj 
&®jQw^l tSeoevftLD QettffVfoiTLfi - euwevtr s& 

17. To foolish me, who know not what is. good, He 
granted to seek after the Stillness pure that is beyond 
the Vibration. He rid me of all unrest, sister, the 
all powerful One, with Hi3 foot He struck my head. 

S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu S iva 
S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu. 

Lxfenr m/7«S«jjeff u gtssiw&ffsw! tSeb Qttr. (#je.) 

IS. The perfect, blissful Light that struck me, 
made me, who am less than atom, — made me by His 
Grace pure fulness that stands, going not nor coming. 
Lo, how wonderful, dear ! 

S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu S'iva 

S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu. 

19. Making, maintaining, destroying, all these 
acts He has, yet they touch Him not, the Mighty One — 
no, not so much as a grain of sesamum. On this 
true Witness 'tis meet to meditate, Bister. 

S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu S'iva 
S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu. 

sr/50 S'ht/f^iir, w"iiiQs - aerari— 

2j"ssi(i^ e/HiresRt—fl jS(j^,i^>^ LanisiG&. (#a/.) 

20. There* thought was born, there thought died 
and became pure. All states are there. There too, I 
the seer stand non-dual. 

S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu S'iva. 
S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu. 

* 1. 1. in that " true Witness," tho Absolute, Sivam. 



HisQimje iBwQsmjt gossrCi-.* - ##fl 

Qf rwirQptr ^fesrwQi—tm jtamfifBu. wnGunr. (*«.) 

21. Is there a there or a here when thoo hast seen 
tin splendour of the 8at-Chit-Anan&a* rise infinite 
and 611 everywhere. Can there be said to be then a 
I* or a *two* T 

B'ankara S'ankara S'ambhn S'iva 
S'ankara S'ankara B'ambhu. 

,u>tfit)iSm cruio - $0SBp 

22. Ever perishing is this body. Why took yon 
it to be real, ye of the world ? Are ye quite foole ? 
If the messenger of Death comes, have yon a reply 
ready f 

S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhn S/iva 
B'ankara S'ankara S'ambhn. 

m.tmQt-t MBmauGureii «£5*=jf-u>«> 
Cfi/Sfi pjptht-i (jpt-tw Quits Jf. 
QermrQi^r i3tB>if,uu filer m&Giur - jygii 

23. Are there each traitors as we f Alas ! taking 
for real this body soaked and flowing over with filth, 
can we be safe here ? Ought we not to take as real 
only the Lord's gracious Form ? 

S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhiT S'iva 
S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhn. 

QeiBKi—rtw oSrttjlJi^ui Qeujuui-jii - Jv&p 
• siri_ir f&eagjif uif-Oiu - *pjp 

24. Away 'with like and dislike- From that bother 
comes birth.t As the Lord said, be qnite still, be pure 
intelligence, , mind. 

S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhn S'iva 
S'ankara S'ankara S'amhbu. 

*Godwho it Sat, the only Reality; Chit, pom intelligence; A'nanda, 
pure blue. "Fore' in the mn of there being no distinction of *nb- 
jeot and object. 

f el. ^rawallnvar. 

"Jtvnr to all goult detire is the incessant seed of birth, 1 

jf0mf® iBdofaGiuir atoiGtutr - trsb&r 

ojfQper pjBtLijp mimimG/f &P0*> 
mifiQfi Mtru>p0<fip 0*S - t,ererr. 

euirtirQl)ir<$ GL~rpa<3mn «wffi<J^@j«w Osji^, (#».} 

25. Oh, is there none who knows ? In this body, 
this region where none knows wno I am, caaght 
alae in the flame of desire, came I hither, sister, to 
lose the noble prize f* 

S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu S'iva 
S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhn. 

*ukp caijrco&J lapikgi - tB&s 

untpi Quifar uJ uaussp0 eiulnati) 
Qt&p LDiudsas aj.juia - craps 

QatseopQinuj^Qtrair Ge/j^jueuirarr Qan®^0'si( #js.) 

26. Forgetting wherefor I came bither,t sunk in 
the delusion of woman and gold and earth, — it was to 
cut off thia delusion that my Father gave me the 
beautifuLsword of true wisdom. 

S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu S'iva 
S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu. 

atfwaQW sasaaSiuH Gl&stsld - iuw 

G&eirir amigfOieiL affi-lt_i«r - eresr e&ehr 

iSdGsirif gipssna dlfivsaGty GptriS 'ft&.\ 

27. The love of lance-eyed woman will asuredly 
feed the fire of hell, — thus thinking, even the god 
of love gave up his body. Ought not others too then 
to give it J up, sister ? 

S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu S'iva 
S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu. 

e8$d(Sjiii i9iru@& Qlcohoitlci - s>#j£ 

u> an Sumgait LDnirds,^ &si> m a p d sG ic n wirG&r. f pth) 

28. All the created nuivei'SL' is but yellow sun- 
shine, say the Veda s and Agamas Those who think 
not so, their ways are evil ways, are tbpy goud ways 

S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu S'iva 
S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhn. 

• Union with God. 

f t. e. the love of woman. 

{ i. t. nnreal. 



0*ru>tid*u><r piitusmta - u>btlo 

^mjH(&u uptyj) QtBteQertJ formes 
ftkterrsm tpfit-i. L-ekpie - Jiaisk 

29. The fascination of evil women clings not, 1 tell 
thee, to the pare in heart. The life of king Janaka 
is witness.* Was his not perfect, eternal bliss ? 

S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu S'iva 

S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu. 

JlfkQpaijSt wirQiDarjp (johw (?<_»■ - e.or« 
siysai^w Ga/e&rtp. ar/$eun&& f*pQ>D 

30- Is there a Yes or a No? If thou wilt have bliss, 
just stand as pure intelligence' aod thou wilt know. 
So, sister, said oar Lord that made the Vedas. 

S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu S'iva 
S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu. 

P. A. 




(Continued from page 126.) 

Madhhika B a oddha's. Statement. 
1 . It is the ten senses that appear as thB body. 
When the senses perish, we cannot point to anything 
else as body, and as such there is no body at all (as a 
substance). As there is no body (substance) there is 
no such thing as Intelligence united to the body. 
Snch are the ridiculous statements made by the 

His Refutation. 

1. The parts or attributes (jteutusuw) present in a 
pot are not preseut in a cloth and vice versa • that 
which is present in each, saving its identity, is sub- 
stance tjjsuiudi). These two form the substance or the 
body, as such not only is there a body, but also an in- 
telligent soul. 

2. (In Sushupti) though the senses and sensations 
and objects are ever present yet no perception (know- 
ledge) is possible as the soul is not in. union with the 
senses. When the soul unites with the senses (inter- 

* i. c. is pro6f that a man can live amid the luxuries and tem- 
ptations of a magnificent court, and yet be wiBfi and pure. Janaka 
wod» king resorted to by even great riehis for spiritual help. 

nal and external), then perception is possible. As-Bub. 
both Soul and its Intelligence is Sat. 

Yaibeashika Bauddha's Statement. 
1. As redness results when saffron and lime we 
mixed together, so the visible world arises when the 
perceptive intelligence and objects of perception unite : 
ThTs is Gnana Darsan. Those who perceive this clear- 
ly will attain Nirvana without doubt. So asserts 
lovingly the Vaibhashika. 

His Reputation. 
1. The objects are external and the mind internal, 
as such these two cannot unite. The mind is besides 
formless (Arnpa) and the objects have form. As such 
too, they cannot unite. The Vaibhashika who asserts 
otherwise has no more to say. 

Geneeai Remakes. 
Thanks to the labour of European scholars, the 
books relating to Buddhism occupy considerable space 
in any oriental Library and no religion has received 
so much attention in Europe and America and. in 
India, in recent times aa Buddhism. It has attracted 
the fancy of large classes of Europeans who emerging 
as they do from a form of gross ^materialism and not 
being prepared to believe in a future life or God yet 
wish to have a beautiful fantasy to toy with, for the 
moment. We won't believe in a Soul or God. We 
will believe in man, in perfected man; Perfected Hu- 
manity shall be our goal. In current modern European 
thought, there is however a divergence ; and that is 
because the national ideals of the European and 
Gautama are different. Gautama's countrymen have 
always considered life a burden, ' all is Pain, Pain,' 
and they wait for the first occasion when they can 
free themselves from the bonds of birth and death. 
On the other hand, the European Would not consider 
his life worth living if there was not some ray of 
pleasure to be eked out at all events ; and his whole 
aim is in fact to seek and add to the snmmum of 

1 . Itadhmlka is called Hadhyamika in Buddhist Text books. Ho 
seems to be a thorough. going Nihilist altogether. Tbia aohool wa« 
originated by Nagarjnna (B. C.43) of the Tibetan Mahayana school. 
Hardy Bays " The philosophers in India had taught either a perpe- 
tual duration or a total annihilation with respect to the soul. He 
chose a middle way, hence the name of this sect." The' work which 
bears his name in China is called "Central Shaatra" (chung-lou) and 
was translated into Chinese in the fifth century after Qhriit. This 
system reduces everything to bald abstractions and then denies 
them. The bouI has neither existence nor non-existence. It is 
neither permanent nor non-permanent. 

Vaibhashika literally means Tirvddha Bhaska, (absurd language), 
one who rejects every other view except his own as absurd, s aohool 
which seems to have only too many follower*, even now. 



Happiness, and we find Max Narda.ii preach the new 
and ten* Gospel of Humanity, according to which 
A very body shorn oft of all lies, shall enjoy the maximum 
■of pure unalloyed pleasure, by means of song and 
dance and mnsic and other social organizations. This 
is a modern evolution oat of the old Lokayata and 
Buddha, and the place of Buddhism placed next 
to the Lokayata by all Hindu writers is eaeilv per- 
ceived. Tbe order is not a chronological one bnt 
purely a psychological one. And it will be nsefnl to 
remember here generally that' thongh our Hindn books 
old and new very often neglect to record historical 
dates and events, yet they ere valuable, as no histories 
of any other nations are, in recording the mental history 
and evolution of the race and of an individual man. 
game writers hare also been misled by the mere order 
in arranging the six systems of Philosophy that one 
school is older than the one succeeding it. It will be 
certainly older if we are to count man's age backwards 
and not forwards as we do. Maturity is not old age. 
II is ever fresh. It is old age that is second child- 
hood. The Lokayata is the gluttonous and selfish 
child, and the Bauddha the thinking and generous 
youth; when life's troablea and temptations beset, it 
remains to be sefin whether he will break or grow 
into robust manhood retaining his generosity and 
purity. The youth rashly vowb that he will remain 
pure and trne, when be does not know what the 
strength and allurements of vice are. But unless he 
does, at that very stage, sow in himself good seeds, 
and what is most important, allow them to take firm 
root iu good soil, all his labour will be lost. 

We now turn to the personality of Buddha, and we 
may be allowed to offer our hnmble homage at his 
aaered feet. "We have the greatest respect for the 
purity and unselfishness and nobility of his life. 
What is often forgotten by his admirers aud opponents 
is that he was a Hindu, and a Hindu of Hindus, 
and as Dr. Rhys Davids pots it, he was the greatest- 
and wisest and beet of the Hindus. In his own 
time, he was honoured by the princes and peoples 
all alike. They did not care what doctrines he 
preached, provided Ms character was pure and answer- 
ed to their ideal of righteousness. Sri Krishna 
places tbe Nudshwara Sankhya, Kapila, among the 
first of Sagas. Is it because he approved of his 
theory T No, he often takes trouble to refute it 
Jamini was an arrant atheist, and he was a great 
Maharishi. And to-day, we see the same trait in the 

Hindu. It does not matter whether he~ is a Mahotne- 
dan or Christian, if only he leads a saintly life, we 
know how tbe Hindus will flock round him. And what 
capital, do not impostors make out of this by don- 
ning a Kashaya and sitting in ashes, and by pretend- 
ing mounam, thongh they cannot read and write a 
syllable. Need we wonder therefore if Buddha Gau- 
tama was also regarded as a great Bishi, who had a 
particular mission to fulfil in life ? The story goes it 
was Vishnu who incarnated as Buddha to preach his 
doctrines to the Tripura Asuras. In his own days 
Buddha was not considered as a heretic by the Hin- 
dus, nor did he regard himself as any other than a 
Hindu, just bo as in the case of the revered Galilean, 
Jesus Christ. It was in the days of his followers and 
after the various councils, they Beceded completely 
from the Hindus. Buddha was indifferent as to what 
they ate and when they drank and how they dressed, 
provided they cleansed themselves of desire, likes aud 
dislikes, and when this g^fifiSarOttJinJL/ ia obtained, 
no one need consider what to go to or attain next. 
But Gautama calculated without his host when he 
constructed his beautiful structure on such Blender 
basis. Could any religion be stable which is not 
built on the rock of a future life and that Bock of 
Ages ? What was the result ? The noble brotherhood, 
so fondly thought of, fell into dissensions even in his 
own days, and controversies raged hot subsequently 
on such questions as to the time of eating, kind of 
food, kind of dress, place of ordination, owning of 
property &c. Ac, and the followers of each school 
called tbe others heretics and followers of Mara, and 
hurled denunciations on their heads. .And in spite 
of Buddha's denunciation of rituals and priestcraft, 
a close and rigid hierarchy with elaborate rituals came 
into existence and they have invented more heavens 
and more hells and Gods than are to be met with in 
the stories of all other nations put together. And 
the system had become so corrupt even in its birth- 
place that it had to be removed out of the country, 
root and branch. Dr. Khys Davids says, "We hear 
of no persecutions till long after the time of Asoka, 
when Buddhism had become corrupt." And we won't 
say that there were no persecutions in India. But 
people should not go off with the idea that a persecu- 
tion in India was at all anything like the ones we 
hear of in European HiBtory. It was quite a tame 
affair. It was more social than political. And a re- 
ligions revolution was in a sense much more easilv 
accomplished in those days than now. From several 



Periyapuraw incidents, it would seein that both on the 
part of the Buddhists and the Hindus, the sole aim 
was to convert the king of the country, and when that 
was accomplished, they say the whole people had also 
been converted. So in either way the conversion 
could not at best be more than nominal. Oar own 
belief is that the people, the laity, not those who 
clustered in Monasteries, had never been converted 
into Buddhism. The king turned a Buddhist and all 
the people styled themselves also Buddhists. This 
will account for the boasted spread of Buddhism id 
all India. However, the conflict came at last, and it 
is in Southern India, we have authentic accounts of 
such C'irflicts from the 1st century after Christ, though 
European Scholars know very little about it. The 
southern kingdoms were very powerful- in thoso days 
and they were extending their arms north and south. 
Inscriptions record the conquest of Vatapi, the modern 
Hittlsitni in Boml :iy Presidency, and Ceylou was con- 
.jtu-red wore than once. And Buddhism seems to have 
been introduced into Southern India from Ceylon. 
And if we take the period of Manickavachaka as the 
first century nfter Christ, in his life indeed we meet 
with the first conflict between Hinduism and Bud- 
.lhism. And the fight was won by the miraoulous cure 
uf the dumb daughter of the King of Ceylon at 
{"liidamb:iram. The account is given in f nil detail in 
I'lnivadiivnrar pnraunm, to which reference can be 
i>i;ute. In our recent visit to Ceylon we found that 
rlie tradition of the cure of the dumb Princess is well 
known to the native Sinhalese. Later on, Jainism 
seems to have been on the ascendant, and the Tamil 
Sui tit Apnar was a prominent Jain before his re- 
conversion, and was styled as Dharraa-sena. After 
Lis reconversion, he was himself bitterly persecuted 
by the King of Pataliputm at the instigation of tlit= 
Ihtddhist (Jain) monks. His contemporary was the 
1 »r«it Guana Sambandha and he reconverted the King 
■J Pundi, Kun Pandya, by performing various mira- 
ett?*, and irave a complete route to the Bmldhista, 
This occurred in the early years of the sixth century, 
and in addition to the arguments adduced by the 
i'rofe.-sor Sundram Pilbii and Mr. Venkayya, we 
nuiv point, to the fact that the Chinese traditions and 
l:i<tijfv point to the fact that in A. D. 52G, Bodhi- 
Dlia.-ma, who was a native of Southern India, and 
laboured long there, had to leave it for China, and 
the reason is assigned to bo persecution at the hands 
<jf the Brahmans. And it is also related in his life 
that he was more a Juin than a Buddhist, though 

he promulgated a much modified form of it in 
China. And neither Buddhism nor Jainism ever 
reared its head again in Southern India, thongh the 
few who remained were never molested, but, on the 
other hand, were honoured with grants by kings even 
in much later times. The stories of Sankara and 
Ramaauia having routed out Buddhism are more 
apocryphal than true ; they could not have been more 
than dialectical feats at any rate. There is reason to 
think however in the case of Sankara that he might 
have got hold of the few remaining seats of Buddhism 
in Northern India and established his own Mathatna 
in imitation of the Buddhist Monasteries. We hear of 
no Mathams before the days of SankaTa at all. 

The morality of Buddhism has received very high 

praise from high quarters. Professor Max Mailer says — 
,c The moral code of Buddhism is one of the most per- 
fect the world has ever known." But the Buddhist mo- 
ral code is feebleness itself when compared to the Cin- 
fucianist. But its sanctions are very weak ; and its 
power for good cm various peoples has not been 
proved. Except in the case of Burmah, it hasnot im- 
proved the moral condition of the people. In China, 
says Dr. Edkins, " What virtue the people have among 
them ia due to the Confucian system." Col. Olcott's 
own statistics show that the morality of the Singalese 
is much inferior to that of the Hindus, and a visit to Cey- 
lon will amply demonstrate the fact. Even in Bur- 
mah, Dr. Edkins remarks, "The power shown by Bur- 
mese to win the faith of the Burmese, i should rather 
trace to the superiority of the Hindu race over the 

mountain tribes of Indo-Chinese Peninsula The 

superiority of Hindu arts and civilizations helped Bud- 
dhism to make this conquest." Bishop Bigandet says -. 
" The Burmese want the capability to understand the 
Buddhist metaphysics. If the Buddhist moral code in 
itself has the power to influence a people so far as to 
render them virtuous and devotional independently o£ 
the element of intellectual superiority, we still lack 
the evidence of it." 

And after all, what was Buddhism, but the 
child, the product of Hinduism ? And " so far 
from showing," remarks Dr. Rhys Davids, "how 
depraved and oppressive Hinduism was, it shows 
precisely the contrary : for none will deny that 
there is much that is beautiful and noble in 

J. M. Nallaswami Pjllai, b. a,, b, l. 
(To le continued.) 





O E 

Siddhanta "Deepika. 



""Ye are The Temple op God." 

' fl&ajwtu nQtifWiS u«reSsi)r jtar#)LDn3& 

Gufi'jjx Qjjswit&u Qzjtanrgp/LDir ujjggiLDiTSu 
Gutr&uir i&ptffji^uustLj Oun^rst-Ui Quit pjSQullpjS. 

Thou, the beginning, the middle, the limitless 

The Lisfbt, and the Wisdom, and all things mani- 

The Indivisible One, The female and the male. 
Glory, Glory to Thy Dance in the intellectual 
Region of Universalis™, Tillni. 

JVpi-lps QsnetSis- (lhJukidd j StF-fj&fiFQieaMrii 

Qu^pLf— c*i—Q)'2m<ijQzi' pQik-tip*' Glji p/BGuftpfi. 

Thou the Light from which speech and thought 
turn back, The very Form of Grace, 

Th« Wonderful Presence, The Crown resting on 
the rare Vedasiras, 

In the beautiful Chit Sahha of Chit Para Vyoma, 

Thon dost dance delightedly. Glory, Glory to Thy 
tinkling Foot. 

.■SeoiwOiu ten zt-.^Qil {pa- ^a(»i. r-ffl 

£ ..-m 3fejr uj n ff p%j Glomus ii tShfuQuztf o.50*u>, 
•jtotms eSfiJTij**-* #**--*-:$s*i »trSG rt .«Jipr 

Issr^sSsR '£l{0,Tt.;i, j 'i'JiTPPgJ *w *»•' 


Thou Imperishable Triple Form, and Formless! 

Thou Supreme, 
Intelligence working steadfast in the six Form's 

of Religion ! 

Who could know Thee after raising the curtain 

of Maya ? 
Thou doet dance in the hearts of Those who 

think of Thee, 
Thou art the Priceless Jewel ; Thou my eye ; 

Thon, the Supreme Panacea, 
Thou the ocean of Cbinmudra Wisdom, who 

didst teach the four ancient sons, Mauna 

Gnana from under the sacred Banyan tree : 

Thou the Deva of Devas. 

The first two verses we quote from Saint Sekkilar's 
Periyapuran and the last from Saint Tayumanavar, 
in praise of the famous Temple at Chidambaram and 
the sacred mysteries contained therein. We have 
elsewhere observed that even if we have lost oui 
books on Veda and Vedanta, we could evolve the 
whole thing ngrJn from the symbols we possess, pro- 
vided we had the tiny key to unlock these sacred 
mysteries. The hoariest and most ancient wisdom is 
thus enshrined iu these unmistakable symbols, and 
when we understand them aright, we are enabled to 
test and know which is the line philosophy and which 
is the true Religion, surrounded as we are to-day by a 
multitude of Religious and Philosophies conflicting in 
themselves and yet claiming to be the most ancient and 
the truest. It is the most unfortunate thing in India., 
and in Indian Religion that the Mine books and the 
same text furnish the authority and the nuttetion for 
everv existing phase of belief and thought, and when 
this infix is templed with such a hi ind ignoring of what 
is pasr and what is modern, and when rh« materials 
for applying such an hi-tnrieal test are not very con- 
siderable, the Task of deciding which is the tine Inter- 
pretation and which is false is rendered Very difficult, 
thouo'li 7 )ot impossible, and trio value of a test a< 
indicuu'd above c'liiuot be lost right yt. In intei- 
pretin<.' document*, tin* ride onyht u<j doubt to be, tiiat 
where the words are plain and unambiguous, the plain 
mean i n k of th" words ought to be uinde to prevail and 
no casnUtrv could be allowed to mar the Hfet'fs of its 
plain uKTining. It miily when the words are 

EiSlbigu'itis uiiy interpretation as to its real meaning 
by oilier evidence is p,i-mi-sible at all. Then agiun 
when we begin to eu'jum- into the truth of any parti- 
cular custom and tradition, we 'ind how difficult il '-> 



to arrive at an uniform conclusion, when we have to 
rely on mere oral evidence ; aod any documentary 
evidence (we use it in the strictly legal sense) 
if available, is of the utmost importance, and the older 
the document is, tht? greater the value thereof. Then 
again consider the difference between the verbal 
accounts of a dozen people who witnessed a particular 
scene all at the same time, and the actual sceDe pho- 
tographed by an ordinary Kodak. We might be 
sure to discover discrepancies and contradictions in 
the oral testimony, though it might be perfectly honest. 
Of course, there might be exceptionally trustworthy 
witnesses, as there might be untrustworthy cameras. 
The test we have proposed above, may as such be 
seen to possess all the elements of an old'and ancient 
dornuient and a trusty camera. And more so, when 
we know, as a matter of fact, that the written lauguage 
of primitive mankind consisted of picture only. 
The most ancient Sumerian, the Chaldean, the Egyp- 
tian and the Chinese were all pictorial languages ; 
and it is well known that these were the people who 
have tried to loave their highest thoughts on Religion 
and philosophy behind them in pictures and Btatues 
and monuments. 

In proceeding therefore to unravel the mysteries 
connected with our symbolism, we must confess, that 
the task is not one which we can conscientiously think 
of adequately discharging. In attempting the impos- 
sible therefore, we have no other excuse than the one 
which Sage Sekkilar had before him : 

M&eBeartmr jpuuu eia>p>(irj<Jmtts ." 

" Though impossible to reach its limits 
Insatiate love drives me to the task." 

Before we do so however, we have to get clear of 
two sets of men, who pester us often with their cant. 
One of such will raise the cry of sectarianism, and 
the other, with the catchword revivalism. There are 
some very estimable people belonging to both these 
classes we admit, as well as their sincerity, but with 
most it is all mere cant, pore and unmitigated cant. 
They believe neither in the one nor in the other ; 
they have neither inclination nor wish to study and 
think, and panse and enquire into the truth of things. 
They are themselves sectarians, so blind that they 
will not acknowleSge themselves to be such; They 
start with the inborn conviction that this is trash 
and they have no patience with those who will honest- 

ly differ from them, and they dutch at a word, a 
phrase, to kick up a dust, with the evident object of 
besmearing the other side. No doubt, there is a sort of 
scepticism which we prize much, a scepticism which 
will lead one to doubt and inquire into the truth of 
thingB and not to scorn and scoff at everything. And 
in our inmost heart, we do not wiBh to wound the feel- 
ings of a siugle person, of whatever shade of opinion 
he may be- And is not the present inquiry solely 
devoted to reach 'the region of universal ism,' "Ouir^ 
uselrjt" where, in the words of our Sage Tayoma- 

" usiaiSiu ^ju&v loeirjiitl. uitirpp Qt-iirg&HTSf 

every religionist comes and bows in adoration 
of the One Supreme, saying they Bee no symbols of 
any creed but all Ahas ? And he states in the previ- 
ous lines that he reached this region, after looking in 
vain ia every creed and in every path for that Pure. 
Spirit which seeks to reconeile with the path of 
noblest knowledge, all the bitter conflicting creeds 
and religions. 

'• «drtairo«« ^esrm^ek Qur($etrttlD e£p 

ufiBTtDirifi* Qil/£nSf&3tiB *esari— jde&fa." 
And the place is worth atrial visit even to-day, for 
does not Tayumanavar record his experience, that 
his stony heart melted into love and bliss, the moment 
he saw the holy presence ? 

" *ffl7ta»jfa* Qisfgj&Qpf* Qtuests^w pirQar 

This has not been his experience only, of believers 
alone. Ages back, scoffers and atheists have felt the 
power of this Presence, and it is recorded of the great 
Atheist Guru, Jaimini, that when he approached, all 
his unbelief left him and he composed his song of 
Vedapadastavam. And though there are thousands of 
temples all over the land;, the heart of every true 
believer has always turned with love and longing to 
this centre spot. And it is believed that Chidambaram 
occupies a central geographical position between the 
northern and southern extremes of India including 
Ceylon. And corresponding to this position in the 
macrocosm, Arumuga Navalar observes that in the 
human microcosm also, the place points to the region 
of Sushumna between Ida and Pingal* nadis. There 
is another centre of heat and vitality and light in 
the human body, and that is the heart. And 



the heart is the most vital and delicate organ in 
the whole system. Every other organ requires its 
help for its nourishment and upkeep. It is saved and 
protected from many an ill, by its position, which 
every other organ is exposed to ; bnt that is because 
that, whereas life can be prolonged even after injury 
to every other organ, the life ebbs out the instant the 
heart is injured And then, is not the heart, the seat 
of love, love pure and undefiled? Pity, kindness, mercy, 
Grace are all different shades of this one Love, Jfan-/, 
Bhakti, faith. Is there any thing else that can compete 
with this Supreme Principle? Knowledge, you may ex- 
claim, witL_its Beat in the brain. We dare say ' not,' 
The slightest injury to the heart completely paralyses 
the brain. And the pulsation in the brain itself rises 
and-falk with the beat of the heart., itself.' It is the 
one organ in the body which is ever active, and knows 
no rest when everything else including the brain 
undergoes rest. And in human nature also, what is 
there which love cannot quicken ? It can give life to 
the despairing aid the lifeless, strength to the weak, 
courage to the coward; and instances have not 
been wanting to show what extraordinary feats, of 
intellect, love has been the cause of. The whole World 
is bound by the heart much more than by the in- 
tellect alone. And Mrs. Humphrey Ward has portrayed 
in glowing words the difference between the man 
of intellect and the man of heart in her Robert 
JSlsemere* There the man of intellect pines in secret and 
in his pride for that very touch which makesthe whole 
world kin. And it is in this heart, all mankind have 
liked to build a temple for the Most High("And the 
only requisite is that this heart be pure. And the 
moment this heart is pnre there the light from the 
Invisible Akas will shine, dispelling the darkness 
that blinds the eye and enabling it to see. 

" Q«ust3u_'ff«w /fwaruxw Qj.sfi^^ «5jsfii&»*j/7 

" Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see 
God" said Lord Jesus. And the sage who composed 
the Taitriyaka Upanishad sun? long before him : 
" Satyam Gnanam Anantam Brahma, Yoveda Nihi- 
tam Guh&yam, Paramevyoroan." 

" He who knows Brahman, which is Sat, which is 
Chit, and which is endless (Bliss), as hidden in the 
cave (of the heart) in the highest Akas, he enjoys all 
blessings at one with the Omniscient Brahman." And 
the most mystical and the oldest of the Upanishads, the 

Chandogya, also repeats the same instruction. Would 
you like to know what that one thing is which you 
have to search for and to know, and when you have 
to search for it and how to know it ? Hear. " There 
is the Brahmapura (body) and iu it the Dahara 
(palace), of the lotus (Pundarika) of the heart, and iu 
it that Antar Akasa. Now what exists iu this Akas, 
that is to be sought after, that is to be understood." 

" As large as this Akas is, so large is that Akas 
within the heart. Both heaven and earth are contain- 
ed in it; both fire and air ; both sun and moon ; both 
lightniDg and stars; and whatever there is. of Him in 
this world, and whatever is»not, all that is contained 
within it." (VIII, 1. 123-) In an earlier chapter, this 
Supreme Being is called "the Intelligent, whose body 
is Prana, whose form is Light (Jyoti), whose thoughts 
are true, who is like Akas (omnipresent and invisible), 
from whom all works, all desires, all sweet odours, 
and tastes proceed; the Atma within the heart, 
smaller than a corn of rice, smaller than a corn of 
barley, smaller than a mustard seed, smaller than a 
canary seed, or the kernel oF a canary seed ; also 
the Atma within the heart, greater than the earth, 
greater than the sky, greater than the Heaven, greater 
than all these worlds" (III. 14. 223). In a later 
passage, it says that "He who is called Akas is the 
revealer of all forms and names ; That within which 
these forms and names are contained is the Brahman, 
the immortal, the Atma." (VIII. 18. 1.) The 
following verse occurs in the Katha (I. 2. 20.), 
Svetaswatara (III, 20.) and Mahopanishad and the 
same is reproduced in the Sivapurana, 

" Smaller than small yet greater than great, in the 
heart (Guha) of this creature, Atma orlsa doth repose ; 
That free from desire, he sees, with his grief gone, the 
Lord and His might, by His favour." In the Kaivalyo- 
panishud the same is reproduced, in the following 
words : " Beyond the heavens, yet shining in the heart 
(Guha) of his creatures. Him the sages free from 
desire, reach." Sri Krishna also imparts this most 
secret of secrets to his pupil, that " Ishwara dwelleth 
iu the hearts of all beings, O Arjuua, by his maya, 
causing all beings to revolve, as though mounted on 
a potter's wheel/' and importunes him to dee to him 
to secure Supreme Peace by his grace. The manner 
of occupying this seat or dwelling place is elsewhere 
referred to in the 13th and 9th discourses, 32nd and 
6th verses respectively and theRe three or four verses, 
bring out the whole of the Upanishad thoughts." As the 



Omnipresent Aktua is not soiled, by reason of its 

subtlety, so seated everywhere Ml the body, the Self is 

not soiled." "The support of beings and not rooted in 

Beings, my Atma, their efficient cause ; as rooted in 

the Akasa the mighty nir moves everywhere, so all 

things rest rooted in me." This Supporter, Permitter 

and Spectator andEnjoyer is styled Maheshvera, Para- 

matman and Parama Pnr-asha in verse 22, chapter 13. 

Another verse in the Chan&ogya says that Gayatri is 

the body and the heart, because in it all the spirits are 

established. No wonder therefore that in almost every 

page of the Tamil Veda, and the writings of the later 

Tamil saints, that God's truest dwelling place, his 

house, his palace, hiB s"eat is universally referred to as 

the haman heart. " tifesruusui tneaw Q&aaSsin&Qsnesa 

<_air." And so it is that the famous Shrine we are 

speaking of is by preeminence called " &(§iG*iruSa>* 

The beautiful House/' inasmuch ns 4 it is also called 

* Pnndarika Veedn" l/«w<_^*^®, the house of lotus-, 

ot Dakar*, Veedn also. And to-day we will stop, 

after identifying, this Golden Palace in Chidambaram 

with the Hnman heart spoken of in the most 

ancient writings, and we will speak of the great King 

and Lord who is the Dweller in this Palace and his 

characteristics in a future issue. 


Primitive Religion of Mankind. 

{Continued, from page 134.) 

The soul that thus mourns over his past sins, cannot 
be the son! of an unbeliever. This cannot be the sigh i-f 
a heart debased with the foul worship of idols. No, in 
the dawn of humanity, in the twilight that preceded 
historical times, men still kept alive the notion of one 
true God. 

Your forefathers marching down as in battle array from 
the North-West of India into the land of the Seven 
Rivers, iuto the Sapta-sindhu, made the air ring with the 
songs of the early Vedic poets. Bat those hymns, those 
prayers, still bore the mark of the primeval belief in one 
sole God. In vain, in those early Vedic poems, you look 
for the Gods that people the present Hindu pantheon. 
You fail to read there the names of the Gods Shiva and 
Vishnu; the deified heroes of Puranic literature hid not 

* It ia interesting to note that the chief Temple in Mecca is called 
'a! Caaba', literally meaning, 'The House' and the Hebrew word for 
tbe great Temple at Jerusalem also meant simply 'The HouBe ' 

" The bouBe of God." 

yet arisen to turn out of the heart of those ancient Aryas 
the helief in, and love of, the one true God. This is the 
conclusion at which the learned Colebrooke arrived, after 
having for many years made the Vedic literature his de- 
light. " The deities invoked," he s»ys, " appear, on a 
cursory inspection of the Vedas, to 

The religion of the ^e as various as the Authors of 
ancient Hindus. 

the prayers addressed to them: 

but according to the most ancient annotations of the Indian 
scripture those numerous names of persons and things are 
all resolvable into different titles of three deities, and 
ultimately of one God. Tbe Nighanty, or glossary of the 
Vedas, concludes with three lists of names of deities : the 
first comprising such as are deemed synonymous with fire : 
the second with air, and the third with the sun (Nighanti 
or first part of the Niructa c. 5). In the last part of the 
Niructa, which entirely relates to deities, it is twiee 
asserted that there are but three Gods : " Tisra eva 
devatah " The further inference that these signify but one 
deity, is supported by many passages in the Vedas and is 
very clearly and concisely stated in the beginning of the 
index: to the Rig Veda, on the authority of the Niructa and 

of the Veda itself It is deducible therefore 

from texts of the Indian scriptures, that the ancient Hindu 
Religion, as founded on the Indian scriptures, recognises 
but one God, yet not sufficiently discriminating the creator 
from the creature." (Colebrooke H. I. on the Vedas page 
26, 11. Madras 1871, Higginbothamand Co.) The same 
opinion about the Indian scriptures is held by Sir W. Jones. 
" It must always be remembered," says he, that the learned 
Indiana, as they are instructed by their, own books, in 
truth acknowledge only one Supreme Being, whom they 
call Brahma or the great one, in tbe neuter gender ; they 
believe his essence to be infinitely removed from the compre- 
hension of any mind but his own ; and they suppose him 
to manifest his power by the operations of his divine 
spirit ; whom they name Vishnu, the Pervader in the mas- 
culine gender, whence he is often denominated the first 

male When they consider the divine power 

exerted in creating, or in giving existence to that which 
existed not before, they call him the deity Brahma, in the 
masculine gender also ; and when they view him in the 
light of destroyer, or rather, Changer of forms, they give 
him a thousand names of which Siva, Isa or Tswara, 
Rndra, Hara and Mahadeva are the most common. (Sir 
W. Jones, Discourse on the Gods of Greece, Italy and India). 
I fancy myself transported back some three thousand 
years to tlie land of the first Aryan settlers in the 
country of the Seven Rivers. I hear the Vedic .Poet 
' s^g'^g !» s morning hymn to Hiranya Garbha, the Lord 
of Heaven, the Supreme Being, the sole maker of Heaven 
and Earth : — 

" What God shall we adore with sacrifice 1 
Him let u 3 praise the golden child that rose 



In the beginning, who mi born the Lord ! 
The one aole Lord of all that it, who made 
The earth, and formed the iky, who giveth lite, 
Who gives strength, whose biddings Gods revere. 

Whole hiding-place it immortality. 
Whose shadow, death, who by hi* might is king 
Of all the breathing, sleeping, waktog world. 
Wherever let loose in space, the mighty waters 
Hare gone depositing a fruitful seed 
And generating fire, there He arose, 
Who is the breath and life of all the Gods, 
Whose mighty glance looks round the vast expanse 
Of watery Vapour, source of energy, 
Cause of the sacrifice — the only God. 

Above the Gods." (1) (Monicr Williams, Religion* Thought 
and Life in India, etc. p. 14). 

I am not blind to the blemishes of this ancient hymn, 
but I cannot fail to see its beauty either. I find in this 
hymn the seed of the pantheistic creed which later on 
developed in the Puranas, bnt it the samp time I perceive 
the Aryn" thoughts still holding to the primitive notion 
of one trne God, "There is a 'monotheism," I repeat 
with the learned Adolphe Pictet, "which precedes the 
polytheism of the Vedas, and even amidst the invocation 
of their innumerable Gods, the remembrance of a God, one 
and infinite, breaks through the midst of an idolatrous 
phraseology, like the blue sky that is hidden by a passing 
cloud." (The European Origins, quoted by Max Mniler as 
above.) And it is in keeping with this monotheistic feel- 
ing that the Brahminical priests in ancient times address- 
ed to God the following authorised prayers : "I adore that 
Being who is not subject to change or disquietude, whose 
nature is indivisible, whose spiritual substance admits not 
of component parts : that Being who is the origin and 
cause of all Beings and who surpasses them in excellence, 
who is the support of the universe." Letters Edif. Tome. 
10. page -15. 
Nor are we at a liberty to take a different view of the 
early religion of the Chinese. In 
the most ancient poetry of China, 
God is known and worshipped 
under the name of Tien, which, according to the great 
imperial dictionary of Khanghi, means "the great one, he 
that dwellB on high, the Heaven-Father, who regulates 
sill below." It is clear from many passages, that with the 
philosopher Confocius, Tien was the supreme Deity, and 
that he looked upon the other Gods of the people, the 
spirits of the air, the mountains, the rivers, the spirits also 
of the departed, very much with the same feelings with 
which Socrates regarded the mythological deities of Greece. 
(C f. Mai Mniler. Lectures on the Science of Religion. Lect. 
111.) The following is a passage from the great philo- 
sopher La-.-tse. "There is an infinite Being which existed 
before heaven and earth. How celm it is, Vw free ! It 
lives alone, it changes not. It moves everywhere, but it ' 
never snflerB. We may look on it as the Mother of the 
Universe. I know not its name. In order to give it a 
title I call it Jao (The way.) When I try to give it a 

The religion of the 
assent Chinese. 

name I call it Great. After calling it Great, I call it 
Fugitive; after calling it Fugitive I call it Distant. After 
calling it Distant, I say it comes back to me." {The Book 
of the Way and of Virtue, Translated by Stanislas Julian, 
pag. 91. Paris 1842.). 

Nor were only the Philosophers that arrived at the right 
knowledge of God. In the year 2225 B. C. we find the 
Emperor of China offering sacrifices to Tien, supreme so- 
vereign of Heaven, and in the year 1600 the then Emper- 
or of China declared in an edict that the Chinese adore 
not the material heavens, but the Master of heaven. 
And the Emperor Khanghi in the latter part of the se- 
venteenth Century, wrote the following inscription on the 
facade of a Christian Church in Pekin. "To the trne 
principle of all things. He is infinitely good and infinitely 
just. He enlightens and sustains. He rules with sup- 
reme authority and with sovereign justice. He had no 
beginning and will have no end. He has created all things 
from the beginning. It is He that governs them and He 
is their true Lord.", Cardinal Gibbon. Our Christian 
Heritage, pag. 30. 

If we open the Zendavesta, the sacred book of the Z<>- 
ro&Btrians, we shall meet with the 

anc?entyS.° f "" °*™ noti ° n <*<»* Sad. "I ask 
thee, tell me the truth, Ahum 
Who was from the beginning the father of the pure world ? 
Who has made a path for the sun and the stars P Who but 
thou makest the moon to increase and to decrease P That, 
O Mazda, and other things, I wish to know. I ask 
thee, tell me the truth, Ahura ! Who holds the earth 
and the clouds that they do not fall P Who holds the sea 
and the trees ? Who has given swiftness to the wind and 
to the clouds ? Who but thools the creator of the good 
spirits ?" — Yecna, 3rd Edit. Brockhans, page 130, quoted by 
Mai Mniler. Introduction to the Science of Beligion, page 168. 

We need not pass in review the various races which by 

turn inhabited the far West. Rns- 

The religion nf Nor- ^ Scandinavia, Germany, France, 
them and Southern En- ' . ,„, 

ropa in ancient times. Italy, apain, and Greece are full of 

monuments which testify to th« 
general belief of the first settlers in those countries in one 
trne Go J, This monotheistic creed was handed down to 
the present generations by oral as well as written tradi- 
tions, we see traces of it in the early poets of Greece, Italy, 
Germany and Scandinavia in the philosophers of Greece 
and in the statesmen and lawgivers of Rome. Bnt in En- 
rope, as everywhere else, we find this early monotheistic 
belief iocs disfigured by fables mixed up with myths, and 
later on almost entirely lost in the obscene crowd of Gods 
set up for worship by the worst passions of man. It was 
this sad spectacle that provoked to indignation the best 
philosophers of Greece. Xenophanesof Colophone accus- 



The religion of Plato. 

eg indignantly the children of men for having attributed 
to God, who cannot be bnt one, eternal and infinite, the 
figure, the acts and passions peculiar to human nature. 
"Men", he says, " were, as it appears, the inventors and 
creators of the Gods. If the oxen, or the lions had per- 
chance hands, or if they knew how to work and paint with 
their hands as men do, they would no doubt paint and fa- 
shion the images and bodies of their Gods, all like to them- 
selves, namely the oxen like oxen, the lions like lions," 
Xenophanes, quoted by Clem. Alex.Stromatom V. page 601. 
Elsewhere this 'great philosopher declares that God is 
one, the greatest among spirits and men, in no way what- 
ever similar to men, either in his form or in his thoughts 
(Sext empir adv. Mathem 1,219, IX J 93). 

Plato conceives the divine nature as supremely perfect : 
it is endowed with every conceiv- 
able attribute ; no perfection is 
wanting to it. God is therefore the absolute Good, 
and the canse of all that is good, and of that only which 
is good ; wickedness, e,vil, cannot be attributed to him as 
to its cause : He is the Author of good and of good only : 
When the poets describe the Gods as doing wicked deeds, 
they are dishonouring the divine nature. God is further- 
more the absolute truth - it is impossible that he should 
deceive men, or lead them astray; the mythological stories 
of deceptions practised on men by the Gods are absurd. 
God being supremely perfect in his nature is immutable. 
He does not take one form at one time, another at another 
as the poets tell us : He retains throughout eternity one 
simple immutable from (De Bepubl. II p. 380.) God is a 
personal spirit and as such is transcendently raised above 
the World. As personal spirit, He rules all things and 
directs and guides all according to reason and providence. 
He is a supramundane Being, and is therefore above the 
temporal order. Time affects only things of earth, God is 
above time. He is the beginning, the middle and the end 
of all things, the' absolute present. (Timacus, p. 37 De 
Leg) bus IV p. 715)— A. Stockl. Hand-Book of Philosophy 
P. I, page 82. 

As to the Being of God, Aristotle as well as Plato 
teaches that God excludes all com- 
totk' 6 reliSi ° n ^ ArU posi^on of matter and form. He 
is pure Actuality, pure Entelechy, 
puie Form, pure Quiddity, pure Energy. God excluding 
essentially all plurality of parts, is an absolutely simple 
Being, that is, without parts, and therefore immutable. 
finally, God must be one, because the principle of plura- 
lity is matter, aud matter is wholly foreign to the Being 
of God. A. Stockl. Hand-Book of Philosophy. P. I p, 
115 — .Thus reasoned about the nature of God the two 
greatest philosophers of Greece, Plato and Aristotle. 
Thus tbey thought and spoke about the nature of God, 
whilst yet the largest part of their countrymen knelt down 

before, and offered up frankincence to the beautiful idols 
that lav enshrined under the marble vaults of the magni- 
ficent temples of Athens and Corinth. 

From what I have hitherto said, it is apparent 
that mankind in the midst of the manifold aberrations 
of the human passions never lost sight entirely of the 
true God. And what is most extraordinary, this God, 
whom the ancestors of the Aryan, Semitic, Teutonic, 
Chinese, Greek and Lathi race3 recognised and worship- 
ped, was called and worshipped by many of them under 
the same name. So much is stated 

A startling fact. ^ aeTeral oi ^ is works by the greftt 

German Scholar Max Muller. " I wish to bring back to 
your recollection," the learned Professor says, "the fact 
that in exploring together the ancient archives of language, 
we found that the highest God had received the name 
name in the ancient mythology of India, Greece, Italy 
and Germany, and had retained that name, whether 
worshipped on the Himalaya mountains or amongst the/ 
oaks of Dadona, on the Capital or in the forests of Ger- 
many. I pointed out that his name was Dy&us in Sans- 
krit, Zeus in Greek, Jovis in. Latin, Tiu in German: bnt I 
hardly dwelt with sufficient strength on the startling na- 
ture of this discovery. These names are not mere names, 
they are historical facts, ay, facts more immediate, more 
trustworthy than many facts of Medieval history. These 
words are not mere words, but they bring before as, with 
all the vividness of an event which we witnessed ourselves 
bnt yesterday, the ancestors of the whole Aryan race thou- 
sands of years, it may be, before Homer and the Veda, 
worshipping an unseen Being, nnder the self-same "name, 
the best, the most exalted name which they could find in 
the vocabulary, under the name of Light and Sky." 

"And let us not turn away, and say that this was, after 
all, but nature- worship and idolatry. No, it was not 
meant for that, though it may have been degraded into 
that in later times. Dyaus did not mean the bine sky,. 
nor was it simply the sky personified, it was meant for 
something else : We have in the Veda the invocation. 
Dyaus-pitar,?t"e Greek ( ), the Latin 

Jupiter : and that means in all the three languages what 
is meant before these three languages were torn asunder : 
it means Heaven-father. These two words, are not mere 
words ; they are to my mind the oldest prayer of mankind, 
or at least of that pure branch of it to which we belong 
and I am as firmly convinced that this prayer was uttered, 
that this name was given to the unknown God before- 
Sanskrit was Sanskrit and Greek was Greek. We little 
thought when we heard for the first time the name of 
Jupiter, degraded it may be by Homer aud Ovid into a 
scolding husband or a faithless lover, what sacred records 
lay enshrined in that unholy name. Thousands of years 



fcave passed since the Aryan nation* separated to travel 
to the North and South, the East and West. They have 
each farmed their languages, they have each founded 
empires and philosophies, they have each bnilt temples 
and rased them to the ground ; they have all grown older, 
and it may be wiser and better, bnt when they search for 
a name for what is most exalted and yet moat near and 
dear to every one of ne, when they wish to express both 
awe and love, the infinite and the finite, they can bnt do 
what their old fathers did, when gazing np to the eternal 
•ky and fettling the presence of a Being as far as far, and 
as near as near can be, they can bat combine the self-same 
words, and utter once more the primeval Aryan prayer, 
Heaven Father, in that form which will endure for ever: 
"Our father which art in heaven." (Max Mnller Introd. 
to the Science of Religion, p. 107.) 

To the eloquent page, of Professor Max Mnller I shall 
add a few remarks only. The identity of the name and 
of the idea nnder which God was worshipped by the 
ancestors of the Aryan, Teutonic, Groek, Latin, and Chinese 
races cannot be accidental, but it finds its. explanation only 
by admitting, that the worship of one Bole supreme God 
nnder the name of Heaven-Father was common to all 
men in the beginning of mankind. Moreover, that mono- 
theism and not polytheism has been the first religion of 
mankind can be clearly proved from the historical fact, 
that in proportion as the human races advanced in civili- 
sation, their Sages and Philosophers approached more and 
more to a purer conception of the Deity, r.amely, to a 
monotheistic belief in one sole God. Now, was man created 

j, , . in a wild or in a civilized state ? 

A •oieatific conclnnon. . 

The followers of Darwin admit the 

first alternative, nay they maintain that man came direct- 
ly by evolution from a monkey, the real progenitor of 
mankind. This opinion was prevalent 40 years ago, 
among the scientists of a certain school in England, Ger- 
many, France, and America, bnt now most scientists hold 
with Vise how, a celebrated biologist of the German school 
that Drawin's theory is impossible, absurd and altogether 
untenable on scientific grounds. If therefore man's descent 
is not from an animal form or monkey, but directly from 
God, who will be so rash as to say that God created the first 
man and woman in a wild or savage state ? This asser- 
tion is contradicted by the traditions of all peoples who 
describe the first parents of mankind as endowed with 
every possible gift, and actually, in most traditions, they 

t are raised to the rank of Gods or 

First m»n cmlized. 

Semigods. ••The future task of 

history, "says Schelling," will be to show by what catastro- 

phiee races now living 1 in a savage state were isolated from 

intercourse with the rest of the world, and how, when 

thus deprived of their former means of civilization, tbey 

sank into their present tb.-yiadction. I maintain that 

civilization was the primal condition, of the human raw, 
and that the origin of Btates, science, religion, and the arts 
was contemporaneous, or rather, one and the same, so that 
these were not really separated, but interpenetrated each 
other, as they will again in their final development." 
Lectures on tlie Methoil of Academical Studies, page 167. 
If therefore God created the first man and woman in a 
high state of civilization, their religion must have been 
monotheistic not polytheistic. It is but natural to think 
that God their Creator, their Father, was also their first 
teacher and instructor ; it is but natural to profess that 
God revealed to them his own name, his nature, his attri- 
butes, and the way according 1 to which he wanted to be 
honoured and worshipped by them : and the only worship 
which God might have possibly revealed to the first men, 
was the worship of himself as the Heaven-Father or the 
creator of everything. In consequence it must be held 
that the first religion of mankind was monotheistic, and 
that men, owing to natural weakness and to human passion? 
fell from the worship of one sole invisible God to the 
superstitions of idolatry. The laws that govern the growth, 
the progress and the civilization of a people are not far 
different from those that preside over the growth, the 
education and the progress of an individual man in science 
or virtue. If he entirely neglects his former studies he 
will soon forget the very first principles of Bcience, if he 
gives himself up to all bis worst passions he will be very 
soon degraded to the condition of a brute auinial. Look 
at the present hill tribes of this country. They are in a 
semi-barbarous state : yet their ancestors attained to a 
great civilization and they were able to defeat in many a 
bloody battle the ancestors of the present Brahmins. A 
nation is liable to degenerate as well as an individual man, 
and the former may, as the latter, forget not only the 
knowledge of science and of useful arts but the knowledge 
even of God, and plunge in consequence into all the errors 
of superstition. 

I shall now sum up what I have hitherto said in the 
following propositions. 

1. All Western scholars agree upon recognizing in the 
most ancient religions of mankind, the presence of a mo- 
notheistic worship of God under the idea of Hea van- 
Lord and Creator of this Universe. 

2. This monotheistic view of God is found to be mixed 
up with a polytheistic belief iti many Gods, either as the 
deified forces of nature or as the national heroes to whom 
in progress of time divine honours were paid. 

3. Infidels or rationalists are not of one mind in assign- 
ing the cause of this startling mixture of monotheism and 
polytheism, and in stating whether polytheism sprang 
from monotheism, — or the latter from the former. 

4. Christiau scholars, on the contrary, universally and 
unanimously admit that the primeval religion of mankind 



wm monotheism, vit., that the human race worshipped 
one sole God who had revealed himself to their first pa- 
rents. So much they argue from an historical as well as 
from a philosophical point of view, and, moreover, they 
maintain that the result of the best modern archeeological 
researches is to show the same thing, of ch. Peech. Der. 
QotUtbegriff. Volume. I. II. Freiburg, Herder 1865 and 
1888. Grimm. German mythology, p. 66. 

And this is the only possible conclusion at which im- 
partial search after truth must arrive. There are na- 
tural instincts which mac cannot possibly suppress, and 
prominent among them stands forth the natural impulse 
that prompts man to worship one sole God. In the as- 
tounding, variety of creatures that make up this visible 
universe, man's intellect cannot fail to see the unity of de- 
sign that clearly points to a maker, to a creator, to an ar- 
chitect of all. To this Supreme Being man's heart natu- 
ral]"' turns, as to his first principle and his last end. Let us 
not Btifie this natuiul yearning of our hearts. Let us go 
to God", to on- Father, to our Creator, to our Lord. I 
would not do justice to your superior education if I were 
to say that you still believe in idolatry, that you still 
cherish in yonr hearts reverence for the gods and goddesses 
of the Hindu Pancheon. But that will not suffice ; yon 
should go back to the purer faith of your ancestors : you 
should honour, worship, and love that almighty God whom 
your Aryan forefathers honoured, worshipped and loved. 
God is Truth and Light : pray to Him to enlighten your 
understanding, to strengthen your hearts, that, searching 
after the true religion, you may find it, you may embrace 
it, and, living up to its commandments, yon may secure 
your everlasting happiness in heaven. 

G. Bartolf, s. j., d. d. 


[Continued from page 141) . 

From the materials available it appears that the 
date of the composition and publication of Ramayana 
— 885 a. D. is only a fabrication or some iirelavent 
reading adopted by Forae anonymous scholar. That 
there is another reading for fixing the date as ^85 
a. D. only substantiates the above statement. From 
the many traditions about 44^^^ and s^^Li—s-s^ppi 
and from the following stanza No. 21 of Qpamesx— 

jprztnn a!*iusvo0 QfwiSu--an QatLi-i QtBtrtp.pjptBas 

(2* nee it <o)Q<^3)iL<—ie^pp$a>r iu3Vj>!fipG*ire»Qtueirjii [<- 


It is apparent that these poets were contemporaries. 
That B.fijt*jLair^ii of ^LLi—i**.0pi supplements the 
portion composed by Kara ban proves beyond all 
doubt that these also were contemporaries. Hence) 
it is plain tbit these poets belonged to the same age. 
When Kamban left the court of his royal patron on 
account of a misunderstanding that arose between 
thejn, he is said to have addressed the king thus :— 

" jt^mcapaSjata Jtsnf— iss .isdc ssizmqw j» s en mi ■* f 

jsisntir, ttt—iipvQtu nitsispjf.." The underlined word 
of course is (Kulo) tunga. This king confesses himself 
in the following stanza that he is the pupil of $lLi~4 
&^ppiT. " jj(&ro««B>(_ &c., w(&'-D i_/st»a/ir Lf*QifTLl.i—i 

dh. r &fifi' Lj£iTLO L/<ufiBBfi4 : f @®« <§Qeoir $g:i&& Q/faip 

Qesreir Qp OiuSstr (fQrneOfpwGjr." The f ol lowing stanza 
is SAJd to have been Jsung by ^Ci—im-p^i " astmt— 
seari—^Q^nsfi &c. (0><i son— *****& jstjpiaappparw ssobk 
(a(?anjjB»g«r ," The following stanza of q*ff^«^ 
is also addressed to the same king " rjtpu> uaSjgrb q« 
(cairn &c. eppw ufpM&atrekr «sn§«u ajuferj Qriiipia 
sQear" and also this " > ■■t$*4ti> "-/*(!£ Qu>arff£$ (tpeiaL.Bt3 

£><Bi*n &c." All kinds of traditions confirm that these 
poets lived in the age of Knlotunga Cholan. But 
there were two kin^s of the same name — Kolotunga I 
alias Rajendra, Chola II, who ascended the throne in 
1063 a. d. and Kulotunga II in 1127 a. b, (vide the 
October number of the Indian Antiquary 1894 — - 
pages 296 — 299). Bat it is said that Kamban and 
Ottakoottan were required by Rajendra 1 to compose 
the Ramxyanam and that the work of Kamban was 
heard only in the time of Kulotunga I. Hence it 
follows that Kamban was in the time of Kulotunga I 
andibat he lived before and after 1063 a. d. There 
is a tradition that when his son was being married, 
Sadaiyappa came late, and finding no room to sit 
down, was standing near the washing place (vjr»«c 
a&>!_), that the wife of Kamban expressed to her hus- 
band her regret on that score, and that Kamban said "I 
know where to place my Lord." He accordingly 
found room for him in several places in his Ramaya- 
nam. If this tradition is reliable, it comes to pass that 
Kamban composed his Ramayanam at a ripe age, after 
40 and about oO. He is said to have died in the 60th 
year of his age at Madura- From such premises we 
conclude that Kamban was born about the beginning; 
of the Hth century. We will not err much if we state 
rather roughly that Kamban w*s born about 880 
years ago. 



We hara aotne difficulty in detenu ining whether £**«* lived in the beginning of the Christian 

$mmmi*j»t waa a contemporary of Kambnn. From 
the word tmmQmttfi in "«r«iMt«iu- «m a ^ 
mtmQmtffi fti^mfimmmu uttfpjp" which is Snppused 
to bo the Tamil equivalent of Turkey, some Anglo-Tamil 
Scholars affirm that $mmm mast have lived at a very 
recent date, at least after the advent of the English 
in Southern India. WidbIow in his Dictionary renders 
this word in English as " a large foal." Bat it 
mnst be remembered that thi* word does not occnr 
in any one of the Tamil Nigantlias nor in the Tivaka- 
ram- In Book I, Vol. 1 of the Ethics. Tamizica 
(printed at the Vepery Mission Press, Church Street, 
Vepery, I860) -edited by Mr. Thomas Morton Scott, 
Master of the Salem Zilla School, tin's word is explain- 
ed as t».'/r«> + (?*t^P;= <a/» j»«h_«j Q&itL$ ; and the lines 
paraphrased thus — " *»»*$£(?« C*Tens lohSsdi®©^ 

fagstin ^^)(5«iiL,«.-0>aJTj» &&&#£> Sic." The follow- 
ing note is added thereto- " $uyni~eV v ^.ajse/su Q*tr 

al«Stj aifmQ*t ifi «gQ a «i-u$iuir ®p£ g#f9p<aj* Qsne&S 

atmi l.J?«j(fa»<A ; jfaiet^ §|uuji_ %i'ij iSpii Q#iug> Qfjp 
^taSp Q+ipj&i use jifBUjuur. fi"ii «fj r S<i' eunsr 

0M'3io/O i Qfiein ffiii J V-f^wi. t3 <D H &> a a> -\- Q * tr j£t srsirujp 
miiAGairiS erex ppiti'iji<i> eunanQ/tii^l ei&sr QiteSrs^w 
GfinietiS^ei ■■ mi*&o*4«&i~*j Quest wttSteos (^jSifgOm 
true, _i ■wflni i ii j f tma® Qu_fi»_ uj"® Qu>mjni t 
^gp®0 QiGwutu QuC «en—iuni_iQf:«ir juil, &,an ,gif. 
4?«f />«/<_» Quiiaet-*^ /BtirjpeSQQuieirjiiii Jtfii^t gjaw 
a/frff^ «.«>^ Q*iu*js*ih9j>&." But Bishop Caldwell 
does not accept this interpretation. He believes that 
this stanza was an interpolation. 

Reference is made to a <$por in Maniinekalai, 22nd 
canto &fnpQ*u->$ *««> lines 57 — 61. 

imQuffifc Qpiuej/i Qpxsopl isi_*Q~''!f- 

/£ Q *Q turn Qp G&tdaatf>a(gGBir£!g"> 

Qi_jt£:QiJiiru Qudj^in Oi-ifJJLCanif Qiu w pen u 

(u:a*f)Q<Bs?H>, printed by MurugesaChetti, Book -seller, 
Madras, 1894 page 77—78). Silappathikaraiu is a 
contemporaneous work. There is reference in this 
work to Gajababu of Ceylon who began to reign in 
113 a. t. as stated in Mahavamsa. From this it is 
plain that the author of Kural should have lived as 

era*, e. 

1,800 years ago. The fact that some passages from 
the above said Silappathikaram and the Kara! are 
qnoted in the commentary of agSti or Qaupmj^vtu 
Quff(5«r shows that $«>«d*i should have lived previous 
to •*«#*. In li p in gyr j>i we find that aar^^tiuiti 
versifies the praises of jrfiuwirai^S and his eon and 
that she went on an embassy to the then Qfnaatax— 
u)ff«r at Conjeevaram. There are about 83 stanzas 
affixing her name in this collection which was made 
in tlif time of the last Madura College. This empha- 
sises the fact that she lived in the days of the last 
Madura College. 

From the account given in £(gfi$&;Hjff_^D L/<rffa»u» 
it appears that u>inmh6isain&*c lived sometime after 
the close of the la3t Madura College. Sambandhar, 
Appar and Suudarar lived sometime after Manikka- 
vachagar, Frcm the reference by Sundarar to uiP 
in " Qs<rtP^8ei:ff*i>86BriJui»iP Qtuxsrjx s^pJ^iiii QtuSuue 
jfl&jGn,. " it ig plain that the Saiva devotees lived a 
considerably lcng time after the last Madura College, 
because uafi is one of the heroical and charitable 
kings of Ljpiiir^BjM. Now ^snanai refers to the above 
said four devotees in 

Qgevtr f^pierfii fi^crar waapQf>i^.afih 
ipaijt ^li^u) Qpa$>QiDti£ltijij> — Caicaai 

She mnst therefore have lived also after the time of 
these devotees t. e., after the 8th century. 

T. Chelvaeesavabaya Mcdaiiab, h. a. 
(To be continued). 


(From the Indian Magazine and Review). 

By To'la'mori De'vae 
THti is called by Tamil authorities the 'second' great 
poetical classic, bat for what reason it has this high 
rank learned men have not been able to discover. It 
is however a very remarknble quasi-epic, in twelve 
cantos, containing 2.131 quatrains ; is a Jain composi- 
early as the 1st century of the Christian era, if not tion. and bears a close resemblance, in many respects, 
earlier. We learn from *3<we»ea and tradition that to the Jivaga ChintamaDi, having much of the same 
oa; is the sister of £©« «^ ©a-<r. This means that fervid spirit of re;il poetry, and something of the same 





fairy machinery.* The reader may, in spite of many 
obscurities, feel that it is even more interesting, as it 
ia certainly more edifying, than the aforesaid superb 

It lias been edited by t*he veteran Tamil scholar, 
C. W. Taraotharam Pillai, Rao Bahadur, who has 
bestowed infinite pains on the text. The critical 
apparatus is still, alas ! to come. Of the author, 
T61a-mori-devar (d^ir&irr Q'.oitifi Qpeuir) and of the 
sources of his inspiration, nothing really authentic has 
been preserved. 

The story of this poem is exceedingly peculiar, and 
will lead to some interesting questions, to which it is 
to be hoped scholars in Jain literature may find the 

In this earthly world there is a country called (•* s *>»">) ('The Delightful'), and its capital 
is the great city of Bothanam. Here a mighty king 
called Prajapathi reigned. His two principal wives 
were Migapathi and Coca The descriptions of the 
country, the city, the magnificence of the king and 
the charms of the ladies occupy a very large space, 
and seem to us more than ordinarily tedious, though 
each quatrain is faultless according to every precept 
of Tamil grammar and rhetoric. Thie kind of verse, 
consisting of an infinite number of cunningly imagined 
and executed mosaics, ia certainly not adapted for 
stories possessing any absorbing interest. Petrarch's 
Sonnets and Ganzoni are nearest to our author's style. 

These two queens became the happy mothers of 
sons, of whom the younger, Divittan, son of Caci, was 
in reality an incarnation of Krishna, and bore the same 
dark hue as the God. 

Of course, the Jain author of the poem regards 
Vishnu in ail his manifestations as possessing supernal 
powers, no doubt, but still as not rising to the dignity 
of a real divinity. It is somewhat curious to see the 
use these Jain poets make of Hindu mythology, just 
f.s we might sing fairy songs in which Greek, or Latin, 
or Scandinavian, 5r Hindu divinities were introduced. 
The poem before us was written absolutely from a 
Jain standpoint. 

The elder son, whose name was. Vijayan, was of a fair 
complexion, and a manifestation of Bala.t The yonng- 

* The only Tamil word for fairy is anangw (j)«a*<$). This is & 
jir.i'crit form of the Sanskrit an — onja (=incorporeal). Com p. 
Kurrftl 10S1 etc. 

t Compare upwgfgi 66. Bala-raman (Bali [»<»£], Bala-bbartra.), 
was t!i : elder brother of Krishna (See Hair's Sanskrit texts, vol. IV 
p. SMJO etc.) 

er son, Divittan, is the real hero of the peooi. Both 
princes were of extraordinary beauty, and received 
the most careful training., Earth could not show their 
peers. When they had arrived at their eighteenth 
year, a soothsayer presented himself one day at the 
court of Prajapathi, and said to him : '0 king, from 
the fairy world an elephant seemed to me in a dream 
to descend and bring a white wreath, with which it 
crowned the younger prince and bore him away. The 
meaning of this dream is, thai: a certain king, of fairy- 
land has a daughter who will come to be the bride of 
the younger prince Divittan within seven days Ab 
a sign of the truth of this a fairy messenger will forth- 
with descend into your flowery park with a letter from 
that king.' Prajapathi was -overjoyed, and command- 
ed one of his guards to await in the pleasure park the 
arrival cf the promised messenger. 

In all the poetry of South India the soothsayer is a 
very important person. He is the interpreter of 
omens, sees visions and dreams, and is consulted o* 
every emergency. In each court there are astute 
councillors, and stalwart warriors, and sacred Brah- 
mans; but the soothsayer, who often lives in a 
hermitage remote, is more influential than they all. 

Now the laud of the fairies was away over the 
mountains in a higher sphere, and there was a city 
called Irathanupuram (jewelled anklet;, whose king 
was Culanacadi. He had a son, Atukka-Kirtti, and a 
daughter Cuyamprabai. This latter w»s a young 
princess of amazing beauty and accomplishments, add 
her father held many conncils and despatched many 
envoys in hope oF finding a fitting bridegroom for her. 
Before him comes a soothsayer, who announces that 
the bridegroom for the princess was to be found in the 
earthly world, in the person of the younger son of King 
Prajapathi. 'The sign of this,' he added, 'shall be 
that in one month you will hear of him as the slayer 
of a lion.' Accordingly the fairy-king sent a trusty 
envoy called Maruci, with a missive addressed to the 
monarch of Bothanam. King Prajapathi was utterly 
amazed at the reception of such a letter, and replied 
to the messenger, 'We are but human beings, and you 
belong to the lands of the genii. What connexion can 
there be between races so dissimilar' ? After a while 
however he consented, and Maruci returned- to his 
master, who now waited for the sign— i?iz., the slaugh- 
ter of the lion by the young prince. This was brought 
about as follows : in fairy-land there was a mighty 
sovereign to whom Culanacadi was tributary. The 



» of this f »iiy Emperor was Achuva-kandan. One 
day the soothsayer came to him, and in the coarse of 
aaavaraation mid ; ' There it upon earth a man who is 
▼oar predestined foe, though yon unite all worlds 
beneath yoor sway.' The monarch smiled con temp - 
tuoasly : ' What can a mere man, do ? Yet since you, 
the soothsayer, say this, 1 must consider it-' So he 
summoned bis council, and it was arranged that he 
ahoald send messengers to demand payment of tribute 
from Prajapathi, as a teBt, The messengers were 
accordingly despatched, and the terrified Prajapathi 
inuaediataly gave orders to make ready the required 
tribute of a thousand pieces of gold, a thousand dam- 
sels, wfth. abundance of pearls, coral and ivory. While 
these were being collected and about to be despatch- 
ed, the "two princes came in and heard the whole 
story, when Divittan angrily interposed and forbade 
the despatch of the tribute, sending back the defiant 
message, 'We owe no fealty to any fairy king !' 

The messenger returned, and told the, fairy king of 
this refusal and Divittan' » defiance. In order to re- 
Tenge themselves, a councillor of the Fairy empire 
assumed the form of a lioa, endued with magical po- 
wer, and proceeded to the forests near to the city of 
Bothanam, causing it to be made known to the young 
prince that a mighty lion was devastating the land. 
The two princes, in wrath, set out to slay the lion. On 
their approach the pretended lion fled to a. cave, in 
which there was a real lion, and there disappeared. 
Divittan entered the cave, seized the lion by its mane, 
and soon despatched it, returning in triumph to his 
city. TheFairy King of Iratha-nupuram, hearing of the 
circumstance from his spies, and recognising in it the 
fulfilment of the soothsayer's words, resolved at once 
to set out with his daughter and marry her to the 
gallant prince. The poem, with a perfectly astounding; 
variety of illustration, and (we are bound to say) most 
wearisome minuteness of detail, conducts the bride to 
the city of Bothanam, and mumes her to the young 
hero. Meanwhile, the Emperor of the fairy lands is 
sorely wrath with Divittan because of his defiance, 
and with the King of Iratha-nupuram for allying 
himself with a human rebel. He accordingly advan- 
ces, with a mighty host, attended by many tributary 
kings, and a great war begins — for every epic must 
have its conflict. The whole interest of the war lies 
in the exploits of Divittan, who levels mountains, rides 
upon magio horses through the sky, and wields the 
weapons of Vishnu himself — of whom he is seen to be 

an incarnation. Of course, the resnlt is that AcKwxt- 
knndan is defeated and slain, and Dimttan's father- 
in-law becomes super me ruler of all the fairy lands. 
Divittan also becomes king of his own country, shar- 
ing the royal authority with his father. The astonish- 
ing statement is added that, in addition to his fairy 
bride, lie took to himself other 10,000 spouses, with 
whom he dwelt in joyous rapture ! A son is born to 
him called Amirthasenan. On the same day the Queen 
of the son of the Fairy King, Arukka-kirtti, who was 
Divittan'* sister, became the mother of a daughter 
called Sutharai, and also a son who succeeded to the 
throne of the fairy kingdom. Afterwards Divittan 
had a daughter called Minjothimalai. To find a fitting 
bridegroom fo.r this latter, a Svyamvaram (a general 
assembly of kingly suitors) was proclaimed, and 
lovesick princes thronged in from every corner of the 
universe. An elaborate and terribly ornate account of 
such an event is bound to find a place in every great 
Tamil Epic. Here the resnlt was« that the daughter 
of Dicittan was married to the son of her mother's 
brother Arukka-ltiri ti, and that the fairy prinoess was 
married to Divittan's son two pairs of cousins thus 
unitini; quadruply the royal families of the earthly 
and fairy kingdoms. Now comes what almost seems 
to be the main object of the poem : Prajapathi sees 
sons and grandsons dwelling around him in a region 
that unites all the delights that earth and heaven can 
give, and begins to reflect ; " All this superabundance 
of blessing- that has fallen to me and my children is 
the result of virtoous acts performed in a former birth; 
in order to secure a continuance of these propitious 
fates to my race I must renounce my kingdom, retire 
into the wilderness, and spend my days in mortifi- 
cation aud devout meditation." He accordingly 
celebrate^ a peculiarly imposing festival in honour 
o#Arrrgan, the Jain deity, who appears to him, receives 
his homage, and enlightens his mind. He is taught 
all the mystery of the Jain Siystem ; the various condi- 
tions of the departed in the world of the gods, in r" e 
region of demons, in mortal embodiment, and evei. -n 
bestial transformations, are revealed to him. He 
passes though Inferno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso. He 
takes tender farewell of sons n.nd daughters and their 
children, commend-* his kingdom, which now seems to 
embrace the fairy lami also, to their care, and obtains 
RELEASE, In the Saiva-.Siddhanta system ten 
different theories about ' release' are enunciated. The 
release of the Jain is one of these — the ' victory over 



earthly desire.** This Prajapathi obtained, aad in 
the chapter which relates his renunciation there is a 
very great deal that is worth attentive stud; as illus- 
trating Jain ideas. Much of it is to be found reflected 
in the Kurral, the Naladiyar and other Tamil gnomic 
works. Extracts are not here given, principally 
because though all is elegant, most rhythmical and 
artificial, there are no passages of especial force and 
beauty. A work has been written, by Mr. S. Radha- 
krishna Aiyar, Professor in the Maharaja's College at 
Pudnkottai, which ia entitled " Readings in Tamil," 
and winch is an exceedingly valuable anthology. We 
have been indebted to it on this and rnauy other 

The Snlamani ((gennLDentf) has failed to gain popu- 
larity among the Tamil people. In fact, it has become 
well-nigh obsolete. It remains to be seen whether 
this, its first appearance in print, will brush away the 
dust of ages. No lover of Tamil literature will pass 
it by but 'the old order changes/ and we trust that 
the study of ancient Tamil will lead in time to the 
formation of a new school of poets with wider views, 
and less fettered by arbitrary rules than were the un- 
doubtedly great singers of the olden times. 

G.U. Pope, m a., v.d. 


Pekhaps the inoat useful book that has been pub- 
lished by the Theosophicol Society in recent years is 
the one under review. As the title page tells us it 
proposes to give us a complete summary of the 
Theosophical teachings. Of all the books that have 
reached the world from the hands of Mrs. Besant, 
this is the most complete treatise of the subject, pro- 
fessing as it does to deal with the entire subject, to 
cover the whole ground, at a time. It must be invalu- 
able therefore for any one who wishes to get any 
notion, however flimsy ft may be, of the Theosophica,} 

The opening chapter institutes a comparison be- 
tween the various cultured religions of tlie wo; Id from 
the standpoint of ethics, philosophy and theology. 

•Hut Bit &»iHirm** m <*0, mi p, 214 rff , $*JBW»*y » .J,' -* & ib 

t Tur Ancient Window, or aa outline of Theosophical teachings 
l.y Mm. Auuic Besant, London : Theosophical Publishing Society 7 
Duku Street, Adclphi, W. C. 1897. S 00 " eiJt '• 

It disposes of, summarily, for reasons which we do 
not clearly understand, the theories put forward "by 
the Doctors of comparative Religion and Mythology 

as regards the primitive or nomadic origins of various 
religions. The preoipitous leap to a superhuman 
substrutum underlying all religions, includes a very 
hollow and yawning hiatus, to bridge which cool rea- 
son doss not well inhere. Then come the glorious 
Brotherhood, the various Manvs, relics of a previous 
or an antecedent Manvantara, who are the shapers 
and teachers of the present dispensation. How and 
why those Manus and Dkyan chohans managed to find 
their way to this yuga, and bow they originally began 
to evolve from the Logos, Mr*. Besant takes up in 
the concluding chapter. The succeeding 6 chapters 
are a description of the evolution, the condition, the 
scenery of " the seven plaDes " in man and in nature, 
and their relative bearings upon one another. The won- 
derful description of auric egg unravels to us a new 
method of punishing criminals. Just as there is a 
medium extant in Akn&a, which is able to respond to 
every vibration produced in matter of any condition, 
and functions like a sensitive phonographic plate, to 
an occultist in the matter of studying the Past and the 
Present, the auric egg communicates in its own iri- 
descent language to an occultist the nature of every 
man in all his aspects. We refer the readers to the 
book itself to study more of this and allied things, if 
not as an instructive and useful book, at least 
as an amusing piece of intellectual or literary 
curiosity. The seven planes of the universe have 
their counterparts in us, and they are no more than 
proportionately rarified media, consisting of chemical 
elements relatively super-analysed. No doubt the. 
whole process of putting forth ideas belonging to- 
these planes is a deft attempt at carrying science to 
the verge of fancy, or pseudo-scientific fancy. Tbe 
answering planes of human system thrill responsivejy 
to the vibrations of macrocosmic levels, when once 
the Egois able to function successfully in them. When 
the ego will be able to become conscious on the vari- 
ous plants, leads her to the chapter on Karma, which 
is treated with all the precision which a modern scien- 
tific intellect will bring in, and the fancy which 
the best of romantic imaginations can originate. 
Kurmn determines on which plane a man ought to 
function, what are to be his surroundings and what 
his end ought to be. Here science must bungle, mast 
equivocate, Mrs. Besant ueetus to say. Physical here- 
dity, and transmission of purely mental characters. 



will aot explain the sadden appearance of a genius 
in a family of cooks or an eminent biologist in a 
family of carpenters. "Weismann's germ-plasm" is 
made hare to subserve many useful purposes, the 
most noteworthy among them being- the preparation 
«£ physical conditions for the reincarnating ego. The 
question of reincarnation as a necessity, Hnd the effi- 
cacy and potency of thought-forms gradually intrude 
upon our attention. We have two large chapters on 
reincarnation trying to give a Satisfactory answer for 
every apparent freak or prodigy in. human nature. 
'*' Man's Ascent " then succeeds in which an explana- 
tion is aimed for every differentiation of form and 
■eolowr) nature and environment, and the diffienlty 
for the first time pronouncedly arises in our minds 
disabling us to follow her all the way in. the matter of 
argumentation, analysis, and presentation of facts. 
She has not at all taken up sexual differentiation as 
implying any decided significance in the economy of 
mature, and we don't know why she should have omit- 
ted it. Speaking from an ultra-biological standpoint 
we are at a loss to know what psychic significance 
underlay when sexual differentiation first arose. This 
■£b no donbt a emm for the Tfaeosophists and it is no 
wonder that- Mrs. Besant leaves us in the entire dark. 
She deserves our congratulation in so far as the thread 
of her reasoning is so dexterously woven that this all- 
important question is made to stand thoroughly out 
«f the pale of thought, for the time, and the difficulty 
reverts only when one cares to think independently. 
The Lipika are a net of strange folk who keep the 
karmic records, this fate in their case overtaking 
them through karmic justice ! To the next question 
that must stare us on the face, viz., the purpose, signi- 
ficance, of the cosmic evolution and involution, Mrs. 
Besant makes "the Law of Sacrifice" do duty. And 
the duty it does is not very rational or respectable. 
Man living, mam dying, extinction of universe, and in- 
candescence of nebula are all a law of sacrifice. We 
Me made to understand it as a supersensuous act of 
benevolence, the benevolent element in which we can't 
at present have even a dim glimpse of. Then suc- 
ceeds the floundering limbo, the recondite logic of 
the Tbeosophista and for which Mrs, Besant devotes 
a full chapter styling it as " Building a Kosmos." 
Here we get a regular parody upon astronomical 
phraseology, and we can't make bead or tail of what she 
means by particular terms. ' Solar System' is a most 
hopeless expression. The procesB by which the Un- 
manifested Logos becomes the manifested Brahman, 

and the origin of the seven minor Logo! from that 
one manifested Brahmen, the ties by which pralayas 
and manvantaras are bound, the sudden appearance 
of the Lunar and the Solar jntrU, and the wonderful 
Planetary Chains are all very obscure. How and why 
the whole hosts of Manasa Putraa, and Devachanic 
Hiemrchies, Dhyan ehohans and Lipika, and superin- 
tending egos were first made and for what end— are all 
unknown. What the purpose of kosmic evolution and 
involution is, what the need for the law of sacrifice is, 
are left in as miserable a plight as the violence with 
which she accuses the biologists for not rightly under- 
standing nature when asked to tender reasons for the 
physical phenomena of the varying vicissitudes of 
human life, of the differing social status of individuals 
among mankind, and the like. With the akasic re- 
cords and the auric egg to illumine her, Oriental 
researches, Scientific investigations, Historical infor- 
mation, have no value at all for her ; and so for every 
occult student. Drink the Elysian bliss of occultism 
and you are everything and everything yourself ; and 
you can verily scoff at every body who is not of your 
feather. She does not care to think what Science has 
to offer in explaining Idiocy or Intelligence par excel- 
lence. She does not seem to take into account what 
part the varying environment plays in the successive 
formation of hosts of ova in a budding young 
girl, what the conditions of climate, temperature 
are to a man in whom new spermatozoa are 
dawning into life, what the life of the germ-plasm 
is when two elements are mixed suddenly from two 
different individuals, how the nature of uterine wall, 
the habits and temperament of the mother, her physical 
surroundings, influence the nascent embryo, and so 
on. Science cannot really provide an account for '■ the 
why V of things as Mrs. Besant herself cannot answer 
the question why the Logos should persist. It is a 
torture when she manages to take the puve teachings 
of the Vedantu cult, twist it into any .shape she likes, 
colour it as suits hor fancy, find murder its signifi- 
cance by putting into its mouth hideous answers for 
absurd questions which it never drenmt to :isk, mid 
converting the traditional teachings of lite pure and 
noble Rishis into blataut nonsense. No Yt-dantist 
could ever dream of asking what the idea of Brahman 
is, in Rending out a monadic ray from his limiiless 
splendour, encage it in karmic folds by n curious pro- 
cess of uvoltition, run it round a tedious cvrh- n] 
births and deaths, and again take it hmrk bj a puzzl- 
ing process of involution ;. fur lie knows, ivlicu micf 



he aaks these questions, te is in a maze and mast lose 
sight of the clue. We take the Vedantic teaching for 
what it is worth. To ask a Vedantin what the meaning 
of Kosmic Evolution is, is to aslc a Theosophist why 
Mahatmas should choose to blow from the heights of the 
Himalayas, across the plains of India, on to the 
retreats of Adyar only, in Astral, Devachanic, and 
Nirvanic language, and to ask a Scientist why man 
should not have 4 eyes or 8, feet, or why the moon should 
not be made of Green Cheese that people might make 
nse of it whenever a dearth arises in this world for 
cheese, butter or ghee. And here we stop. We hope 
that Miss Edger who is to deliver the ensuing Con- 
vention-address at Adyar will take up these points 
and clear np our obscurities. The all-important point 
in the Vedantic doctrine, the Maya, plays a very 
dubious part iu Annie Besant's book, 

Modnt Road, \ 
14£h Decen.bvr 1697. J V. V. Ramanan. 


A Tamil lecture on ' Sivam' was delivered on the evening o£ the 
14th Instant in the marriage hall of the local Meenatcht Temple 
under the auspices of Mr. A. Ramanadan Chcttiyar, Member of the 
Devasthanam Committee, by the descendant of the Setupaties of 
Ramnad whose piety and orthodoxy are only two well known to 
the world at large by the numerous religious and charitable institu- 
tions founded and maintained by them in all the holy places of the 
Indian continent. 

Hebegan quoting the authority of Srilantlia Siiarfwiyam support 
of hia position, vis., 'we don't find any difference between the Veins 
And Stvagama*. Even the Veda* are SivagamaS. If they were 
found to differ in certain respects, they did so on purpose to corres- 
pond with the different capacities of the students whom they were 
intended to instruct. Heaaid that it waa simply erroneous to regard 
l hem as really different ; for, they could be very easily reconciled 
t<> each other. He illustrated this theory by quoting some verses 
from the Eural of Ttm.vallui.iir, wherein the divine moralist has 
said at one time that fate is all-powerful uud at another thAt men 
ran defy the decrees of' fate by their unreiaxiug perseverance, and 
showed that the one" admonition ifcws intended to put a sound Chech 
ujion the enterprise' 1 , while the other was meant to 
arouse the slumbering fatalist tr. energetic action. Another illustra- 
tion he *rave wag the ease uf the medical treatiHe which in ime place 
prrscrilied the use of euril as wholesome and in smother denounced 
it as unhealthy Here the scientific merit of the bnuk could not be 
decried merely on account of the apparent inconsistency pervading 
its prescriptions-, for, a deep insight would show that its usefulness 
as a nutrient was praised in the case of a man of robust health and 
thai I he pernicious properly of the substance was Condemned in 
the ease of one who suffered from an ague. Since no incongruity 
.-ould be imputed to the treatise on this score, similarly uone~could 
be attributed to the Fcdtifnud Aemiruif. They both took their 
sources from their common author Siva, and stood in auch relation 
to each other as the context to its commentary and both tended to 
the same £oal. He theft enumerated the '1& Hivogastias ,and said 
that only 10 out of them were exclusively related to Sivam while 
the remaining 18 were devoted to the treatment of various Subjects 
as the CAnriKt, Kriy,t, Yoga, (1-nana &c. He showed that the 
Hnxartas had no other alternative than to mote Si'ia Pujeh side 
by side with the Sivitn and gave out the names of the, different 

classes of the latter, w., Sira who is Aitadi tuns, Adi www, 
ifada sivas, Pravara »«m», Praveaaka siva*, Avantata tivas Ac., 
and included the former among them. He than distinguished be- 
tween the schools of Vedania and Saiva tiddhanta at considerable 
length. He described siva as Anadi Mukta, suluhma Chit i. e., 
one eternally unbounded subtle intelligence ; and Atma a* the 
Anadi Baddha zthula Chit i. e., one eternally-bound gross 
intelligence. He eaid that the souls were not creatures ; for, they 
were never created but co-existed with the Supreme Soul. He than 
explained the necessity for the eternal existence of a third thing 
ris., Pasam which encompasses the souls till they attain beatitude. 
Hence he eaid there was justification for the everlasting existence 
of the 3 things, (Thirupathartha.) Til., Pari (Lord) Posh (Soul) and 
Pasam (Ignorance or Darkness) of the siddhatnta school. He took 
this opportunity of condemning in a thorough manner the one arch 
fallacy of tho Vedanta Philosophy viz. a wholesale denied of the 
existence of every other thing except Brahman, the all-pervading 
Supreme Soul. He showed by the way that the Pantheists could 
not demonstratively and satisfactorily acocmBt for the orgin of 
Maya to which they ultimately and necessary trace the phenomenal 
existence of the whole. V ni verse ; for, the Brahmam which they 
speak of is described by themselves as being If irouna i. t., incapable' 
of motion, emotion, action Ac. Then he proceeded to dwell upon the 
unanswcrability of the question regarding*the source of If ay a. He 
admitted without reserve that not one of the ingenious savants of 
the Vedantic Bchool whom he had come in contact with was able- 
to satisfy him in that respect. He said that instead of replying 
they simply derided it as a knotty question: and retorted by 
observing, if it was said that the Audhtenam of Tiruva.vadcth.orai 
came into existence at the time of Namasivaya Hurthy, how could 
one expect to have an answer to the question. Who was the 
Audhennakavta of Tiruvavaduthorai prior to the said Namativaya P 
Perhaps, the question as to who was the Spiritual Preceptor of the 
said Namasivaya might be answered but who anointed and seated 
him on the guddy of the Avdheenam could in no way be traced Oat. 
Next he propounded the law of Karma and the doctrine of reincarna- 
tion He did not let slip the occasion to cry down the views of 
Free thought and other Occidental Schools of Philosophy in this 
connection. He observed that there oonld not he any theory mora 
foolish than that which asserted that the child which had its entry 
into and exit from this world on the same day was recklessly 
created and destroyed with no special end to serve. He ridiculed 
the Christian notion of the father's gins being visited upon the son 
and of Vicarious Redemption. He then defined and described the 
3 sorts of Karma viz., Banehitam, Praraidhan and Agamyaim. 
Savchitum, consisted of the accumulated surplus deeds done in 
the conrse of numerous births; Proraodfiam of the deeds committed 
in the birth immediately before the present j and Agamyam of those 
that happened during the terrestrial existence of the present incar- 
nation. He said it was the indispensable requisition of the eternal 
laws that all souls should eat of the fruits -of the said 8 formal. 
good or bad as they mit;ht be. Their bulk was liable to be reduced 
as thay were being eaten up in birth after birth provided no fresh 
additions to the stock were made. This was instanced by describ- 
ing the case of a husbandman who used to store np paddy in his 
granaries year after year and indent therefrom for his present 
subsistence. Should all further supplies to the barns be stopped, 
in due cours ;. they would become empty and be would be left 
with absolutely nothing to live upon. So also, when the Karma* 
were wholly annihilated, there waa n o occasion for the souls to be 
reborn in this world. It was only then and not till then that they 
weuld b-eoiue Mnkla Atmas i. e, liberated souls. Then the sole- 
question arose, he eaid, as to bow the existing Karma* could be 
destroyed and how the impending ones avoided. Were they of 
any subsequent or recent growth f No. They were coeval with the 
souls themselves as the drose in a copper vessel. As the scum en 
the metal could he removed only by a chemical process, to the 
Larma of the soul ould be got rid of only by a similar process of 
dedicating to the Deity the body, the senses and the mind ; and by- 
leading an unselfish life i. e, a. life wholly and solely devoted to 
the amelioration of the condition of mankind. He shewed that 
the act of causing happiness to our fellow-beings did of itself serve 
as a Pujah done' to teu-ara (Lord) and supported the theory by 
quoting Santo/ham Genefh Pragan Thathieva Isu'aro*n. 
In the case of the metal, some alchemic drag should be thrown in 
it the melting to cleanse it, while in that of the dedication of the 
soul certain moral perception should be infnsed into it for purifica- 
tion. How waeone to attain this moral perception t Only through 



the grace of the supreme soul (j|* flr >i mrrZn j(««Fj7jr «■»*•), 
He now pointed oat the ways and means, to get at Hit Grace ri's, 
Cfwtryn, JCrtyn, Foow ami Gmiimh and the necessity for a Guru m 
Achniya to initiate in and open tho way foi'BuAJi lVjjw or (Jiitun 
I'lijra, Hero ho quoted the Sloka fJiim UffiUtna Ac. and explained 
how the (turns wore propitiated iu the rirst instance in performing 
Hi' t'H Pujn. He stated that the Lord shed Him Grm not in view to 
benefit Himw-lf thereby but to relieve tin: muri'ilx of their letters, 
ami supported his arguments by quitting abundantly frum 
}i>ijiiri<t GUii, TvCiwiim, TirnviichiiliaiH, 'fS'nniUtutittw nf Tint 
Mul'i,; TaymHtimtrui', ftrfjui Piiruiw, Tii-'uuhnmihtl &v. ifcc. In 
xpenking of the ephemeral character of tin; prrot-Hl existence, he 
n-mindnl tho audience uf the JVrwiTt \{ij,,u> " -*»'.!■ ji Qto.i 

,imh»iiiI guilt tlmt he was not cei'tuiii if his life would bq 
spared itrru tn cuiu-ludi; tin; lecture he was iMivin'irig. lie slowed 
llint rhr> biiiiI ivim distinct from tho body null it ilii! not die when 
1 lie !>■.<! v <Ih"I. KImc, lie sniil the work! would nut make use of 
mu.-Ii expressions ad * O ? ilie iroiid 111:111 is irimc' even when 
the batty lay at tlttf* own fei-t and had existence before their very 
eves, lie drew tlrfj attentiuii nf the nudieiice to the fact that men 
gvw.f.illy ' used to make such nttoraiiee«i us ' iny head,' ' my face,' 
• my bead,' ' my body,' ' my foot,' and so on when they were obliged 
to un-iite particular limbs of their bodies Jive, nud asked if thi'y did 
nut eunvey nil idoa, that tho pronominal epithet prefixed in those 
rmses referred to a thing distinct from them. Since the eternal 
existence of the 3, Po«n, Pnlhi and I'axiiM, and their sell-imposed, 
mi to tny, natural missions in tho evolution of the universe ;iud [he 
ever unstable phenomenal ap|*araneo of L Bonis were established^ 
the leetuftsr observed it was but meet to proceed to show now how 
aneli missions, were fulfilled and where the instances were to be 
found. He referred hi the hallowed lives of the 611 cuuoniaed Soj'l*a 
bull 1 1« contained in the Periya Parana and drew the special atten- 
tion of bia hearers to tho exemplary ishbh of the 4 foremost 
among them nil. Sri Gnana Sotnlwiitdhtic, Appar, Siiadumr and 
MiHtikka Vachnknr. He essayed to convince the audience that 
these 4 Si'-mayo Charytm were more than human and formed part 
and parcel of tho Supreme Si™. He said that they individually 
constituted the 4 elements wis. Prifhaiii, Afpu, Thjtyu and Fuyu i.e. ■, water, tire and wind while Siva Himself was the 6th Akana. 
or other, that their earthly mission was tho salvation of souls and 
that they achieved it by extirpating the delusive forma of religion 
prevailing in the country in their Limes and propagating the faith 
of the Church of Sitro. He recounted the circumstanced under 
whiul) they happened to compose the Tetara and Tinn-achuka 
Hymns and explained the esoteric significations couched in the 
lending verses of the 4 Saints viz. SfSi.-r—ui StsSil-ib-; <*-><y 

.F*&*i& ; i2p0* J»,e©j>- j and flfcftjiiit*^*. He set 

forth with great stress the high place, allegiance and honors they 
were entitled to in the Btvs shrines in the land and decried 
incidentally the policy of some of the Members of the Madura 
Devasthanam Committee who grudged them the use of golden 
CJvtprnm un the occasion of their festivals and processions. 
He adduced instances and places in which even higher honors 
were accorded to them as the uso of Vri'htibbu I'altontim in 
AvtLdayar Covil &r. He pointed out that the Sivite world 
owed to the advent of these Saints their present flourishing 
condition iu the land, by quoting the verse jr*f>Gf<mith &c- and 
laid stress 011 the fact that but for their heroic conquest over the 
ant-agonistic religious. systems of the Buddhists and Jftine neither the 
sacred ashes nor the VWn* nor even the mystic Sve letters of Stra 
{Pnurlinkuhntm) would have possibly survived. Hn depicted the 
various functions in eivnneetion with which they were brought into 
play i>i &irt> toinplns, perliaps characteristic of their elementary 
nature hereinbefore referred to and passed on with brief touches 
upon the most conspicuous miracles wrought by tbem. Ho gave 
<mt the respective number of years which each of them lived i. c. 
IU. l«, Maand 3i and showed that their lives woro generally typical 
uf Ihiy* cstaMishi il forms ot Bakti l'onu, tJii. .Da™ ifurjom. Pi-tia 
Marram, Rnfcn MaiifRui and Sin Margin n t i. e. Loving the Lord like a 
servant, like a sun, like a friend and like a wise man. And last 
ibuiiirli m,r least, be showed emphatically that it wns the foremost 
of tin se. 4 sages Sri (iouna xuntsandAa that pointed out the Lord" 
person with his owu linger — an eventful phenomenon quite un- 
known and unheard of in any of the existing systems uf religion 
un i;nrth. tAuis establishing the divinity of the Achanju/ and the 
lucussity of following them in their ways, the lecturer now reverted 
« tbe-theory of the reincarnation of souls and said that it was but 
. necessary concomitant for the salvation of souls -, for, the souls 

became eligible for beatitude only after they were purged o* the 3 

sorts of KnrmtD but these Kuniia* could not bennnihilsted withoot 
undergoing the process of rebirths. He supported this position by 
the following simple practical illusl rations, v,z., the removing of an 
old blot ou s. cloth by applying lime juice *c. after wetting it a 
second time by ilia same ink ; the cleaning of a dirty cloth by the 
Dhobi liy lirst making it more dirty with his washing materials j 
the easy drawing one of a troublesome particle of a pomegranate 
seed between the teeth by putting into the mouth some more seeds 
of the kind ; tho extracting of water got into the ear by pouring 
in a fresh quantity of water Over it ; and lastly (though somewhat 
itiaitiiiiitingly) the losing of one's former affluence by vitiating it 
by the addition ofDcvustlianam money acquired during the manage- 
ment, uf its concerns. He then referred to the difference of opinion 
prevailing in regard to the superiority of one or other of the 
two things Ji>' , ih<i aud f!aaiij and declared it as his opinion that 
the practising of the one did inevitably lead to the acquirement of 
the other. He said that the symbolic worship inculcated in the 
.-■/eu mi?*™* was not only productive of immense virtue but the 
incauB of speedy deliverance from the oil engrossing Karma. He 
qniited such authorities as w*^^'3ar t-e^sttsr tSi-pvl #x.,ir eijpuiSi—T 
iiiQ.£0!S.vsga fi ;r 55 :.7f*i= j-jj-sr 4c. He pointed out the most im- 
portant xUv Temples on earth such as Tiruvaroor, Tinivanaika, 
Tiruvaimnmaiai, Tiruknlahasti null Sri Chidamdaram as represen* 
ting the live elements of earth, water, Sre, wind and ether or 
Akasa in the constitution of the universe He spoke of tbem also 
including Taranasi (BenarosJ as indicating the 6 stages in the 
microcosmie l'o<ji corresponding to the G stages in the macrocosm 
of the Uni\ erBC. He ascribed special superiority to the Natarajah 
form of iiiva and compared and contrasted Pwinambilam and 
Velliainbaluin with an exposition of the preferential qualities of the 
latter. Here he recited the verses beginning with L*3»«n(yMi- . 
sCjJ'^^D*ifl*u*»w of tho Pet'tya Parimt* and ffijk'u- *u--# Strtwijt 4c. of 
the Tiruvilayadat and admirably explained tho esoteric meanings 
couched in them. Then he dwelt at length upon the great spiritual 
importance of the Temple at Madura, of its Deities of Sri Minakshi 
aud Sundaregwarax and Bhowed that it was considered as the 
DwadasaTitam, the final resort which the Yogis aspired to. He 
added that it should be deemed holy also as having been tho place 
where two of Bamaya Charyan Sri Gnana wmbandha and Manikka 
VachaJca, lived and laboured in the cause of religion for the grester 
part of their inimitable lives. He stated that a careful analysis of 
Tirumlnyidiil Parana would shew that each of the 4 Ptirusharthas 
viz. Dharma, Artlwi, Kama and Moksho was intended to be attained 
by each 16 of tbe 64 mi nicies treated of in it. In conclusion, he 
explaiued the secret meaning of the form of worship adhered to in 
the Siva Temples in general and in the Madura Temple in parti- 
cular and their efficacy in shaping out the future state of the souls. 
He added that he fervently hoped that the authorities of the 
Devasthanam and the Sivite Public concerned would endeavour their 
utmost to convene many more similar meetings and listen to 
numerous lectures of the kind, and prayed devoutly that God Sri 
Soma xundara (He who has Uma for his consort) would be gracious- 
ly pleased to grant his heart's earnest desire. 

Notes and Comments. 

Mr. " Krishna Dasa Babu's" letter in reference to 
certain points in Mr. Rainaswami Aiyar's contribution on 
Tirumanlram, will appear in uur next issue. 

• * 

We are glad to notice the circular issued by Mr. S. 
Palvaunam Pillay, on behalf of the Oriental Library 
which he has established in Tmnevelly town under the 
the name of Suras wati Vilasa Sabha. This is a free library 
and they have in the Secretary, an able Pundit, learned in 
Knglish and Tamil and Sanscrit equally well ami whose 
services the people could utilize at any time for study and 
reference. The importance of such an institution we need 
not point out. and we join heartily in the appeal of the 
Secretary to those who may be generous-minded to help 



tie Sabha with money and books as far as it is in. their 

• • 

We are glad to acknowledge the receipt of a small broch- 
ure in Tamil verse entitled 'PadarthaDeepika' explaining 
the nature of thing* in general and their logical relations, 
by Pandit P. Murugesam Pillai of Tirupatur, Salem. He 

Eromiae* to give a prose commentary on the same by 
i m self and we look forward to the same, as it will cer- 
tainly be more useful to the reading public than the one 
now all in verse. 

• • 

We draw the attention of our readers to the excellent 
translation of Saint Tayumanavar's ^ssri^daeSilm, "A 
Bevel in Bliss" by P. A. and to his remarks on Bhakti 
and Jnana margas and Vedanta andSiddhanta. We owe 
it to Swami Vivekananda that his exposition of Bhakti 
yoga has created a considerable change iu the conviction of 
the English -educated Indians, who following the * Wisdom- 
Religion' propagated by Madame Blavatsky were bent on 
acquiring wisdom and ocuult powers. Mrs. Besant's cult 
no doubt differs in this respect ,lrom the views of her late 
leaders. It is oar point, however, that much as these Paths 
differ in their excteric aspects, real Bhakti and real Jnanam 
are merely synonymous and merely different names to the 
same state of Perfected Humanity. Compare for instance, 
the passage iu Cliandogya (yii- 25. 2.), the most mys- 
tical of Upan ishads, summing up as it does the highest truth 
that Brahman is all this and the condition of theMukta 
who could say " I am all this" a Swaraj or autocrat, 
and then realize what Tayumanavar means. 

"He who perceives and understands this, loves God, 
delights in God, revels in God, rejoices in God, — he be- 
comes a Svurgi, he is Lord and Master." 

• • 

From that excellent speech of the Hon'ble Mr. C. S. 
Crole which bristled with very fine ideas and was conceived 
in a very friendly spirit towards the education and advance- 
ment (jf the people of this land, we qnote the following 
passn^u l-fcferiiiy to the 'Oriental side': — 

A similar thought occurs to me in regard to a recent movement 
in I In- direction of the attempted revival of vernacular literature, 
ar.'l tin' proposal to establish a special oriental department under 
our University. I ffattfclv avow my support to this idea, if the 
nhjr.'rt !><■ to revive a knowledge of the Hindu ethics and religion of 
Sanskrit liiries mid t.n provide r he means of stemming the tide of 
dii!wrl|4i«ii! and irri-ligion, hy enahliut; Hindu home to become 
on"- in-ill.' the source and centre nf education in respect of morals, 
!■<•■-■• ri'in-.-, inr,!iiii'iv and instill liigjn-r things, (Applause) But if, an 
1 yiiiiicli.iv- (•-tispeet. there is hidden airar within the project, some 
wild. I. .ill' ;'in'i:ied, ihoii<.'ht nf patriotic revolt ugainet the aecendaney 
tit'tV Kn«jlt>li l:nr_'iiAL-i'. I would tnli-miily warn [hose who listen 
r,n in" io-ilny to ln'Uai'c of a scheme which is north v only of the 
n;"*t iniili^'iihiii foe io Indian education and to India's future great- 
in**. Vim dare not now turn hack- the hands on the dial. There 
is no vvrinieulnr tangling" which is associated with the history of 

form'!' political >»r«:ntm*ss I freedom, and which has a record 

behind ii. of national life PHcti would nnite Indians into one 
coin, nun narinn. The idea to which I have referred means dia- 
inL'jr iti'ni pi, re and simple- It displays, an acquaintance with 
hif^ui-.L w iich is siiperlieial in the extreme. Tt argues an alienee 
ol'ih.'tni" ]iolitii-a! instinct. I snhiri it that the circumstances of 
Judia ai the |H'"s.-e; day and the de.tiny which all h<>rtrne friends 

hn„ly hrtiivr in I walnut* '■■v, are sach as the wnrld has never 

yet seen. .Jt is quite betide the question to cite the successful 
Btritatrles of the Pules, tin Hungarians, the Germans of Slcswig, of 
:lie Welsh or <>f I lie Angl'i-S'iMiiis to preserve the jewel of their 

sonl— their Janguage. There the great heart of the people beat in 
their languages. The vernaculars of the Sooth of India have never 
einco the dawn of history been the centres from which the though**, 
tha hopes, the aspirations, the patriotism and the history flowed, or 
in whieh any truly national life ever lived, moved and bad its being. 
Their structure ie moreover archaic. They are ununited -for the 
expression of modern thought, an well as for eiact and orivp aouMrti- 
tic terminology. The educated Classen in India have recognised 
this. They have even carried the feeling into neglect of thei r 
vernaculars, which may be. felt to be, in some respects, regrettable 

The English language, on the other hand, is nervous, flexible, all- 
obsorpt ive, and self-adaptive. It is a language of power and progress. 
It possesses unparalleled faculties for moving the mind with its 
life-breathing literature. It is a- diving power among men, for it 
can furnish for uvery thought, hope, or joy, that up rings up in the 
heart of man, a nam b of fewer letters and of fuller meauing than 
any other language, living or dead. Above all it is tbe language of 
the British Empire to which you axe all proud to belong — the 
greatest, the most stupendous empire which the world has ever 
seen. ^The adoption of the English tongue is steadily obliterating 
from India the hateful idea of foreign rale. It was well said by a 
late Secretary of Btate that every member of the House of QpnmgpM 
ie now a -member for India. Hay it soon be possible to say tftat 
there are no foreigners in India — that we are all one. A common 
language alone will bring that about (applause). I trust that I have 
made my meaning clear to you. The subject is one which must not 
be decided by chin, pseudo-patriotic declamation, or by the 
superficial ideas of learningTsmatterers, and I hare therefore taken 
it as one of my illustrations for this lecture. 


We however beg to respectfully ask from whioh of the 
learning- smatterers, and from whose psendo-patriotic 
declamation, he did discover the hidden project of* doing 
away with the English language. In our last, we can- 
vassed the opinions of a number of Chancellors and Ex- 
Chancellors of our University and of other Senators, 
European aud Indian, and we hope it is not to these he 
refers. The present discussion arose out of the Hon'ble Dr. 
Duncan's proposal seconded as it was by the Hon'ble Mr. 
Justice Subrahmania Aiyar ; aud the matter is one vrhieh, 
has to be determined by the University itself. As 'it 
is, it is not very charitable on the part of the gentleman 
to attribute motives to the persons who may favour the 
scheme, simply because he suepecte what is hidden some- 
where, and to declaim about the same in the way be did. 
We quoted last time from Mr. Grigg's speech that the 
proportion of those who know English ought to be 
ten and twenty-fold of what it is at present and that 
(here it is where the Hon'ble gentleman has grievously 
fallen into a mistake and an error) the great mass of 
the people can never be regenerated until each vernacular 
is marie a fitting vehicle for carrying on that knowledge. 
The Hon'ble gentleman has very little understood the 
importance of the vernaculars in their historical and 
literary aspects and he only furnishes another example of 
the fact how few Europeans are able to understand the 
Indian people even though they may move very closely 
with them. The reasons for the neglect of the verna- 
culars are not at all those what the Hon'ble gentleman 
suggests, but any ordinary School -boy, if questioned, will 
furnish him with the true answer. It is unnecessary to 
reiterate that in our own scheme we have insisted on 
a knowledge of the English language as one of the qualifi- 
cations for any degree that may be proposed by the 

Madras: — Printed by F. C. Kalliana Sundaba Nadah, at the 
C. N. Press, 4, Gnruvappen Street, Black "Town, and Published 
by T. A, Swahinatha Aiyab, Armenian Street. 

T H F 


— OR — 


% Monthly Journal Devoted to Religion, Philosophy, Literature, Science, &c. 

Commenced on the Queen's Commemoration Day> 1897. 


. I. ]■ 


I No. 8. 



(Note* on verse 18, coitthiited from page 12i>,. 

In Bamottaratapiny&panUhaii. Eudra is said to have propit iated 
Rama who is described thus "Me who Lb B^inschandra (The 
Moon of Ram») is the Great peerless bliaefnll Atma. He is Sat 
(Truth), Chit-Jnanam and Bliss, non-dualistic. Chit-form Aimn. 
He is the Earth Bhuvarloka unci Swarjra." 

Rudra as a Personal Beiivg is i cry well justified in j>i-» » fjir i[i * i n ^ 
Paramatma. which is Sat. Chic. Auamla. In Si'ffvjt' rti^htjtl Vishnu 
ie defined thus 

rs v. 

/So* J$*s^?5Si£s~d. 

Uoivers;/ W the elu 

= r ivcn ill jlll Tpletili;: 

E is Vishnu, the seed uftlio Elemental 
ments-made Univetse." Tliis di'biiition it ; 
the various letters iu the tijunv Srd<t. The letter S is Uuwpretod 
thus iiTty.iiC.g ^j-^SJ«T°f.i "£"« ^ "aT" , 3 S"j <^ - j . ■JJ"' : thru 

£ indicates Primordial I'rukmi or the root Prakriti or rotit 
nature.* 1 This stage is a stu^i*. gross in rmture. Vishnu K rhu seed 
of the nniivrse made up wf the eleui'HvSs. Vishnu Htiftiuj; h 
for the production of the universe of elements, is aljsn of I'rnss 
Stage This shows that Vishnu as ilthued in BiH.^,, I •' •> 
inferior to Siva. The Ei«Btf<f»»rM'*i<f«^HjscBwti«rf, the terms Bitius, 
Lakehmaua, Bharata, Satrughna and Seeta are all explained. 
Latbshmauii is " The tetter A, the ayinbol of manifested universe," 

Satrughna. ie " U, the essence of TejaB." Bharata is "M, the 
symbol of superior knowledge." Bama is " Om (Ardha matra), 
the symbol for ParamB.tmic bliss." Seeta is "Boot Prakriti, the 
cause of creation, protection and destruction of all bodies in the 
presence of Kama." ThuB the five together constitute the idea of 
Paramatma with his functional attitudes, or natures, or, powers. 

It is for thin reason that the Upaaana of Bama alone is con- 
demned in RamottayatapinyOrpanitkud, Nowhere in the Upaniahada, 
Vishnu, the Personal Bein?, is said to be the highest among the 
bodied Bein*rs, including the Trinity . In several places in Bhdjn- 
rrtta, Hari as Paramatma ia distinguished from the bodied Beings, 
i i:., the Trinity. The propitiation of Hari by Rudrit is open to be 
taken in the former t^nse. 1-lven Bhaymata advoeates the worship 
of Rudra and Brahma as much as Vishnu. In Gopctia Puvrvatw- 




is thinned tlrns Zi~f i^or-^O^STejo SSo 
Mavu and all, and In- lir.iliitiani In 

conclusion have (■■ 
IVrsonnl Being over R 
I lio superiority of Rudi'a 
mm-bodied FnrsiiiKitina over V 

:Cllte thai the superiority- of VltJ.IIQ JI5JL 

Ira 01 Siva nowhere ttaai'rt.i4J. whereas 

Pers niti! Kejno more as 

r».>ujd Bvin 

»•_ L j t 1 1 1 as 

is F'spreasiv 

asserted, .Ueordiiin to ro.i'7,,,\.jwi,i,.J,o,( 'he (*u^ii ii ui of Vishnu 
in the hoilv is th*? navel. representing the cl'-ioeot of vuier. The 
place of Hudra is higher Boole it. representing tit". Tito place of 
SjVa is in flif' head itself, repres^ntim: Akiis, Lvon this 

•ground, the Miperiorvry of Si\;A \isliid.. ;i|»pnteii[. The 

'thoitev of the I. pusaoa of Vishnu asj PnivilniitiiKi for Solvation 
is n.i..j^iiizi»d and tlie vfiieacy of His Cf»sana hodiod fiohifg it 

also recognized for [ons-idcrahle spiritual devtlopment folloived by 
n lift into the world of Vishnu above the world of the IJeviis and 
Brahma, in His form near Him, with facility for perfcol Salvation 



by tlight practice of Dhyanam or contemplation. Thai the 
qn'-ition m to the relative superiority of Sudra (Siva) ■ and 
VUhnu is one involving distinction theoretical rather than "practi- 
cal. The TJpasana of Kudra or Siva as a Personal Being ie said to 
be rewarded with a place in the world of Budra, above the world 
of "Vishnu, in the form *f Rudra near Him, requiring Dhyanam 
again for complete liberation. The practical value of the TTpaaana 
of the Trinity is nearly the tame. Bnt it should be borne in mind 
that the TTpaaana of any one Being should not be accompanied by 
hatred towards the remaining members of the Trinity, but- by 
such hatred, the Upasana of the practical-Deity should cease to be 
of any effiimv whatever (Fridrnttrkn.-itopaiui'hii'l). 

apjiiufB Q&tu^susir pysppS at n eir sin ", 

H). Tiiis is tire Lord, the Primeval Lord. He of 

oldest knowledge who made the Seven Gardens (or 
forests) fragrant with eardamum. He, in view of the 
true Tiipus (earnestness or asceticism) of him who is 
chief aiming tl.o knowing, settles in him so that the 
same (knowledge or Tapas) may grow predominent 
in him. 

Tli« Seven Gardens stand for the seven worlds, or in short, Hie 
Universe. This is, in fact, baaed on the following toxt from the 

that "from Him (Paramatma), the Seven Pranas emanate, 

the seven lights, the Sam its (fire-sticks for sacrifice), the seven 
sacrifices, the seren worlds. Among them, the seven Pranas 
seated in their hearts in terms of seven, are moving." The 
enumeration of the forests and the worlds wherein they are found, 
and their localities and surroundings are found in Puranas (for 
instance, JJhnjaratu and Yifhnv. Pitrana). Creation taking place 
by acts of Chit, the author places stress on the knowledge of 
the Lord, when he speaks of him as the Creator. The last two 
lines in the verse are but the reproduction of the texts in the 
Kalhopaiii shad, which says thut perfect salvation is attained by 
Jnftnam, and God makes as Hie residence, the body of him who 
always contemplates Him: 

that ill) " Paramatma makes him His body, who always con- 
templates Him. He is not attainable by. him who docs not ab- 
stain from Had conduct, nor by him who has not attained control 
Over his sosnseB, nor by him who does not concentrate his mind, 
nor by him who has no mental peace. He is attainable by 
Jnanam alone." The same is found repeated in several Upanishads. 
The question of Salvation by Jnanarn is a bij; question which will 
be discussed m full in its appropriate place further on. It is not 
necessary to take it up in this introductory portion. Suffice it to 

say at present that Paramatma being Jnana-form in nature, and 
union with. Him being the ultimate end or the highest Salvation, the 
best means for attaining the highest Salvation is Jnanam or know- 
ledge itself. 

According to Wdsmtins, tHe flfhttvidnsj son! is a*Bnmnded by 
A vidy a, the reverse of Tidy a or knowledge, and the OBlaaranon at 

Avidya would in fact amount to the attainment of Yikjya or htnr< 
ledge, and this would constitute union with Paramjitmn. tin- 
moplar himself further on speaks of Jnanam as the highest meaua 
of lloksha. Action except when done without reference to fruits, 
or in thorough dedication into Paramatma is conducive to birth 
and. death, and so however meritouou's St may be, it may lead to 
enjoyment in higher or lower worlds, but it will not of itself 'olear 
the halo of Avidya. surrounding bodied existence and so virtue ia 
not the best means of attaining union with Paramatma. The Lord 
is said to be tbe Lord of Primaeval knowledge as according to both 
Hindu TJpanishads and the. old Testament, there was nothing with 
the Lord before creation except knowledge or wisdom. Ho autho- 
rity need be quoted from Hindu Vedas for this proposition. In 
chapter 8, Proverb*, this is explicitly asserted. " The Lord possessed 
me (understanding or wisdom, verse 1) in the beginning of his way, 
before his worts of old. I was swt up from everlasting, from the 
beginning or ever the earth was ; when there was no depths, I waa 
brought forth ; when there was no fountains abounding with water; 
before the mountains were settled, before the hills, was I brought 
forth ; while as yet he had not made the earth nor -the highest 
part of the dust of the world. When he prepared the heavens, 
I was there ; when he set up a compass on the face of the 

depth; when he established the clouds above..., Then 

I was by him, a* one brought up with him, and t was, daily 
his delight, rejoicing always before him" (verse 22-30). Param*tmft 
converts the body of Him, who always contemplates Him, into 
His own residence. According to Shandopanishad and a number of 
other Cpanishada, human body is the temple of Paramatma, 
Tirumoolar himself further on says, 

^ r^t*X«fspiD QuqbQ&ik&m sat 


Oiertetrp Jj «gi jjgjuti Qsuljb fu« 4f6i. 

that is, for the Lord, the mind or the within is the seat and the 
flesh-made body is his temple. Jesus and St. Paul assert the same-. 
We saw front Vishnu Purana that the virtue -of Paramatma 
permeates bodies in different degrees. It is, the greatest in- the 
sentient Jloorties (bodies or bodied beings, and lowest in immova- 
bles). According to ChnndogijopanUhad our body is Adhiatana or 
special seat for Paramatma as, He can be known more easily by 
means of this body thsn from within immovables or from 
movables helow human kind. When an individual ever contem- 
plates Paramatma, He manifests himself still more prominently 
there. The individual can carry on Dhyanam or contemplation only 
with the aid of this body or a body akin to it. So the body in 
which Divine Contemplation is always carried on becomes the 
very residence of Paramatma. Ultimately when the individual 
by concentration becomes wholly merged fn Dhyanam or contemp- 
lation, the result ie tho Dhyan&m-contaAed or Dhyanam- merged 
knowledge of Paramatma, in which union with Him is effected. 

The Lurd is of oldest knowledge. The words of Solomon w to 
knowledge being as one brought up with Him, in which he 
takes delight, itself enjoying delight earlier than the Lord himself 
open up a fundamental question — namelj, whether the Lord IB 
different from knowledge or whether he is knowledge merely. 
According to Hindu Upanishads Paramatma is Sat, Chit and Ananda, 
(truth, knowledge aud bliss). According to Solomon, knowledge 



m, that in, that* i* the alenunit of blin inseparably 
with the element of knowledge ; or rather bliss is an 
at on knowledge, or to pot it more popularly, 
rtetige it btiai. Ike words of the Solomon may imply that 
im a iking growing with the Lord an one with Him 
aaparabfe Irani Hid and conceivable a* to origin or development 
ladepanelaiit of HU existence and contii -aity, I do not think 
i ie a nagaieary implnatiOn. No donbt Solomon save 
wWdge was brought farth before this visible creation 
that it night hare been a creation just before the 
of the universe. But it should be remembered that 
Salomon alas says that knowledge Was aet up from everlasting 
and the Lord peaieeaed knowledge before hie works of 0I5L 
Taking theae observations together, I see no other conclusion 
peentble than that found in Hindu Vedaa. Speaking of know. 
ledge in conneotien with Paramatma, it is- divisible into two 
•anasaa. (1 ) That : Man 1 of knowledge which it 'inseparable from 
Hi* exarUmoe a* Bat (Ti ejli) and concievable apart from that 
waie* was exmnerned in the act of creation, preservation and 
aaMnotiOn or apart from the. created Universe: -This knowledge 
4n Taraanatma if the absolute non-functional knowledge ofi 
Parwici*. entering fully into what is called His Satwa or 
irxajtence or Being. (2) That kind of knowledge which func- 
tional pm pu se s evoke in Paramatma temporarily for creation, 
fueew ration or destrnction, and this kind of knowledge which 
la temporary and unsteady, functional in nature, is not possible, 
(•dependent of Paramatma. It is the fore-runner of creation 
ate., and it ean be conceived apart from Psramatma, This kind 
at knrwtedg* doe* not enter into the substance of Paramatma, 
V we can speak so. The first class of knowledge has a fixity, 
aarsaananey, steadiness about it, whereas the latter comes into 
wrirtfntt and goat ont of existence readily parallel wifh creation 
and destruction whioh it brings about. It is the second kind of 
knowledge which the Lord sets up before creation for creation. 
The first kind of knowledge ever remains with the Lord, 
forming part of Himself — Nay, constituting himself. The Lord 
hi thus an embodiment of absolute knowledge, capable of 
modification into or giving rise to relative or functional know- 
ledge for creation Ac. Let us see what Buddha Goutama says 
in 'Mas connection, He says " Verily, I say onto you your 
noose] is mental, but that which yon perceive with your senses 
hi also menial. There is nothing within the world as without 
which either is not mind or cannot become mind. There is a 
epiriluality in all existence and the very clay upon which we tread 
*»ii be changed into children of truth, " (Panl Carus' Gospel of 
Baddha, page 131). This, as Paul Carus sums up in bis head note 
means, that " all -existence is spirotual." This is Chun&uyya, 
Bnthadaraaya, a-nd" MakopanixKadii and several other Upanishads 
eompletely -reproduced. The same is affirmed by Gaudapada in bis 
Msmdakya karika. Buddha in page 130 of the same work is said to 
have expressed as follows — " On the other hand the Tatagatha 
Bawbee that there is mind. He who understands by goal mind, 
end-anys that mind exists teaches the truth which leads to clear- 
ness and enlightenment." 

This is bat a reproduction of Chandon\m, and Brahadnranya 
texts whieh say that mind is all. In page 2, Buddha pats this ques- 
tion to himself. " Is there nothing permanent in the world? Is 
there in the anhaereal turmoil no resting place, where our troubled 
heart oan find peace ? Is there nothing everlasting ? " In page 
S, he gives ns the following answer : — 

" The troth is eternal i it knows neither birth nor death ; it has 
no beginning and no end. but the truth takes pos- 

session of your souls. The tmth is the immortal part of mind.., 

Establish the truth in your mind, for the truth is the 

image of the eternal; it portrays the immutable; it raveals the 
everlasting ; the truth gives unto mortals the boon of immortality 

Self if the cause of selfishness and the scarce of 

sin ; truth cleaves to no self ; it is universal and leads to justice 
and righteousness. Self, that which seems to those who love their 
self as their being, is not the eternal, the everlasting, the imperi- 
shable. Seek not self but seek the truth " (page 4.) Theae are 
every bit translations of Upanishad texts. There is nothing in 
these which is foreign to and different from the principles enun- 
ciated in our Upanishads. According to the latter, there is only- 
one Sat (truth or reality) which is eternal, which is imperishable 
and immortal, which is unchangable. The visible universe and 
all the changes securing therein are but transformations taking 
place in and by the Chit of Paramatma. According to Buddha 
Goutama, "all things are made of one essence, 'yet things 
are different according to the forms which they assume under 
different impressions. It is as if a potter made different vessels 
out of the same clay. There is no diversity in the clay used; 
the diversity of the pots is only due to the moulding hands 
of the potter who shapes them for the various uses, that cir- 
cumstances may require. And as all things originate from ote 
essence, so they are aH developing according *.o one law and 
they are destined to one aim which is Kirrana. There is but one 
Nirvana as there is but one truth, not two or three." Every- 
thing within or without is as has been already seen a 1 ] spiri- 
tual, and everything is but a transformation of one Truth. So 
this one Truth is all spiritual. There is mind and Truth is but 
the immortal part of mind. Why but a part ? This question 
will lead us to the conclusion enunciated as to the two kinds of 
knowledge found in Paramatma. Even though there is one 
essence manifesting itself in defferent forms, even though that 
essence is spiritual, still there is a part ever changing in it 
and ever appearing and disappearing, that is dying. This mortal 
part takes place in and by the part which is spiritual and which 
is immortal. Hind so far as it denotes the permanent — undying, 
and immortal part, viz., the one essence is the Truth ; and it is 
not Truth, bo far as it denotes the fleeting transformations 
appearing and disappearing, springing up into beipg and going 
out of existence or dying. The immortal part of mind which is 
the one Truth or essence being spiritual is but the fundamental 
Jnana-form Sat or Being ; and the mortal part of mind is the 
succession and co-ordination of that kind of knowledge which 
appears and disappears creating and destroying objects in the 
universe. This conclusion i« fortified by the fact that Buddha 
Goutama uses the mind in a sense which is co-extensive with 
the word Chit" in ear Upanishads. He says "Tour mind is 
mental ; that which you perceive with your senses is also men- 
tal," In order that the proposition " Your mind is mental" may 
not be a verbal proposition the nominative mind must mean 
something different from mental, or rather the scope of the 
thing called mind -must be less extensive than the scope of the 
thing called mental. In other words, the word mental mast 
embrace a. larger area than the word mind. Mattah in Sanskrit 
is less extensive in area than the word Chit, and at the same time 
it is being capable of being converted into Chit. The word used in 
connection with Paramatma before creation including Manah : s 
Chit, and the word Manah is used only after creation. Mania 
being a part of creation is not immortal or immutable ; so it is not 
the truth. Manah as the Chit Concerned in creation Ac, is a 
modified form of the permanent Chit found or constitutir/ the 



on* netmenent essence and in so far a* it is reoonvertible into 
that permanent Chit or H stands for that permanent Ohit, it is 
the truth or Sat. According to Bnddha Contain a, there ii nothing 
within the world or without, which it not mind or which is not 

convertible into mind and the very clay on which we tread oan be 
changed into ohildnra of Truth. In other words the very day, 
can be converted into Chit (concerned in creation) and this Chit 
can be converted into permanent Chit fonnd in or constituting the 
one amcucetSai) or Troth before creation. The analogy of clay 
used by Buddha for the transformation of the one esBence into 
diverse forms is directly taken from onr Upanishads which not only 
use the said analogy but also use the analogy of gold and wood. 
Tbe Christian doctrine or rather the doctrine of Solomon that 
knowledge is ff* one brought up with the Lord is capable of being 
understood as one affirming the Lord as an embodiment of abso- 
lute Chit or Jnanam permanent when uninclined For creation 
4c. and relative and transient when inclined for creation See. If 
not understood in this sense, there would be no sense in affirming 
the proposition that the Lord sets forth knowledge* for creation. 
This doctrine of Goutama, that there is a spirituality in nil things 
and even clay can bo converted into essentially tme spirituality 
and bis negation of any other truth (individual Soul and Pasa) 
than one spiritnal essence open up large issues which cannot 
be considered in this connection. Buddha abolishes the distinction 
between the fcnuwer, the thing known and the act of knowing and 
reduces everything to the permanent part of mind or Ohit. This is the 
view of Hindu Upanishads. I can make good every one of these as- 
sertions and support my reaeons in their defeuce by explicit Upani- 
ihad texts but space forbids. In a note I cannot do more than to 
indicate the main questions arising from the texts and the main 
arguments, in connection there with enunciating the main conclu- 
sions on the basis of the said arguments. 

Tiramoolar calls the Universe a creation of tbe Lord or the Sat 
of the Upanishads and the one true Essence of Buddha Goutama. 
This is also the view of Christianity and lauhammadanism. But 
is this the view of Buddhism and if it denies it, in what sense' does 
it deny tbe same ? Upon this question, the following passage 
from Paul Cams' Gospel of Buddha, page 60, is interesting and 
pertinent: — 

"Who is it that shapes onr lives? Is it Iswara a personal creator t 
If Iswara he the maker, alt living things should have silently to 
•ubmit to their maker's power. They would be like vessels formed 
by the potter's hand ; and if it wero so how would it be possible 
to practice virtue ? If the world had been made by Iswara there 
should be no such thing as sorrow, or calamity, or Bin ; for both 
pure and impure deeds must come from him. If not there would 
be another cause beside him, and he would not be the self. existent 
One. Thus, you see, the thought of Iswara ib overthrown. Again 
it U said that the Absolute has created us. But that which is 
absolute cannot be a cause. All thingB around us come from a 
cause, as the plant comes from the seed ; bnt how can the Absolute 
be the cause of all things alike ? If it pervades them, then, 
certainly it does not make them. Again it is said that Self is the 
maker . Bnt if Self is the maker why did he not make thinge 
pleasing ? The causes of sorrow and joy are real and objective. 
How can they have been made by Self. Again if you adopt the agru-' 
ment, there is no maker, our fate is such us it is, and there is no 
causation, what use would there be in shaping uur lives and 
adjusting means to an 'end ? Therefore we argue that all things 
that exist are not without cause. However, neither Iswara nor 
the Absolute, nor the Self, nor causeless chance, is the maker, but 
ourdeeds produce results both good and evil. The whole world 

is under the law of causation, and the close* that not are not 
nnroenCa], for the gold of which the oup is nude is gold through- 
out. L«t,u* then surrender the heresies of worshipping Iswara 
and praying to him ; let ns not lose ourselves in vain speenlatioBs- 
of .profitless subtleties ; Jet mi surrender Self and all selfishness, and 
bb all things are fixed by causation, . let ns practice tgood so that 
good may result from onr actions." Kil quotation though long 
is quite necessary for a full comprehension of the Buddhistic view 
on the point and a reasonable conclusion dedncible from the same. 
This view of creation involves considerable confusion in thought. 
We have already seen Chat acoording to Buddha Goutama, there is 
only one true Essence which has assumed the diverse forms, 
and this Essence or Truth is not nnmental, that is, is spiritual. 
When this spiritual essence or true spirituality assumes the 
diverse forms, ranging in infinite gradations, seemingly distinct 
at the extreme points, by what term does Buddha Goutamd. call 
this act of transformation, into diverse forms t This is creation 
in the language of Hindu Upanishads. *Buddba Goutama should 
tell ns how pure spirituality is translated jnto pure materiality. 
According to Brthadaranyatoppafushaal, Varahopaniafiad, Chando- 
gyopanithad, and some other Upanishads, motion results from 
the Chit of Faramatma and this is oalled energy.. This motion ia 
forward and backward Gatagatam and atoms are derived front for- 
ward and backward motion and gross matter is formed from atoms 
and thus all bodies are derived with a substratum of Faramatma 
in them (Trist&habrciaancpanisftad). Buddha Goutama tells us 
that " all compound things shall be dissolved again, world will 
break to pieces and our individualities will fee scattered." In this 
saying, he admits the formation of compound matters from pieces 
or atoms, and how are these atoms derived t They are derived 
certainly from the spiritual mind which is the Truth and which is 
immortal. The only passible explanation for the evolution of 
atoms from the spiritual mind which is the Troth is the explanation 
of Hinds Upanishads. What name does Buddha Goutama assign 
to this process of evolution ? Hindu Upanishads call it a creation by 
itself and a step in the course of creation of compound objects 
Atoms are grouped together into compound bodies in and by the 
mind of the one spiritual essence. Is this not creation? Hindu 
Upanishads call it so and Buddha cannot help calling it so. Thus 
it ib not unreasonable to say that the one true spiritual essence not 
unraental creates the visible universe of diverse forms by trans- 
forming Himself into those forms. If Buddha Goutama objects to 
this sort of expression, he eats hiB own doctrines and there is no 
use of attempting any controversy with htm. Goutama objects to 
creation by Iswara, a Personal creator, in the ground that all living 
things like so many puppets should then silently subject them- 
selves to tho power of Ishwara, and it would he im possible for living 
things to practice virtue. This objection will hold jjood in the case 
of those who contend that living things are different from the one 
essence creating them. Understand Iswara as the one essence con- 
verting its own spirituality into diverse living forms, would not 
Ishwara then be a creator? It is in this sense Ishwara is said to 
be creator by die Hindu Vcdas and so thero is every reason in 
speaking of eieati.m by Ishwara. Any objection that oau be 
directed against this vk-w on the ground of impracticability of 
virtue must he directed against the position of Buddha that all 
thinj-s arc the transformations of one and the same essence, and so 
there is no room for the practice of virtue. In what sense accord- 
ing to Vednuta, virtue is practicable and in .v'uit sense not, we 
shall see further on on the basis of creation by Ishwara. Buddha 
Goutama tells u* tlM pure and impure deeds mast come from 
him. This is what ? According to Tejobiudoopaniehad, whatever 



Is acceptable {including pan deeds) sod what if rejectahla 
(including impure deeds), Vishnu, Siva, the nonce* And niind, 
*bl feet that Siva destroys the worlds, Vishnu protects them 
ud Brahma create! them, that everything from creation &e. it ub 
tme a* the horns of a hart. After stating this, like Buddha the same 
TJpaniahad gee* on to say that the wind it the whole universe; 
that mind is the greatest Lord, that nrtnd it the old age Ac, 
that mind ia thin, that mind is impurity, that minrl ig conception 
or desire, that mind is the Living individual, that mind ia 
Chitta, (the will power). that mind ie Ahankura that mind ia 
the greatest bondage, that mind is the internal Knranaa, tliat 
Bind is the earth, that mind is water, that mind is lire that 
mind is air, akas and sound, and that the presiding deities 
of directions, VaSUB, Budrn. and the Sun are all essence of 
mind. So, Buddha Goutsma'e position is jnsl the position of 
Tsjoblndoopanishad. He denies the existence of Self in the same 
Trey a* the did Upanishad does. " Yon are not, I am not." Every 
thing ia nothing but pore Brahm&m or as Bntldlis would Bay 
the one true essence, 

S, Ramaswami Iyeir, b. a., b, r„ 
( To be continued) ■ 

[We bag to difler from onr learned contributor as to the correct - 
neas of his indent iticat ion here and above. If the Chando^va told 
nt ' All this ia Brahman,' it also told us step by step, ' not this,' 
•aot this,' 'not Agni,' 'not Prima,' 'not Jfornw," ' not Buddht,* 
' not Atma ' (human spirit) ; and by this process, it reached 
the Highest, the Brahman, 8ivam ; it turned hack and saw 
nothing but the One and not a Second. 'All things are rooted 
in me, not I in them" is the simple exposition "of the whole 
Uptniahad, which is again expressed in tbe simple Tamil phrase, 
" ■■tHisii.' j|««i|[nu." That the Highest Postulate of Truth is 
the One Bnpreme Brahman ie set forth ia beautiful language by 
Tirwmidar himself later on. " #'S** Qmfiijtu, ^•«Jr .-raj-jani S^r 
soi^ii." All this ia different from what Buddha means.' In the 
sfesje of -96 or 36 Tatwaa, Buddha never cared to ascend or look 
beyond the ' Bnddbi ' Tatwa. To assert that beyond Baddhi is 
son!, and that beyond sou) is Ishwan was itself bondage, cause 
of birth and misery. All else it no doubt Buddhi, but there Is 
nothing higher than that. And no doubt, in appropriating all TJpa- 
nishad textt, as our learned contributor so well illustrates, Buddha 
or his followers do not scruple to substitute his Buddhi (mind) 
wherever the word ' Brahman' or ' Sat' occurs. If the TJpanishads 
and Parana* Ac., could be arranged iu order of their dates, it could 
also be seen, that persons other than Buddhists have had recourse 
to the very same method. According to Buddha, ' Buddhi' (mind) 
is all, the One Truth Ac, but ' neither Ishwara, nor the absolute, 
nor the Self (Atma— Soul)' (vide quotation above). With the 
Vednnti and Biddhanti, thia Buddhi of Goutama (hence his name, 
Buddha ; c. f. matter — materialist ; idea — idealist) is Asat and in 
comparison to this Atma, Soul is Sat. According to the Siddhanti, 
erven this Atma, Soul is Asat in the presence of the True Sit (God). 
"ufnaiju 5jrf»j.i »*O#0«." After the quotation given by our 
marned commentator from page 60, of Paul Cams' book, to say 
that the Highest Postulate of Yedanta-Siddhanta and the highest 
postulate of Buddhism is the same cannot bat be a ease of mistaken 
identity.— ED.] 


A Supplication. 

Perfect fulness that in shape of Teacher, beauteous 
with holy grace and knowledge, sbowereat grace, 

Thou that ever stoodst as One, Pure Form, never- 
waning Substance, great Ocean of GoodnesB, 

Splendour that art the beginning and the end and 
very bliss, Truth, Wealth imperishable, 

Thon didst of thy great and divine grace set the earth 
and all the spheres of this wide universe, 

So that the countless kinds of living things may grow 
and thrive, which, bcrn in egg and womb, root and 
dirt, pass unceasing through the seven orders.* J" 

And in order that helpless sools may prosper which 
not even for the twinklicg of an eye have intelli- 
gence of their. own, 

Thou didst according to tbeir deed of old cause bodies, 
from atom to mighty mountain, to be, and time 
from an instant to measureless ceons. 

Thou didst lovingly give unto each aonl desire, that 
whatsoever body it took, it may regard life in it 
to be happiness not pain, and may rear it as its 
own'and inseparable. 

Thon didst make ignorance seem aa wisdom, the nn- 
diacerning soul Baying " This body is I." 

To core the delusion thou didatmake time and act, 
institution and rule, hell and heaven. 

Thon didst fittingly, of thy limitless love, for. the sta- 
blishing of Tirtne and wealth, pleasure and frae- 
dom.t inspire aa Teacher millions of religions. 

* Gods, men, quadrupeds, birds, creeping things, aqnatio things 

f The four olasses into which human acquisitions may be divided, 
and which have been pithily explained by a gnat Tamil woman 
Auveuvr as follows : — 

uiLi—Gp sSssVuti ujS&i8^tSpiityifn-jtU> 
eaVLi-C> Qu&eru rf«, 
" Giving is Virtue; what is acquired without wrong-doing is Wealth; 
the devotion of two lovers living ever heart-united is Plea- 
sure ; the giving up of these three' for tbe Snpreme is the 
great bliss of Freedom." 
HBr definition of Wealth is one after the heart of Buskin, and 
reconciled two thousand years ago the oom flint which modern 
Economists have in vain endeavoured to reconcile between Ethic* 
and Economics. Compare it with a definition given by .Mr- 
Gosehen in his address on Ethics and Economics an d which is 
nosatisfaotory enough. " Human energies, faculties, and habits, 
physical, mental and moral which directly contribute to make 
men industrially efficient and therefore increase their power of 
producing wealth. Manual skill and iBtelHgenee are included in 
the personal wealth of the •ation." 



Thou didst stand in each religion, while it like the 
rest shewed, in splendid fatness of treatises, 
disputations, sciences, each its tenet to be the 
troth, the final goal. 

Thou didst stand in each religion, yet of a nature 
beyond all religions.* 

And when the celestials, sages and others gave them- 
selves np to thee and cried, " Take us, Lord, 
for thy vassals " and stood still, their acts over, 
thon didst grant them even the flawless boon of 

To me too that boon to grant of thy grace it is meet. 

P. A. 

(g£J su to- (SB t«t (^aap^Sem mesip Geu 
iSsajuQ&i sir Qp & aru>ei>BJiB_Qeii 

Q*<i Qiu #j Gp Op»lB>*£si>r(ippQec 

uC!Qppeif3Bi~uu<r uQuentiSjaid} 


jfga^sjei)#sBio,: #& gy is £ jo styes 
a am (ip $ mnurtSjB a p u s, /> M go iB 

*■»? LD U -J(g$S>Qfti €T BDtcdSt-, IT 

Gteidfi—Qin'dspir p bj ty^eoaiir ia3gb!& 
8fMl uQll ssrijai ^ jn u tSfei 0«j eer u 
l3$u-(i £uemsggiQptfl&DWtt$GriG/&rir&& 


ji/B^i Qui s*<8<u irta lb uStuiS d 



jtpiiQutrQ&nifdgjpuHjG) iJStMtfi p 
fgf{!$sji>ii4fm!!psQ<'->ir(!$suiiQu'e!>&wni ) ui 

tua^firdttTpioQuit pjBra>£ie&Ui 

*tf. Tenryeoa — 

" Our tittle ey item* have their day, 
They have their day and cease to be, 
They are but broken light! of Thee, 
Thon, Lord, art more than they." 

iBtfjnfBpAril tf.G*j<g*>paNfirrfmi*jk)s 

jf««ej<g* &rp3nB-Q*JMi(9)Wii8f 



is euQftdisirC-if. tariff er iSQevp (J 


(Continued from page 128.) 

^anffCeu Q^dvsxF.Gei) Qaj^eGuseo Qar^Gueofi 

^if-iu *p mc&jGuc GennpiLiyfG! BiemjUtoiu 
§j<—f@QturQ xsarGwgtuiajwtk 

tskr^flut. GiLin(&Qp&*toft 
<cli«L* 9«ntu>0qaiu Qpili^Gmi (JomQast 

sasrtSietT QiuQpui-i&tsm&iLB 

GundSVeo GuB&tftLVlu 

i_jasieBUiQ±i eSrSrssriBsiiesLi, 
i^erfCfsD nj&i- hj !} it>eir to SaioSsu d mttmMi 
Qeis$LJLjt—d, Gpappsk Qmjais>®ii> 

d}pt*& &d.pff£ftKGui. 


63. O The Host of Siddhas of Divine powers who 
have attained the noblest order of viewing the Ve- 
danta and the Siddhanta alike ! 1 cannot for a second 
control my restless mind like a wind — whirl and be 
intent on the Divine Arul* Nor would I remain in 
mona\ with closed eyes, and restraining my breath 
and arousing my innermost fire to reach the Soma's/ 

Alas '. you can hardly find a greater fool than my- 
self on the face of earth. I have not yet made any 
best nse of my knowledge acquired by learning as well 
as by hearing. 

Divine Souls, let me, a poor creature, enjoy your 
graceful sight in full, so that I may no more address 
myself to vain pursuits of life. 

* Vide note to 34th verse. 

t Vide note to 2nd verse. 

t Vide note to " Siva-Raja-Yoga" under 62nd verae »ud note to 
61tt verse. 



*w«t>(^> Qp~**suqpi teHQujm ayie «r^# 
mctftri +i_M0fil mQffQfgs Qt-nuQutjk 
mwseapjB mjtimi&ufi QtusngtS^ ug^it 
SatmrsiuM cffsv* u>Bir<iem& GlosSC 

QfHiui-iQam faifiQ&rteGmi 
t£ m or snQt-ipGaiOnrmet eu^OfirmGrn^Li—if-eDioUieiirii 

Qai&nkp Q# fillip sum f&eiF tiHSetOupp 

64. O The Host of Siddhas of Divine powers who 
have attained the noblest order of viewing the Ye- 
danta and the Siddhanta alike ! 

In the case of certain Holy Saints* of old, the 
Supreme Being gave forth as a hint the first line of 
their Sacred Foems, which was as sweet as sugar- 
cane or sugar-candy or the three delicious fruits. t 

But, on the contrary, I have sung my poems, as 
suggested by my perfect or imperfect knowledge, 
whenever I wonld weep like anything. Since, how- 
ever, I see that they are liked by the people in 
general, I believe that the -world will apply to yon for 
information about the Divine accomplishment of their 
writer, you being the great authorities in the matter 
of attaining the final JInkti. 

0, Gods, for that day when you would, among 
other things, describe me to them to be a sage of 
absolute goodness. X 

£ U K «^ >&J X 40 ©£L r mV es^?.jti uS3i' ttJ (T* prQs IT €?B © 
L±<ffif Ss. erpss^iiw-xaj* ii) 

SItU aj<tr £!,#■** «!F ^#*S«SiS UJltsDlfl 

jgrau-- eSTftrrsar .sat, i.® ut-^rjl 

* The rnfi-rc-iice is ta l'rriii[)iirau and other wicimd works, in 
which thf v!tv fim liiw «sm h'intril '*? (M tn Itf-iriu with. Tin? 
Hrstlim- in tl$M aaiil Puran lji-iiiu; '■ ■'- »«» a--' *~fv-t tit**" 
susceptible of various ideas which lie l>iiri<n| in it. its ronuh trans- 
lation tieiiW? ''The QHrniacicnt Lord uf the Wm-I.l*. iiulcwriljaiilc." 

t Vide note to J7th verse. 

t Tin- Saint, in thia verse, exjKMH* l»s earnest expectation of 
eJiudiniK tu say whether, in their vW. he lias pushed tin- lest ot 
" Satiric preponderance-." 

u«oi—ffiiuF finuQppebria 
uaSQ*rt$*es*r Lugfitrui Qar&.uai<i*r ©<y<_ ff©»ia,cr 

uQLotr mitrmtirtQtb 
QwptSmftaii— qenpjeiirp paiirsfg 8&mQu>m 

G&ptriip- Bfifiirifi j=u>jrrt** aH^»Qupp 

d)#fia& fififieavGio, (65) 

65. The Host of Siddbas of Divine powers who 
have attained the noblest order of viewing the Ve- 
danta and the Siddhanta alike ! Mighty Yoghis, 
I would compare you to a lion : yonr beautiful 
hands and legs contain prolongated nails ; and, elated 
with spiritual joy due to Divine Blessing, yon get 
bright and cheerful; while your bodies always shine 
with sacred ashes and bear pleasing consistency with 
your slender waists. Further you assume an elevated 
look in contemplation with your eyes ever open. 

Let me now esteem your bold enterprise; you would 
easily destroy the dark elephants of Anava* and, 
exulting yourselves in triumph, you would sic grand 
upon the variegated tiger skins beneath the cool- 
shaded groves of the nionntains thickly overgrown 
with lofty trees, wherein the Solar rays or the dews 
at nights can never enter. 

The Lions of ascetics, the sages and celestials 
enlogtse you, indeed, with all their hearts. 

jsaisiirfi (Sun*Gerr m&ieomiim ssoaoeo&is^ 

*iia>jimf QiusirQntAGscr wfitetuQuar QftiistGs 

&&iGmti q^acffdQGeiir &iu>np& StiQiiorjr 

off i_lS(?fii/£BT AffLaQuDSf^ejor 
,5(rL_!4tgji GiVfii-itfiiLj tQtrserQpd BajQiDaj* 

a/MMir Q $&)(&, pp sin aiB OfifiiriT s&i—fi&Geti 

& , eisapl& tp<B^nQi& arenEiGer wi^Oia'ifitS^ 
svfermser Qfig 1 L/sscGsieir 

Sti/svi^ii .im Qe6ei>BBtT4-l lb (it, tltaaji— <Hf&*eytss 
sDfiODpQiuar ■JpfijUpQ^GiDif 

afi^Jtf Bp^irsenrGia, (66) 

66. O The Host of Siddhas of Divine powers who 
have attained the noblest order of viewing the Ve- 
danta and tbe Siddhanta alike ! 

* Anava means ignorance of darbaeu herein compared with an 
elephant, of dark colour and strength which can be overcome onlj 
by the lion the king of hearts. 



Sometimes illiteracy becomes by far superior to 
learning, in as muoh as I see that even among the 
learned the 'ignorance does prevail. For instance, 
see my insensible tendencies, the effect of my past 
karma*. A.s an intellectual giant I would, by the 
force of my argument, establish that Karmat alone 
can procure the Mokti, before the wise who would 
kindly instruct me that the Highest End can be 
attained only by the Pathi-Gnanat of Bliss. If one 
should disease in favour of Karma, I would take up 
the side of the said Guana and succeed in establishing 
it (gnana) at the immediate step to Moksha. Before 
one who professes to be a Sanskrit scholar, I would 
argue in Tamil as though I were well versed in it ; 
and if he should apeak in Tamil, I woald try to hush 
kirn up by some quotations from Sanskrit. 

O Spiritual Lords, I have found, however, that bare 
intellectual cleverness of silencing§ others with good 
speech can nerer lead one to Moksha. 

^arjBp u>trmuj-a, 

Qt&QutSeirjx Quaes fiQett* u ten 
G*gtQwj* p&ru^tt. un#Qu>p p%eeraiek 

QOfEitQetrg, pBssrQtiTJiu-iucifiigi 
sBifljjiscLO Qajpfekr lusisDgQtijp pSorwers 

stneirQiOg $&** njefr en # p 

Qr&taemio duller tSa0trQ4tei^i^. QueredlQetii 

QwmfQiup flbsvrener iBk^ff^e tfiiCuM^ 

ji injur taw Qtujfptism Kj«roifl^^!a» iL)onitnf.sBi£ 
ujtQas aSeemi ir&jL&ft Q err F 

ujnnikp iDFeruttGu). (67) 

Gop-heab as The Sdfbeme One of Beatitude. 
67. O The Supreme One of Beatitude, the Grand 
Receptacle of both seen and unseen Universes ! 

• Karma means Karma main. Vide note to Znd verse. 

t Karma here means action, i. e., Sariya, Kiriya and Toga alone. 
It is alBO called Karma marga. Vide note to 41st verse about 
' Bhakti M&rga' and c. f. 36th verse. 

X Pafhi-Gnsna is ' the wisdom of the Lord Siva or Pasupatfti.' 
c. i. " Karma (action) ia simply a means for attaining wisdom and 
forme a lower rung in the ladder which leads to Jtukti or release." 
Vide page 19 of The Aimkened India of August 1B97. 

§ c. f. the-saying " Silence your opponent with reason and not 
with noise." We know that some religious preachers simply bawl 
out their own side, absurd ae it is. 

Truly divine it will be to acquire the habit of 'non- 
killing,' the first step in Siva-Raja-Yoga*: It avoid* 
a multitude of evil tendencies. But alas ! I am quite 
destitute thereof, and, consequently, I am made a 
miserable victim to many sinful qualities — namely — 
violence, partiality, austerity, incivility, haughtiness 
and circumvention ; stupid disregard to beneficial 
advices, with an aversion to spiritnal-mindedness ; 
and a disposition to join naughty associations and take 
to rain pursuits of life with food attachment to this 
juggle-natured body. 

Can I, O Blissful Lord, who am Thy beloved ser- 
vant, be made to serve these non-sattvic passions ? 

Q&ni5£:e>ieiT<T Qfpir&iLitF 

HpqpUM ajaqpianuj jBjjgj siSuloit iuu 

GuireQ&irS aiff^g/inirS 
@(gsiri7S QiunffinjtrQ leersaLo^ as>u>mntrQ 

uSeer^S aadstrajirS 
6t asr jjtitr! Qtwrew jpujna^u uSetyuia iweittnir 

uSeneiiu-jweu mi n uj iS sir 3ar 
J»/T$sr<r@ S sir p suit ^ ^ fi %a j sic aiffQcv<(3a> 

ajirerif wti&au ?(?«>, (6ST 

68. The Supreme One of Beatitude, the Grand 
Receptacle of both seen and unseen Universes I 0!' 
none but, the true Siva-Gnani, the object of Thy 
Divine Grace, can comprehend and know Thee. For, 
as the Great Chaitanyamf which animates the whole 
cosmos, Thou cans* be said to be anythipg and every 
thing in it- Thou art the restless mind of llgbt and 
ignorance and Thou art the intelligence gleaming 
through that mind ; Thou art the Siva-Chxt% the basis 
of all intelligences; Thou art the wonderful pheno- 
mena and yet the true Unchangeable Reality ; Thou 
art all objects of nature and the five senses that 
understand that nature and also the objects of those 
five senses ; Thou art the five elements ; Thou art 
manifest and not-manifest, accessible and not-acces- 
sible ; Thou art the increase and decrease in nature ; 

Thou art the night as well as day and good as well 

- — *- 

* Vide note to ' Ashta-anga Yoga' another name for *.' SIVA' 
Raja- YOga" under verse 61. 
f Tide note to 25tli verse for ' Maha Chajtanyain.' 

J Siva-Chit. c. f. 1st verse last bat one para. 



as bad * Thon art the one the several and all and 
Ike Past, Present and Fatore. 
And yet Thsu art not any of these, 

tatmtSiQfiiD «S«4rt_«v(jp Qwnm(tp3 uim^ifiet 

wrttnQ Sjh*eu/eli-iti 

Q-i.arQicQfmrsir p&wGmippUM 
&pmgtijB ennOfaouu Ot-itrsnQoi ftianpQundr 

Q&ms4t £& dm *.'/&■&<< <r 
Q#ifJ6ES©«<r® QfserrjDW/tisiirrr 

UjT<S(lpSss- !L> 1 til a $€L' n i 

\uivrk^ LDnsr uffQin, (69) 

69. O The Supreme Oue of Beatitude, the Grand 
Receptacle of both seen and unseen Lniverses ! Thou 
art but One God manifesting Thyself differently to all 
the sis local schoolst of religion. 

25 o body is able to know this secret on account of 
the effects of his Anava + For instance, some men 
simply indulge iu controversies. Some are so much 
greedy aud speculative ns to move Leaven and earth 
for the simple purpose of their daily bread and some 
take to hypocrisies. Some will be outwardly mutter- 
ing tlie sacred syllables of the mantrap while their 
mind will really be occupied by this Prapancha. \\ 
Some, like me, would profess to well propound the 
hidden secrets of the s*astes just as all the commodi- 
ties are exhibited in a busy market, for sale. Some 
men g(;i'. themselves provoked so much so that their 
eyes grow red and their breath becomes impeded. 
And lastly, some would claim uudue preference to 
their own Doctrines and in so doing would simply 
blah tliinii.'h the Tuuio-gnna»^ of prejudice and 

R. Shln.mloa UiDALiAR. 

( To br roitthiwd.) 

: * t;.n! ......1 ui tin' ;,'u<>il iiml bad to the iwJttd. At tht 

lc:tT'i'-rt '.v.iiilil c<Onj.:tri'. Iii* Unilm-".* is iiko The Siii'i^t'ini 1 !* Ji.'unfur 

+ \ i.ii- i,i> A'J%U \'»-r»i'. 

Jjo,i itrtMR! iit-v. Viili> urn.- n.« St I, term.:. 

* V'iil'- '.'i Otii rer*i" uljniii Pi'iiiiuv;!.' 

Vide mi, Li- i'i lOtlt verai 
^ l.uiia i|inil*ty. Villi* die yt> Tmwhs umler 4Sr!i rtvsv. 




(Continued from page 1 52.) 

Note on Nirvana. 
And I need rot go much into Buddhist metaphysics 
as that hae been already done in the text. However, 
a word or two about the Bnddhist ideal of Nivvana. 
Learned men have discussed st great length as to the 
precise meaning of this conception and they are all at 
logger heads. Professor Max Muller and Dr. Rhys 
Davids, however, say that this cannot mean the extinc- 
tion of a soul. "It is the extinction of that sinful, grasp- 
ing condition of mind and heart, which would other- 
wise, according to the great mystery of Karma, be the 
canse of renewed individual existence." The defini- 
tion is so far correct but I beg leave to ask, if Buddha 
did postulate the existence of a soul and a future 
state or not. No doubt, latterly, as among the Chinese 
the conception was the roughly materialised and 
votaries waxed eloquent about the beauties of the 
paradise. But the question remains, according to 
Buddhist metaphysics, was there a soul or not ? Our 
owd opinion is that Buddha did not go to affirm or 
deny a soul, though later Buddhists made him deny a 
soul and Iswara. (vide page, 60. Paul Car us quoted 
by Mr. Ramasami Aiyar emie.) He contented himself 
with the fact that the cessation of all desire and 
suffering and birth must be the > sole aim, mid 
nothing further need be thought of. The other side 
represented by Hinduism was altogether ignored. 
In fact as we shall (show, Buddha only took ono 
side of Hindu metaphysics forgetting the rest. The 
idea of Nirvana as defined above is a purely Hindu 
idea. The word occurs in the Git.i [Y 24, 25, 26") and 
in the Saivite rituals, Nirvana Diksha ii the highest 
mystery. The word, literally means non-flowing 
(the same root as in vayu vahini), Achala, steady, 
peace ; and as this peace was to the obtained by 
casting off desire, it has come generally to mean 
extinction r. f. Nirvanam iu Tamil meaning — nude 
and Nirvani — nude person. The Arhat (jygjaof) is re- 
presented as nud^i. All these words — Nirvana, .Mukri, 
Veedu mean therfore casting off or giving tip sorar- 
thing. What is th;tt which has to be cast off or given 
up ? It is man's egoism < the feeling of I ai'd mine , the 
feeling of like and dislike, desire, the cause ol lmtfi 
and death, and suffering acid sorrow: and until mini's 



egoism, his separate personality was destroyed, annihi- 
lated, no suffering and birth Can cease. But thia 
egosim is different from man's innermost soul ; and 
tbat can never be destroyed and is never destroyed. 
This lives, clothed in Glory and Bliss and in a Higher 
Existence and is never consoions, and could not be 
conscious of its existence. Goanis, Muktas both in 
the body and outside (there is no inside or outside) 
are dead to the world practically. He enjoys Ananda 
but is never conscious of such enjoyment. The mean- 
ing will be plain when we pause to consider the 
difference and distinction between a feeling and a 
consciousness o| such feeling. In the union with the 
Supreme, there is no duality. The duality will be 
present only, if the soul in Mukti is conscious. In 
the absolute, both the auoject and object merge, 
though the object is present, it ceases to exist as it 
were, by reason of cessation of object consciousness. 
Buddha never cared to go into these deeper mysteries 
or as some would have it, did not want to throw these 
pearls before swine. But the mischief has been done, 
and what he openly gave out has been crystallized 
into a system, and it holds in its thraldom millions of 
mankind. There is always a danger in proclaim- 
ing and emphasizing an half truth, however whole- 
some it may be at times. The Hindu himself meant 
to emphasize by the use of the words Nirvana, 
Mukti, Veedu, the supreme importance- of giving up 
desire as the supreme means of Salvation, but he does 
not ignore as Buddha did, the entry of the soul into 
a Blissful state of existence. Though these conditions 
follow one another as cause and effect, yet these are 
two distinct experiences, and the latter condition 
depends on a Higher Will, than man's puny efforts ; 
another condition precedent to it, is, that man must 
own his allegiance to the Higber-Self and melt himself 
into love of Him. 1 have elsewhere illustrated the 
difference of these conditions by the simile of the 
blind man. The blind map wher operated on, in a 
darkroom, does lose the defect, by casting off the 
film that covered his personality ; but can that alone 
be his Goal. The Buddhist ideal will lead the Arhat 
only so far. He might regain his sight but he will 
still have to remain in darkness. It will do no good 
but this may be in itself a satisfaction so far. But 
with only such a motive, man cannot proceed far. 
Who will think it worth his while to go to an expert 
doctor and pay him a high fee and undergo some 
suffering t'oo, if after regaining his eye-sight, the 
same doctor should prescribe that he should never 

see light. - Much better it would have been if his 
cataract had remained as it was. There are some 
other schools among as also which go by much 
more dignified name? which would land as in the 
same difficulty. Some of these latter postulate utter 
annihilation of the soul at the moment of attaining 
Mukti and others again assert that there is do anubava 
at all. These views are met by Sage Meikanda Deva 
in bis commentary on the 1 Ith Sutra of Sivagn&na- 
botha; and the connection between this Sutra and the 
foregoing one illustrates the point I have been dis- 
cussing above. The tenth Sutra treats of Pasatchaya, 
removal of Pasa, or bonds, "^enpuaBfttB/ba, loikloikou 
i £«ir© ( «!) | 9u> avsviQ936»u9aij-C?^)."(In submitting to the Will 
of the Lord, Mala, Maya and Karma are all removed) 
and the 1 1th Sutra treats of Pathignana, or Annbava., 
the entering into the Blissful condition, jfiue/rjfar 
l9«t ,*<r<3>#toai Q,<F£|i(cui ' (with undying love it will 
enter tne feet of Hara). The following appeared 
in the ' Notes and Comments' in the July number of 
this magazine, which I beg permission to quote. 

" A reviewer in'the April Number of fihe Aeiatic Quarterly Review, 
on Dr. Dbsllraau'e work on Nirvana, points oat that according to the- 
learned Doctor, who ia a great authority on Mahabhaxata, Nirvana 
is a pre-Bliuddhistic idea, borrowed neither from the classical 
Vedanta nor from the classical Sankbva but from an older system, 
in whioh Nirvana means Brahma-Nirvana, and entering into the 
Absolute- Brahman and that this system, ia to he found in the 
M&babharata and Gita. Thia is no new news ito the SMdhanti,. 
who jubilantly sings. 

|m«r usui untsLp Qp&iQ&reiiBdQstHLt—trQi&tr." 
" Let me sing, ' I ' am lost, my mind is lost, my 
sense is lost my body is lost. 

Qp&rGs*eeiyu3 Q&mLt—ilQwti," 
" Let me sing, I lost my ' I ' and gained " Sivam " 

These quotations are from Saint Manikavachaka's 
Thiruvachaka and to these I will add another quota- 
tion, which I hope by this time your readers have 
got by heart. I refer, of course, to stanza No. 7, in 
* The House of God,' printed at page 5] . 

SBupySsspfitaBUi S&iruupSSbriiGfi 

dr'iLeQt'biSljSgi tnjDfSaicBiD 
Q&eirnfQ&grp^ieuaiLt/i QpiuiijsiQp<uihQpr& (ryk 

j&QuQuQ/i&t&p Hjsmp&euGar 
QuJirarjpuSujwUt ujei'/SOivi'ei'^SeiitK 

mn^/A^BS sjj&iu@puiiQg, 



This day in Thy mercy unto me thou didst drive 

away the darkness and stand in my heart as 

the rising Bun. 
Of this Thy way of rising — there bein<r naught else 

hut Thou, — I thought without thought 
I drew nearer and nearer to Thee, wearing away atom 

by ntom, till I was One with Thee, O, Siva, 

Dweller in the great holy shrine. 
Thon art Dot not aught in the universe, Naught is 

there save Thou, i , . 
Who can know Tbee ? 

The simile contained in this Hymn may he drawn- 
out in the following manner to illustrate the meaning. 
The San rises on the horizon sad proceeds to the 
zenith of its glory ; and we have to watch a mau and 
his shadow from early morn, to midday. At the point 
of rise, the shadow is the longest, and when the Sun 
ia jmat overhead the shadow vanishes Altogether 
and the shadow is seen to decrease as the Sun mounts 
higher and higher up in the heavens. Man might 
fancy that the Sun is coining nearer to him, when 
in fact he is going nearer to the Sun ; but the other 
also is a fact ; for, bat for the influence and attraction 
of the Sun itself, the earth itself could not revolve on 
its axis. In the place of the Sun, place God ; and in 
the place of man, his soul, and for shadow, his egoism, 
his anava, his imperfections, lies, sin. As he nears his 
God, and get* nearer and nearer (' Qeorj* Qtubjt ') 
with the thought past thought that there is naught 
but God {'Mu-i&spxSfSfi Lopf&o"z><f S'&xuupS&r.vQf'), 
his eril, his shadow gets thinner and thinner [Gptui^>) when finally ail is removed, and naught 
else remains but the One Supreme Light which covers 
and swallows him in Its mystic folds. 

■0<g>j*(Tp(># tunSaid VfieG* 

ius®£iu<S«iar«sn rfyfef Catpjk 

*lgflfl£;»o £<&!>£( ftjOUilCu). 

"OThou Inexhaustible Ambrosia, Thou King 

with the sparkling spear, 
Thou Ocean of Intelligence, can I speak it ? 
Swallowing fully what I call my ' I,' 
The Supreme stands One, alone, without a second" 
— Arunagiri Nathar- 
In that short book of his Kandaranubhuti, consonant 
with the title of his book, how often does not Saint 
Arunagiri Nathar emphasize the same truth. 
"QsueiMHupmtBim&ifi&p smui," 
'-'The good of my having lost myself, forgetting 

(Bj/Samui^/Siunjs) (■« fi p s j3 'iu ii> 

3# 'mi p pSp> (}£utr$aan Q/s&DfiiqLijpgit 


" The moment my Lord showed me the way of knowing 
the mark without knowing it, I lost my bonds, 
I lost my mind involved in worldly converse, 
I lost my intelligence and ignorance." 

siftQ^in&spp iBfsrpi&a/iTBfleBsi) 

Qf/SQeuaiiipp mik^ryGsn &eB?su 
QtojflQajfB paG o aCijitw GmeneuGer, 

'' Art thou not the Lord who inseparably dwel- 
lest in the thought of those who think of 
thee without thought ? it i9^& V0- 

Thou dwellest with those who have lost their 
madness by losing their bonds, and their 

" #.&■!! & *emh ^seir niS or lS fir 
Cu#fl-jvgi'y^ tSpifi&Gai." 

" After the i ope of desire js cut asunder into 
atoms, the unspeakable Annbava ctme into 
being " 

These last two lines pnts in the Buddhist's and Sid- 
dhanti's position in clear juxtaposition. One says 
" ^rnSserii ^serr ^}i@' and stops with it and the 
other does not stop with it and proceeds to postulate 
a higher state of knowledge and enjoyment. With 
the foregoing, both in language and in sentiment may 
be compared the following verses from the Kural of 
Saint Thiruvalluvar, especially as he is ci-edited to have 
been a Buddhist or a Jain. For one thing, Saint Thirtf- 
valluvar believed in a Soul and God and a future life 
and there conld be no doubt about it and he does not 
make it a secret. He postulates with Buddha that 
desire, tanba, is the cause of birth, 

" Desire is the unfailing cause' (seed) of birth, 
always, to all living beings." 

And in the next verse, he says that this much desired 
freedom from birth is possible only by desiring the 
cessation of aesire. And yet in other preceding 
chapters, he lays down that the bonds of birth are 
cut asunder, when desire is lost, " <-ipppp iewCsaar 
iJfpLJujjifgii," that for attaining this means of salva- 
tion,' the desire of love of the Perfect Being is essen- 



The difference of Pasatchaya and Patbignaua are 
also well brooght out in the following verse with the 
familiar simile of light and darkness. 

"The seer of the spotless vision after losing his 
defects, obtains Bliss, shorn of darkness." 

The similarity between u>Qir Xssih and @($«r£i«u> 
on the one hand, u>i^jpa.irLlS and Jg/aruu) utupzea 
on the other, and the difference between these two 
are what should be noted* particularly in this and in 
veree .% in Chapter I and the whole chapter itself. 

If we turn to the Gita, tor. a moment and read 
again chapters 4 and 5, we will find how word for 
word, these repeat themselves. As an eminent Indian 
once observed, we have to read the Gita from back- 
wards, and then the connection of 5th and 4th chap- 
ters will be apparent. Chapter 5 troats of Karma- 
Sannyasa-yoga and chapter 4 of G-nana-yoga and 
the same distinction of Pasatchaya and Patliignaua is 
brought out to the full, by the use of the words and 
the same figures as in the Tamil passages quoted 
above. " He who acteth, placing all actions in Brah- 
man, abandoning attachment,, is unpolluted by sin as 
a lotus-leaf by the waters (Y "10) (c.J. flM.B uesH fto.) 
" The harmonised man, having abandoned the fruit 
of action, at^aioeth to everlasting Peace ; the non- 
hai-nnnised, impelled by desire, attached to fruit, are 
bouiid. [e.f. ^fuSsen-ia &c. above;. Verses 14 and 
15 by the way. meet the common fallacy that God 
is the cause of our material nature and is the author 
of the evil, and that all evil and good should be ascrib- 
ed to hirn. Nothing can be a greater mistake than 
this. Nature, Maya, explains the universe of mind and 
matter and action. Ignorance, Anavumala covers 
the naturally pure human spirit. "Verily, in whom 
Agnana is destroyed by Brahtnagnan or Pathignana, 
to them is revealed the Highest, Shining as the Sun." 
" Thinking on That, identifying himself with That, 
believing in That, solely devoted to That, they go 
whence there is no return, their Bins dispelled by 
Wisdom. (Verse lb* and 17 e.f, " gfaxQrwia^ai))," 
" He whose self is unattached to external contacts, 
finds joy in God " (Verse 21 e.f. uv&w mtp *&{&&'■, ua? 
ayiS-ii. u&aitm,} "The Rishis obtain the Brahma- 
Nirvana, their sins destroyed, their duality removed; 

their selves controlled, intent upon the welfare of all 
being-." (Verse 25) Having known Me, aathe Enjoy- 
er and Rewarder of Xagna and Tapes (Medapatim), 
the Maheshwara of all the worlds, as the Lover (Suhir- 
tha, Sankara) <>i all beings, he goeth to Peace (Santi- 
Nirvana — Brahmananda) (Verse 29). Mr. Kuppusann 
Aiyar, following the commentators translates the 
word Brahma Nirvana into Brahmalaya, Brahmananda 
and Moksha, which no doubt is true. But this dou- 
ble aspect of the true Adwaita Siddhanta, I have 
taken trouble to bring out, is this the same, as the 
Bhuddist view of Nirvana ? Where is the meeting 
between the two ? No doubt both follow the same 
route and meet at the famous statue with the shield ; 
but the one will only look at the one face of til* 
shield, lying ou the shady side and refuses to go over 
and look up to the other face, exposed to the Full 
Effulgence of the Radiant Sun, and which blind* him 
with tits unspeakable Light and Glory, the very 
moment he looks up (a second blindness and dentil 
surely,but one where the craving for light siiid birth 
is all lost). When, therefore, in all seriousness, and 
in all humility and in the cause of truth alone, the in- 
adequacy of Buddhism, and its one-si deduess (this 
one-sidedness producing evils as it filters down to 
the masses and in its actual working, which we could 
not conceive, who have no means of judging of its 
practical affect on the life and instincts of m:tn, and 
who but look upon it us a mere theory, a beautiful 
vision) are pointed out, what is the good of our being 
referred to a beautiful moral code, whose beauty 
nobody denies ? We will admit the correctness of the 
definition of Nirvana, we quoted at the beginning: of 
this article that it is the extinction of that grasping 
condition oF mind and heart. Mind and heart ! Is 
the mind and heart at least a positive factor which 
rests in Peace and Bliss ? Is there no higher thing 
than mind (Buddhi) and heart * Is there no such 
thing as Soul and God ? Or, is it true, that oven 
according to the so-called Hinduism smd Biahmauisrsi 
the notion of a Soul and of a God are<> mere phan- 
toms of the brain ? Surely, the saying of the Lord 
is as true as ever. " Whatsoever a great man doi-th, 
(sayeth) that other men also do (say) ; the Standard 
he setteth (the opinions he holds) by that the people 
go.'' There is a fashion iti opinions as in dres*, and 
Buddhism is the latest fashion of the day ; and he 
who runs counter is indeed a guy and a gawk. 

J. M. Nat.t.aswaiu Pii.j.aj, b. a.., u. i.. 
(7b he ronthiued.) 






Siddhanta Deepika. 



** Hridyakana Mayam Knzam Annndam Paramalnyant" 

Maitran-. Upanishad. 

W^.are glad to present our readers -this time with 
a picture of the most ancient and far famed Temple 
of Southern India. The word Chidambaram is simply 
a synonym for ChidaWas (arabaram meaning Akas) 
and we traced in our last how the idea of the human 
body and the heart being regarded as the Temple of 
God had its very genesis in the oldest Upanishads. 
We B«id that one of the names of Chidambaram was 
' Pundariiapuram.' This is only one out of a number 
of other names, all derived from the Upanishads. 
The following Btanza from Saint Umapathi Sivachar- 
ya's Koirpurana, sums up all the various names of this 
temple and this verse only follows a corresponding 
verse in Suta Samhita 

fiiD(^ii Qua&sBsir Quu-itt loot pin sugfj 

ff£l<j> ufiiSSS LDuGif &LO&IB 

*<^© ""^P©" SR&Q&1 puJ>ip 
&£pU> UOQpj 0LJSU iSz ixsi 

The various names are Sat, Param, Nityam, fitra.i- 
maya fcosam,, Mahal, Viviktam, Pundarikam, Guha, 
Gaganam, Pariruddam, A tpudam, Satyaspadani, Gna- 
rutsukam, Parama vyomam [Chidavibaram) Parabrah- 
4^>m, Sabha, Sakti, Paramalaya (Sivalaya), The word 
fiat occurs in the let mantra, in the 1st Kanria of 6th 
Pratipathaka of Chandogya. The word Param, in 
7th mantra of 3rd chapter of Swefcaswatara. ; the word 
Eiranmayakosa in 9th mantra of 2nd Mundaka, 2nd 
Eanda of the same ; the word Mahat, in Brihara- 
nyaka, 12th mantra, 4th Brabmana of 4th chapter; 

the word Fiviktam (^«*-soIe) in 9th mantra of Kai- 
valyopamshad ; the word Pundarikam in -Kaivalya, 
1 1th mantra, and in Chandogya, 1st and 2nd mantras 
in 1st Eanda, 8th Pratipathaka; and in 7th mantra of 

10th chapter of Mahanarayaiwpanishad; the word 
Guha in Taitriyaka 1 st Annvaka of Brahmananda Valli; 
the word Gaganam in 7th mantra of chapter 2, Maha- 
n&rayana; Suddam in Brahad 8th mantra, 14 Brah- 
mana, 7 th chapter ; Atpndam in 7th mantra of 2nd 
chapter of Mahanarayana, and in Kaivalyam, 23rd 
mantra ; Satyaspadum in Kena, 8th mantra 4th K&nda-, 
Gnanaxukam in Anandavalli of Taitriyaha ; Parama- 
vyoma (Chidambara), in several places in the same 
Upanishad ; Sabha in Chandogya, 7, 14; Satyarn in 
Swetaswastara, 8th. mantra, 6th chapter ; Parama- 
layam (Sivalaya) in Maitrayanopanishad, 27 mantraj 
6th Pratipathaka. The last word Paramalaya or 
Sivalaya is the same as the Tamil ' Q^mSai ' and is 
very important and its occurrence in *he last named 
Upanishad, which js reputedly a very old Upanishad, 
in the following line 

" Hridyakasamc-yam Kosani Anantham Ptoramalaya" 

points to the fact that even in those old daya 
Temples were not unknown. There can be no 
doubt that this was the oldest known temple in 
Southern India. European investigators trace back 
some portions of the building as far back as the 5th 
century. Professor Eastwick saya that '' there may 
be remains here of the 5th century, and asauredly 
there is much that dates as far back as the lOth and 
1 1 th. Even Lord Valentia remarks that the architec- 
ture has a more ancient appearance than that of 
Tanjore or Rameehwaram ; and Mr. Fergusson infers 
the same, independently of historical accounts, from its 
surpassing excellence." These remarks apply to the 
outer structures more or less and later additions were 
also made in the time of Vijia Haya Aditya Varma 
(a. n. 927—977) ; and m 1785, a widow is said to 
have expended nearly 2 lacs in the repair of the 
Gopurams. Later, the famous Pachiappa ^udaliar 
of Madras, who was a. great devotee of the God, rebuilt 
the Eastern Goporam, and established many other 
charities in connection with this temple. The Chatties 
of Devakota. well-known for their great devotion and 
chanties have, in the most praiseworthy manner, under- 
taken the entire renovation of the Temple, amidst a 
host of internal and external troubles, which even now 
do not seem to have come to an end. The works they 
are engaged in now seem as gigantic, as the undertak- 



ings of old, though they command greater facilities 
now, and when they are finished, they will stand forth 
as an enduring monument of the enterprise of the 19th 
century, as well as to the eternal glory of the Deva- 
kota Devotees. The devotees with whose name the 
Temple is most connected in popular imagination are 
those of Patanjali, Vyagrapadar, Hiranyavarma, 
Tbilisi Dikshitars and Manickavachaka- The first 
four names will point to the earliest time when the 
sages and people of the north penetrated to the South 
to set up their rites and ceremonies, as the time when 
this temple came into existence, and no wonder, the 
first Temple was only called Paramalaya, the G*ir<8eo 
only and embodied all the Vedic conception of the 
seat of the Most Supreme, Invisible and Omnipresent 
One. Maniuka Vachakar's HymnB on this Temple are 
now in existence (one of them translated and pnb- 
lished in page 50, No. 3 of this magazine) and if his 
age may be put down, as the first century after or 
before Christ, then this Temple must have been in 
existence long before. The Principal Shrine is the 
Chit Sabba or Chittambalam or Chidakas, where the 
Invisible Presence is worshipped as Akas Lingam. 
A curtain is dropped in front of this ' Empty Space/ 
and outside the curtain on one side is the Image of 
STataraja in a dancing posture with His Sakti, Sri 
Sivakama. There are four other Sabhas called the 
Kanaka Sabha, Deva Sabha, Nirttha Sabha and tbe 
Rajah Sabha. There is a separate Amman Temple 
and there are smaller Shrines dedicated to Ganesha, 
Subramanya or Skanda, and Maha Vishnu, as Gqvin- 
daraja &c. Our picture, which is from a Photo taken 
by the well-known firm of Madras, Messrs. Weil and 
Klein, shows two of the Principal Gopurams in full, 
ttnd the big Dome just in the middle of these two is 
the Golden Dome of the Chit Sabba and the smaller 
structure at the right hand corner i:i the Amman 
Temple, and the Sivaganga Tank, otherwise called 
Hemapushkarani (Golden Tank) appears in front and 
is a benut.iful structure. Tbe famous Thousand Pillar- 
ed Mantapam in which the Great Abhisbekam takes 
place is not shown. As to the excellence of its archi- 
tecture we cull tbe following from the District Manual 
compiled by the Hon'ble Mr. -J. H. Garstir. ; — 

"As an architectural edifice the pagoda is a very wonderful 
Structure, for it .stands in the middle of an alluvia] plain ix-tween 
two rivers, where there ie not only no atone bat none within 30 or 
40 miles, and yet not only are the onter walls faced on both aides 
in their entirety with dressed gianite, but the whole of the great 
»r*n enclosed within tbe inner walla is entirely pared with stone 
of d : jTerent binds. Noristhia, by any means, all, for there is in 

tbe pagoda a Mantapam or hall with more than 1,100 carved 
pillars, each a solid block, and in front of the Mantapam are 
several rows of circular granite monolitha, about 70 in all, standing 
about SO feet out of the ground, and an ok in it probably at least ft 
feet, which are meant to support the great pandal erected in front 
of the Mantapam on occaaiona of ceremony. Moreover, tbe gate* 
waya of the Gopurams are built of aolid blocks of stone 30 feet high 
and considerably over 3 feet square ; while not tbe least remarkable 
feature in the pagoda is a large and very deep tank, about 160 
feet long and 100 feet broad, with long flights of dressed atone 
steps leading down to tbe water on all four sides. The whole of 
the stone worked into the building mnet have been carried at least 
40 mile-,, acrosa the Vellar river (which ie not navigable f"r mote 
than 6 or 8 miles from its month), and over a country devoid of 
roada. Nothing, indeed, strikes one more forcibly, when looking 
at the pagoda, that the stupendous labour and marvellous 
perseverance which produced such resnltB under such circum- 
stances. Tbe compiler was informed that much of tbe granite 
was brought from Tricornalai, a distance of over 60 miles, bnt it 
is somewhat difficult to believe this, as that would have entailed 
the crossing of the Fonniar river as well as of the Vellar. 

The best carvings in the pagoda Be em to be the pillars in the 
Nirattba Sabha and in the Subramaniya Kovil called "Pandiya- 
nsyakam," (which is now undergoing restoration), and a few 
figures in niches on the Gopnrams. 

The tank already alluded to is called Sivaganga or Bemapnah- 
karani (Golden Tank). Its water is green and full of floating 
particles of vegetable matter which the people say are weeds. It 
is said te be remarkably soft and cleansing for washing and to be 
used foT no other pnrpoBe. There are four wells of very good 
water in different parts of the pagoda from which many 
persona in the town get their daily supply for drinking and 
cooking — one well, cloBe to the Chit Sabha and to the east of it is 
built of granite rings each about a foot in depth and cut out of 
a solid block. The diameter of the rings ie about 3 feet. 

A French Author, M. Legoux de Flaix (vol. 1, page 116) men- 
tions the eriatence of a very remarkable atone chain in this pagoda, 
of which each link was 3 feet long and highly polished. Its 
entire length was 548 feet. No trace of this chain remains and 
the very tradition of its very eiiBtence is unknown to the 
Dikshatara. There are, however, three small circular links of a 
stone chain still depending from the top of one of the columns of 
the large hall of tbe Amman Kovil and it ie possible that the 
original chain once hung there. Most probably it wsb destroyed by 
Hyder when the pagoda was in bis possession, as many mutila- 
tions of the carved figures are ascribed to him and his soldiers. 

The view from the top of the Eastern Gopuram (which is seid 
to have been re-built by Pachippa Mndaliar of Madras renown) is a 
remarkably fine one. On all aides the stretches of paddy fields 
interspersed with clumps of trees give an exceedingly park-like - 
appearance to the scene. On the west the whole pagoda, with 
much of the town beyond, is Been at a glance, while on the east 
the view is bounded by the sea which ia distant about 7 miles. 
The tall chimney of the Porto Novo corn works, and the mouth of 
the Coloroon which lies due east of this Goptirem, are prominent 
features in the landscape." 

This temple unlike all other temples in Southern 
India is the cole property of Dikshitars or Brahman 
Priests, and they form a unique sect, having no 



connection with any other classes of Brahmans. 
Professor Wilson, in hid glossary points oot that Dik- 
•bitar is a title of one of the branches of the Kanonjia 
Brahman b who live chiefly near Allahabad. Bat 
Diksha is the initiatory ceremony which one has to 
undergo, before he can take part in the Vedic and 
Tantrio rituals, and Upadesa. The management of the 
Temple by the Dikshitars is worth a study by itself. 
They constitute a thorough Democracy and Plebiscite. 
There is no head man at all, aod no heriditary rights. 
Each male born after his 5ib year has a vote and 
equal rights as any other person in the management of 
the Temple. Any visitor may see even to-day many 
an yonng nrcfiin with hie brass plate and ball of cam- 
phor leading op some pilgrims in hid trail to the 
door of the shrine ; and the rights of each to hip own 
clientele is jealously guarded and respected. There 
are no endowments at all in land or funds, but all the 
expenses are met from the offerings of the people. 

The principal festivals are six in the year, when 
the Abhiaekams, anointing' of Nataraja takes place, 
but the two most attended are the Thiruvadirai 
Darsanam which fell on the 7th of January last, and 
the one taking plw.ce in June called Am-Thiruman- 
janum. These Darsanams are indeed a sight to see, 
this mass of Humanity with uplifted hands, and tear- 
streaming eyes, and we have thought in oar inmost 
thoughts, whether it was not possible, when all this 
gorgeous material universe is evolved from Mind and 
Will, whether the united and devoted hearts of 
millions of mankind cannot be powerful enough to 
animate this Presence, by itself, and by reflection 
induce the same Devotion and Love in other hearts 
who look up to It- 


Rahu and Ketn are the last two of our nine planets 
Puranically, they represent respectively the Head 
(Caput Draconi*) and the Tail (Cauda Draconis) of a 
Dragon an Asura who, having stealthily partaken 
of the Ambrosia intended only for the Saras or gods, 
was struck by Vishnu, on the complaint of the Son 
and the Moon. The ambrosia, however, having made 
him immortal, bis Head and Tail have survived, and 
in the Heavens, avenge the fatal blow on the Sun and 
the Moon by means of Eclipses. 

But what we are able to understand bt-tter is the 
account given of them in Astronomy. Astronomically, 
they are respectively the ascending and descending 
nodes of the Moon, being two imaginary points 
where the orbit of the Moon in its revolution roniid 
the Sua intersects what is called the iUcliptie. The 
Ecliptic, though really the orbit of the Earth round 
the Sun, is practically the apparent annual path of the 
Sun in the Heaving snd is the central portion of the 
zodiac. The path of all the planets in the Heavens 
constitute the zodiac which is divided into twelve parts 
named after the constellation situated in each. The 
Sun moves along the central path of this Belt 
within which all the planets move. For all practical 
purposes of Astronomy, it is convenient, as our Astrono- 
mers have done, to regard the Sun as moving in the 
Heavens though the motion is caused by the revolution 
of the Earth. This apparent path of the Sun in the 
Heavens called the Ecliptic is intersected in two 
points by the Moon in its revolution with the Earth 
round the Sun, that is to say, the Moon in its course 
crosses the Ecliptic at two points ; but in the other 
parts of its course, it is away from the Ecliptic but 
never at it. When the Sun and the Moon are in 
conjunction at anv poiot in the zodiac, we know we 
have what is called the new Moon. But when this 
conjunction takes place at one of the two nodes 
aboverneotiutied viz., at either Rahu or Ketu point 
then a Solar Eclipse occurs — that ii the Sun and 
tht; Moon being then visible to us nearly on the same 
line, a portion of tho Solar disc is intercepted by the 
body of the Moon. 

But on the or.her hand, if the Sun and the Moon arc 
at opposite points in the zodiac, we have what is 
called the Full Moon and when this Full Moon occurs 
*Lilc the Sun and the Moon occupy these two opposite 



points respectively eu., die Rahn. and Ketu points, 
even then they are on the same line with the Earth 
bat on different sides of it and the Moon therefore 
"merges into the shadow of tie Earth caused by the 
absence of Solar light. And we then bare the 
Lunar Eclipse- 
As these enriooa planets are two mere imaginary 
points at which the path of the Sun and of the 
Moon meet each other, we are unable to identify tbeir 
position at ordinary times though they are always, 
as marked in the Calendar, situated exactly opposite 
each other separated on either side by fire signs of 
the zodiac and are ever moving through the zodiac 
like the other planets at 18 months per sign of the 
zodiac or Solar mansion. For the purpose of deter- 
mining tbe Eclipses, it is necessary to know the position 
of these points and they are therefore marked every 
year in the Calendar and assigned to a particular Solar 
mansion in ihj zodiac. 

This interesting Astronomical principle is made use 

of by (">LDiL/«-soT<_(?^«<ir in his Sai^irarQuilpui in tbe 

following stanza by way of a simile for illustrating a 
difficult Theological principle which could not other- 
wise be explained. 

^)/Sjg!^p utfjgseSvil Hff'&eaeud ««WL_rrjEig; 

&nC-L—([m3p Q(B?5gr/8d asoreaQf ifi q lb Qu *w ear 
,gcli_/rcg) Gtatranfii Qf(igp£!. (8utram 9, Chap. -3.) 

* The imperceptible Rahu and Ketu become percep- 
tible during Solar and Lunar Eclipses So God 
becomes visible in the Heart by the devise of 
Pancbatcbara like fire in a wooden rod subjected 
to friction, and the Soul becomes merged in Him 
losing its individuality like heated iron. There- 
fore practise Panchatchara." 

In another place in the same book, we have the 
following stanza introducing* another rare Astronomi- 
cal truth by way of simile. 

Qui iijQ il- t 3ps mnmaji tSear'Jijisu — QiZHuti&is&p 
44OT'Sf?s^. iSawSiiSjr^ &p>D<Btq «nifliiLy<o&r<i 
dan S^gjaj to^gi pdsom ^utenr. 

"The planets lose ihe.n.selves in the light of the 
Sun but are unlike him though they shine by 
his borrowed light. So the senses derive their 
power of perception from Him who also perceives 
through them and is identical with them." 

In the 1st stanza, the annotator explains jtApwp 
f$iDJb<§ t<a/«G'*ir«ir*<a5m gj&biuGusbis agtmuuii—sft 
fytttvft *#**&« *.umTMppjb (8t*farfjdj>) *ii>&ffit0jtr 
w«H®s*«sn-irfi> Ouireo' (as we perceive during Solar 
and Lunar Eclipses the existence of Rahn and Keta 
which unlike the other 1 planets are imperceptible on 
the Heavens) and with regard to the omission of 
C*^> in the stanza remarks ' Q*£i fatuaaSirewiTpsSar 
Gbjjp tf^^ffiraS^ii' as Ketu is an imaginary planet, it 
is not saparately mentioned. 

On the 2nd stanza, the note is ' itum^sE^ QppeSiumf 
pjSQQjetH Qmevmirw ^irtS/Bfy^iu QoiaeSGv Giuaruj? 
Q&asj&ir jpjyssstl ui.JsDn .sir ^£,$i£BBemL—d!§ev&i>w njtiaSpjp* 
as the Vedas hold that the lights of planets is derived 
from the Sun, it is here used as a simile- 

These two similes borrowed from Astronomy point 
to the profound erudition of the author in other branch- 
es of Science than Theology, for it is very unlikely that 
an author of his reputation being the first classical 
Tamil writer on Siddhanta Philosophy in a work like 
QeuQtresQuirpiii would have used for his similes, facts 
which he has' not thoroughly mastered unless we 
suppose they occured in the original Sanskrit Text. 

These are not among the favourite trite similes of 
the Siddhanta Philosophy such as the comparison of 
God and Soul in the created Universe respectively to 
the Sun and the eye, the comparison of ^faunr t ^or 
aii, LDismtu and fi-B2m respectively to the rice, bran, 
husk and shoot of a grain of paddy, the comparison 
of the deceptive senses to the unreal colours of a 
crystal, the likeness of <u*ar*uti to physical darkness, 
and of acquisition of spiritual knowledge to the rising 
of the Sun, the resemblance of eternal co-existence 
of ^maiLD with soul which becomes Godlike on its 
cessation, to the natural presence of dross in 
copper which is converted into gold on its removal, 
the simile of the faculties of aSso, siriQib, /Suj0 &c. to 
a lamp in physical darkness and that of the perish- 
able character of the Universe to a mirage. The 
similes of this author are very apt and instructive and 
require to be carefully studied. 





The Attributed of God 



In the ordinances of Menu, Chapter XII. V, 84, we find 
the following question addressed by the sages to Bhrigu. 
"Among all those good Acts performed in this world, 
is no single act held more powerful than the rest 
ia leading men to beatitude P" " Of all those duties,'' 
answered Bhrigu, "the principal is to acqnire from 
the Upanishads a true knowledge of one Sapreme God ; 
that is the most exalted of all sciences, because it 
ensures immortality. In this life, indeed, as well as the 
next, the study of the Vedas to acquire a knowledge of 
God is held the most efficacious of those six duties in 
procuring felicity to man ; for in the knowledge and ado- 
ration of one God which the Yedas teaches, all the rules 
of good conduct are fully comprised." Let us therefore 
apply ourselves to the study of God's nature and attri- 
butes that we may secure our everlasting happiness in 

We saw in the first lecture that the Primitive Religion 
of mankind was monotheistic, that 
is, that it consisted in the worship 
of one sole God. So far, therefore, all men agree in 
admitting the existence of a Supreme Being or God. But 
what is His nature, what are His attributes, His incom- 
municable characteristics ? 

We heard last time the sages and Philosophers of 
Antiquity asserting of God that He is an infinite, eternal, 
incomprehensible, intelligent spirit, who is in all places, 
who sees nil things, who can do all things, who has 
created all things by his power, and who rules all things by 
His wisdom. They affirm that to name God is to name 
a Being above all. a Being whose essence is pure, sole 
suljsistent existence, a Being, finally, infinitely perfect. 
Tliis is the description of the God-head as given by the 
Philosopher* of past acres, and it is less the opinion of a 
peculiar 'dass of men than the verdict of mankind on the 

'• i iod, Iswara. the Supreme Ruler, says the Indian 
Philosopher Patnnjuli. is a soul or spirit distinct from 
other s*mh> anftftVcted by the ills with which they are 
beset, Himself unconcerned with good or bad deeds and 
their continences, and with fancies and pas. ing thoughts. 
In Iliiu i» the ntni.j^i (mini-'-iciice. Hois flit- instructor 
uf the i-ailiesl l*i>ie> i hat have a beginning (the deities uf 
nrytlml.jgj ), Ifiju'vlf. infinite, unlimited by time." Yoga- 
-astra I £'>— -1 and li'i— •?■> f.'ulebrooke nn the Philosophy 
■of the lli'rlu Siinkya. page SA, 

God. flu-refill*;, wcurding to the Sankhya si-hool of 
Philosophy is omniscient, that is. God an intelligent 

being, nay, as the great one says in the Bhaghavat (jita, 
" God is knowledge and the end of knowledge" (Gita XIU 
17.) and this is the general opinion of mankind about 
God, because as all men believe in the existence of God, 
they, in like manner, conceive Him to be a Being, who 
knows everything, who sees all things, to whose knowledge 
nothing is hidden. Now, is this universal assertion of 
mankind wrong ? Is the best part of the human family 
mistaken in attributing science, knowledge, intelligence 
to God P When I raise my eyes to the vault of heaven, 
and see the aun darting forth its shining beams, am I 
mistaken in asserting its existence, its brilliancy, its 
influence on the mineral, vegetable and animal worlds ? 
Modern science, I know, tea* hes about the sun many 
theories which to uneducated people look as many 
mysteries ; but no one will ever be mistaken in affirming 
of the sun what his senses infallibly tell him, namely that 
the sun exists, that it darts forth beams both brilliant and 
warm, and that it has a deeply-felt influence on the 
physical world. Nothing short of this must be said of 
God. There is a knowledge of God which to most men is 
a hidden secret : it is reserved for those socio whose purity 
enables them to pry a little into the mysteries of the God- 
head. Bat thei-e is another knowledge of God which is 
open to all. " The living God, who has made the heaven 
and the earth and all things that are in them, left not 
himself without testimony, doing good from heaven, 
giving rain and fruitful seasons, filling our hearts with 
gladness." (Act. C. XIV. "V. 14.). All the creatures of this 
visible world testify to the existence of a Supreme Being, 
and likewise we can read in them, though imperfectly, 
some of the attributes of the God-head : for, like a giant 
striding along the wonderful path of Creation, God the 
Creator has left everywhere the unmistakable mark of this 
presence, the ineffaceable print of His omnipotent hand. 

But amongst all the attributes of the God-head none 
are perhaps more clearly discernible in the workings of 
nature, than God's omniscience and knowledge. Do you 
wish to know something about the knowledge of God ? 
Ask the starry heavens, the fruitful earth, the roaring 
oceans, the meandering rivers, the lofty mountains, the 
fertile valleys, the mineral, vegetable and animal worlds, 
and all these creatures will answer with myriads of 
tongues : Our Creator, our Sovereign Maker is a Being of 
infinite intelligence and infinite power, who in his infinite 
wisdom devised, and by bis infinite power carried out the 
plan of this beautiful world. 

The tongues wherewith all created things proclaim the 

infinite intelligence of their Maker, 
rirJerwrteCnivm-. js ^ H . alMk ,. f|) , 0I , lel . tbftt ^ vW . 

blc in them all. But how is order possible without the 
existence of a mind adapting dirwx* things tu one definite 
result t Order is a methodical arraic'ement of y iind 



different things into one whole, with a view to obtain a 
definite end or result. In consequence, order is the pro- 
per effect of a deviaing and designing mind. Indeed, to 
direct different thingH to one end, to arrange things which 
ape capable of different arrangement into a determined and 
definite one, can be the work only of a mind, which is able 
to see the different relations in which different things 
stand to one another, which can so arrange adjust and 
dispose them, as to bring ont of different things" ooe 
definite result. Take for instance a house. It is made 
np of different things. Ton have in it stoneB, rafters, 
windows, doors, tiles. Set np all these things orderly, 
and yon have a house fit for human accommodation ; 
dispose of them at random, and not a house but a heap 
of building materials will be the necessary result. But 
how will you be able to set up in order all these different 
things without a mind that understands them all ? To 
raise a building an Architect is required to make a watch^ 
a watchmaker is necessary to construct any engine, any 
concern or contrivance whatever, a designing mind is 
absolutely needed. In consequence, from the mere inspec- 
tion of a building, of an engine or any contrivance what- 
ever, I rightly argue that the Architect has a designing 
mind, or, he is an intelligent being. 

But what of this visible Universe ? Is there any engine 
made by man which may boast of being more perfect, more 
complex and yet more simple, more adapted to its end 
than this admirable world ? The telescope has revealed 
to us the wonders of the starry heavens, the microscope bas 
made us pry into the wonders of the infinitesimal world. 
Bat, in the great orbs that travel through the ethereal 
regions, as well as in the small atoms of matter that are 
beyond the power of even the strongest blens, thousands 
laws are clearly discernible, npon which the existence, the 
beauty and the orderly arrangement of the Universe 
wholly depends. This world is one vaet series of causes 
and effects, the former bearing on the latter, the latter 
giving rise to new causes and new effects, all of them 
linked together by constant and definite laws, the wonder 
at once and the object of modern science. But who has 
imposed np brute matter all these different laws ? Who 
holds tbe planets in their course ? Who has taught the 
bee to rob with wonderful cunning the flowers of their 
honey, and to construct the most perfect hexagonal cells 
to store it in ? Who directs the plants to hide the root 
deep in the soil, and to expose the summer foliage to 
the clear sunshine ? Who lias taught the sea to wash at 
appointed hours the beach with its tidal waves? " Con- 
sider the marvellous life of a, bind and the manner of its 
whole existence. Consider the power of that little crea- 
ture, the skill in building its home, in finding its food 
in protecting its mate, in serving its offspiring in preserv- 
ing its owii existence, surrounded as it is on all sides by 

the most rapacious enemies. Consider ita migrations. 
Men are proud of steamships and railway trains of the 
overland route between Europe and India, bnt what 
merit have they beside tbe flight of the bird from Northern 
Europe to Sonthern Asia ? Alone, unaided, opposed by 
many adverse circumstances, and frequently blown back 
by foul weather, it yet crosses continents, seae and deserts, 
till it reaches its winter home by Nile, or Ganges or 
Euphrates and yet again, wben spring is in the air, 
it returns over those thousands of miles to make its nest 
in some Norman croft or Rhenish hedge 01 English 
orchard." The Nineteenth Century, January, 1895". 

As I cannot in the narrow limits of a single lecture 
pass in review all tbe wonders of 
The First Wonder in the visible world, I shall confine 
myself to pointing out to you, 
chiefly in the words of Mr. Gaum eg, tbe astonishing laws 
govern three created things, that belong respectively to 
the mineral, the vegetable and the animal world. Now, 
I have told you from tbe beginning that we are to read 
the perfections of Almighty God in his creatures, and there 
is perhaps no existing thing whereby God's perfections 
are rendered more visible than by the sun. Let us consider 
first its distance from the earth. Though God has placed 
the sun in the firmament, it is for the advantage of the 
earth. He has regulated the distance of the one by the 
necessities of the other. He has placed between the heat 
of the sun and those things which it should assist such a 
due proportion, as to be always beneficial to them. With 
a greater separation, the earth would be frozen ; with a 
less, it would be burnt up. Behold the unerring calcula- 
tion of the Heavenly Mathematician ! He requires to 
enlighten and warm a globe of 25 thousand miles in 
circumference. He wants to have only one furnace for the 
purpose. What then must be the size of that furnace, 
and at what distance from the earth must it be placed ? 
Indeed, the solution of this great problem iB well worthy 
of God's infinite Mind. He speaks, and at his word, a 
fiery globe, about one million four hundred and five 
thousand times larger than the earth glides into bound- 
less space. But the rays of fire, which issue from a 
flaming globe a million times larger than the earth, mast 
have an astounding activity while they remain con- 
centrated and act together. They must then divide, ec 
that when they arrive at the earth they may shed no more 
than the requisite degress of light and heat. At what 
distance must the earth be placed that these rays, on their 
arrival may be sufficiently divided to give man light 
without blinding him, and to warm him without burning 
him ? What do you think ? If this problem had been 
presented to some of our astronomers, do you not think 
it would be still unsolved ? But God, infallible in all his 
operations, whose power equals His Infinite Wisdom, 




\ the word, and the bom u placed at tbe distance of 

. nin*ty-two millions of miles from the earth. And 

she anBnm of pailnpi eight thousand years baa borne 

hwtiiiinuj to the accuracy of these calculations. Neit I 

call your attention to its apparent motion. By reason of 

the rotundity of the earth, if both the sun and the earth 

were immovable in the midst of the heaven, the sun would 

enlighten and warm one-half only of oar g'obe. It wae 

then meneeaery that either this great laminar; should keep 

wniiimtlij marching round the earth, or that the earth 

itself, taming on its axis, should successively present the 

vnriooa parte of its surface to the rays of the sun. God 

ahose the latter, and accordingly the earth, during the sj>ac« 

of twenty -foai hour*, tnrsa completely on its axis, and tbe 

■sn, apparently rising every day without fail, and journey 

ing along hie course, asdightene and warms successively 

the whole earth. Behold with what a profusion of colours. 

Ma adorns nature, and with what magnificence he is 

himself clothed, like a young bridegroom who goes 

forth from the nuptial chamber on the most soltmn day 

of his life, the sun appears above the horison, as tbe friend 

whom heaven or earth expects, and who. behold him with 

delight. His splendour is full of sweetness. The uni- 

▼erae greets his arrival ; the eyes of all creature* are 

fixed upon him ; and to receive the salutations of all, he 

laodetahimaaWscBaarihlsto all. {c.f. Gaume. Tlie Caiedkitm 

VoL 1, p. lM...ssr...) 

Vow I shall aak hen again, how did the orderly 
of the ana, its harmony, its beauty, its 
i come to be ? Is all this the effect of chance ? 
Thousands of laws direct the ran through its daily course. 
Who baa framed these laws ? Who has imposed them on 
the g rea t orb of day ? A law is essentially tbe effect of 
a devising mind. Law is the fountain of order, and order 
ia the arrangement of different things to one definite 
ro en l t Who can possibly conceive an ultimate result or 
ami, without an mtalUgiaH being * Therefore we mast 
conclude, thai outside matter, then is Hind understand- 
ing and designing the order of matter. This mind, this 
ntsttigeut being is God. 

Let as bow proceed to the second instance ef order in 
nature, taken from tbe vegetable 
world. Among the msnj wonder* 
ef the vegetable kingdom some am 
to sll its s p a n u e, some paealiar to each plant ia 
It ■* ommmott to all kinds of plants to be die- 
inao i oar parts ; ris, the root, the stem, the 
leaf nod the grain or fruit. Lot as pause to owMJdar each 
ana ef them. 1 little seed falls on the ground : Toe need 
not fear, ia will act pariah God watches over it as well 
as war the whom wucid He sends both heat and mois- 
ten to swell the grain. Its cower burets, asd from it roo 

Ta» Secotxt w<md*r 

see two little genu* spring forth ; cue ascends, the other 
descends. Thai which ascend* is tlie ttialk, that which 
descends is the root. Who was it that told these little 
pwnis thus to separate, and take each such different 
directions '? The root is intended to fix the plant, and to 
procure nonrishment for tlie Htnik ; hence the rout is 
hollow in the middle. Through this little canal ure 
drawn ep, by means of heat, tbe sap which the ruot finds 
ia tbe earth. But here is the danger. All the sap or 
variety of moisture with which tlie earth is filled, dues not 
suit every plant ; and there are myriads of species of 
plants. But do cut fear; the root will not bo duetived : 
it will seU'ct only those jaicee which are suited to it. By 
whom has it been titughf to make these flue distinctions ? 
In what school, or under what master, did it graduate in 
Chemistry ? In proportion as the root buries itself 
beneath the earth, the stem ur stalk raises itself aloft. 
It is perforated by n multitude of little canals, through 
which the sap ascends and descends in connection with the 
root. The manner is somewhat similar to that in which 
the blood circulates through the vetws of our bodies, sup- 
porting our life. As the stem rKes above the earth, it 
forms knots or joints. The»e nerve to tti-engtheu it, as 
well as to purify more and more the nuiriticn* fluid* 
transmitted by the root. Placed one above tbe other, 
they allow nothing to paw but what is most careful It 
filtered. When the stalk becomes strong it requires a 
more abundant supply of rurarinhraent, just like an infant 
that is growing rapidly. The root, which is the stalk's 
nurse, would then run the risk of rx banal ion, and the 
stalk might die of hunger, if God had not provided for 
this danger. The God who nourishes all things that lire, 
oomea to the assistance of his work. He does so by means 
of leaves. The sid* of tbe leaf that turns toward* the 
earth is rough and covered with little hair* hollo* with- 
in, whilst, en tbe contrary, the side of tbe leaf that turns 
towards the sun is smooth and ghwy Why »r Why 
is there such a difference f It is awithei admirable inven- 
tion of the Divine Gardener. All then* littler Laua are 
open to receive the sorroandiug sir. to gather in the nana 
vapours that rixe from the earth, mid thus contribute to 
the nourishment of the u*lk <Juit» a* nkilfal chemists 
as tbe root, lbe«e little luur* admit none but mil able 
particles of air or vajhiur Sum. tbe uoornliOM-nt lather- 
ed by the root and the )c*>vm mif[lil tivonie hupcruban- 
daat and the plant be choked. How 4uo* tbe Piviee 
Intellect arrange for thu new danger t In thi* niaoner 
all thase little hair* thai euvv-i the under ant* ot ttie teal 
become like w> many [t»iv>, which prrapmng. reject the 
navies* end uokiob* fluid* that 4k. aid »ui Imt rt-iuiued 

When at last the stalk ha* reached its fail hi yht aud 
maturity the fruit aopeaii, *oro*« Uera uit I in.- "| jti pari. 
The precious fruit or «e*d m de*liu<-d to ir;*t hif.k 



to new plants, therefore its birthday must be celebrated 
with the utmost joy and magnificence. Leaves of ex- 
quisite fineness and texture, adorned with beautifnl and 
varied colours, wrap it in swaddling clothes, and 
form its cradle. Around it float the richest perfumes, 
the feathery songsters, the musicians of our good God, 
returned from their distant journeys, or recently liberated 
from their nests— nay, all nature, awakened by the 
breadth of summer, and decked in the richest attire, 
hastens to welcome the arrival of the little sti-anger. 
Here it is born, here it grows, in the midst of the harmo- 
nies of sweet sounds, and in an abode more gorgeous than 
the palace of a king. (c. /. Gaume — page 146.) 

G. Babtoli, s. j., d. d. 
(To be continued.') 


Thb Editor, 

Siddhanta Deepika, 


1. In the November issue of your valuable journal, 
Mr. S. Ramasamy Iyer, b.a., b. l., has taken a danger- 
ous coarse in raking np sectarian controversy. 

2. (a) He makes distinctions between a Peisonal 
Being and an Impersonal Paramatma, (b) He says 
tbat " Siva as a Personal Being is subject to all tbe ills 
flesh is heir to" as (c) He says that though tbe Upasana 
of Vishnu Paramatma is efficacious in gaining the 
higher spiritual gn&nam and thereby salvation in tbe 
form of Saynjgya, Siva alone can give higher Gnana 
and Moksham. He also talks of Vishnu's incapacity 
to give Moksha, (d) Saint Thirumoolar's comparison 
between garlic and kasturi, besides Anushtup slokas 
from the later Upsinish ads are relied on by your learned 

3. The definition of Paramatma in the very first 
Sutra is that of a Being who creates, preserves and 
destroys the Universe. The first sloka of Sree Bhaga- 
vat«m shows that this Being is an Intelligent self- 
conscious Being. Hib inseparable Sakfci showa him to 
be omniscient and omnipotent. He is sexless or he 
might be called Bisexual and He does not require 
any organs formed of Prakritic material. He or She or 
It is beyond mind and speech because His knowledge 
aDd power or absolute, unconditioned and Infinite, 
But why called Impersonal, which He is 
intelligent, I have been unable to understand. How- 
ever, this is probably a mere quarrel about words. 

4. This Paramatma, Iswaru or Pn lUBhottama puts 
on clothes called Rijas, Tamas and Satwa for perform- 
ing his actions of creation, destruction and preser- 
vation of this Universe and is culled Virincby 
(Brahma), Hara (Siva) and Hari (Vishnn) respectively. 
The First Trinity is therefore really the awe only 
Paramatma. Sri Krishna was Paramatma in a human 
body which body he could throw off at any moment 
and which could never bind him. Though Jivatma 
is bound by the bodies he gets through his Kamya 
Karmas, Paramatma continues Paramntma though He 
puts on bodies for the world's good. He is, therefore, 
not "subject to all the ills the flesh is heir to" and 
continues omnipotent and omniscient in his bodies as 
Virinchi. Hari, Hara or Sri Krishna, 

5. Paramatma, however, carries on the work of 
creation, preservation and destruction of minor Uni- 
verses and worlds through his Vibhootiea among- the 
Jivas, the powers of these Jivas being radiated by 
the First Trinity or Paramatma into those Jivas — 
Hence, we get as we proceed downwards from God' 
several Trinities, these lower Trinities being, however, 
separate beings in whom the prominent features of 
the original Trinity are traceable and who are named 
by the names of tbe First Trinity among the Vasoe, 
Rndras and Adityas who are our Devas for this Man- 
wan tar a alone (there being different Devaa for differ- 
ent Manwantaras 1 , Sankara among the eleven Rudras 
and Vishnu among the twelve Adityas correspond to 
the phases Hara and Hari of the original Trinity 
Paramatma who destroys and preserves the Universe 
of this Manwantara through the said Two Great Gods. 
(" Destroy" is not a good word to oonvey the mean- 
ing of the Sanscrit corresponding word. "Take in** 
will be better). 

6. God's infinite Powers are too glorious to be 
grasped by us weak mortals without His Grace. But 
contemplation of His Vibbpoties among His creatures 
will give faint Ideas of His Powers and hence in the 
10th chapter of the Gita, Arjuna prays to tbe Lord 
to tell him His Vibhooties. Two of the Vibhootiea 
prominently fit for contemplation are Sankara among 
the Rudras and Vishnu among the Adityas. Though 
Sankara is among the Destroying Devas, He does 
Sam" (or good) by his acts which include the destroy- 
ing of impure Desires lending to Satnsara and it is 
probable that Mr. Ramasawmy Iyer's interpretation 
of the Konrai flower is correct. Hence, Sankara 
among Rudras is the Great Guru who teaches Vairagya 



and Higher Gnanam. He, no doobt, is over- 
ahadowed by the " Hara" aspect of the First Trinity 
Paramatma. He is referred to as the greatest Bhakta 
of Paramatma in Bbagavatam. Similarly, Vishnu, 
among the Adityas shines greatly by Paramatma'? 
reflected light in the aspect of Hari, Vishnu preserves 
the good and suppresses the evil in due seasons 
throavh Manas, M&noputras, Kings, Brahmins, Cows, 
Bhaktoa and Avataras. 

7. As Paramatma is the fountain of all Powers and 
ahinea as Yasudeva in all, He can be called by all 
names. Hence, He is called by the name* of His 
principal Vlfchooties also. It is universally admitted 
that the Satwio aspect and Vibhootiee of God ought 
to be contemplated by us for -owr benefit, the other two 
aspects, however, not being despised or made light 

8. Most of the Upanishada in Anuahtup metre 
(like Ramottara Tapini, Gcpala Tapini Ac), and 
several Puranams which lalk of holy places and 
Idols in Southern India are very unreliable authorities 
in my humble opinion. Of course, we shall take the 
truths found in them but when they descend to 
sectarian ism and odious comparisons, we shall refer 
Ihem to the unhappy period of medievalism which 
India passed through and we shall give them a wide 
berth as we seek enlightenment and not the gratifica- 
tion of our sectarian feelings and hereditary partiali- 
ties for particular Shibboleths. It is a pity that even 
Saint Thirumoolar was not free from the weakness. 
His fadciful analogy (which is not very odorous) 
might be easily tnrned against bim as Vishnu like 
Kastari is black in external colour (and therefore 
must smell swett) and Sankara (like white garlic) is 
white in colour. 1 wish to add that these colours for 
tbe Gods are used in esoteric senses and physical 
analogies can only mislead. The way in which these 
sectarian quarrels live is through fanciful analogies 
and through one side investing its God with nmni- 
potence as Paramatma or calling Paramatma (who has 
all names) by the name dear to that sect while denying 
to the opposite sect the similar right to invest its 
favourite God with all three Powers and to invest 
Paramatma with the names of that God. If Para- 
matma is the one only Being who creates, preserves 
■and takes it to himself the Universe in its entirety 
■nd if He is greater than all the Man wan t*ric Gods 
and can be called by all names, not much room for 
■quarrel is left, unless the human weakness for gamb- 


ling and cockfigbting has to be encouraged in these 
higher fields also. 

9. As I have said before, Sri Krishna Paramatma 
says that both Sankara and Vishnu are His (Paramat- 
mas) Vibhooties and can be contemplated upon at 
such. Whether the Satwic quality predominates in 
Sankara, Rudra or Vishnu Aditya is a very minor 
question though it is also a very difficult question. 
The Ramayanam says that the Devas and Rishis were 
doubtful about the relative superiority of Vishnu and 
Rudra and at last decided it in Vishnu's favour. In 
the Bhagavata incident of Banasura also, Sankara 
is defeated by Sri Krishna but Sankara had fore- 
warned Banasura of the coming of one - equal to 
myself " (Sankaral and the conversation between Sri 
Sankara and Sri Krishna at the end of the fight 
shows that they acted in concert in humbling Bana- 
sura and Sri Krishna, besides, was not merely Adi- 
tya Vishnu but was Paramatma bimsel' in a Human 
body. Paramatma is capable of clouding the powers 
and intellects of the greatest Beings by His Maya 
and also of investing the least of His creatures with 
glory above the greatest of His creatures.* Hence, 
whether at any particular time or when doing a 
particular act, Sankara Rudra shine brighter than 
Vishnu Aditya by P;iratnatma J a Grace or the con- 
verse happened is very immaterial, provided it is 
all treated as Paramatma's Glory and strength 
"which are shining. Of course, if Sankara Rudra or 
his line of disciples initiated us into the knowledge of 
Paramatma and thus became our Guru, He ought to 
be considered as Paramatma himself 'because no dis- 
tinction ought to be made between the spiritual Guru 
and Paramatma who comes in that Body) and hence 
Sankara Rudra as Guru must be described as greater 
than Vishnu Aditya and others. If, conversely, our 
initiation into the Higher Goanam whs by following 
tbe path laid down by Vishnu and His Bhaktas, 
Vishnu becomes Paramatma and must be considered 
greater than Sankara till we enter Paramatma. This 
will explain the apparent contriidictions in the Pura- 
nas, except, of comse, where mediasval authorities 
introduced forgeries for sectarian purposes. 

10. Of course, I do not intend to deny that parti- 
cular natures will more easily reach Paramatma 
through particular Upasanas and p;iths. Saint Akmora. 
in his stotram says that all the several ways described 
by him lead to Paramatroti, iiicludinir the path of the 

• [Nut surely. Vide Gita, verse 14 anil 15. — Ed.] 



followers of Siva who worship Paramatma by contem- 
plating Him in the form of Siva. In the 1 Kb Skandha 
•>i Bhagavataui, the Lord says to Siddhava that after 
a man lias passed Kariuayoga, there are only two 
paths leading to salvation, namely (l) the path of 
Gnanam and (2) the path Bhakti — and the Lord says 
that to some natures, the Gnana path is more appro- 
priate and to others, the Bhakti path. Those who 
are more intellectual and self 'assertive than emotional 
and reverential and who have got Vairngyam through 
Karmayoga practice shnuhl choose the path of Gnanani 
and persevere iti it till full enlightenment. Those 
who are more emotional and reverential and whose 
hearts melt when heaving the names and holy deeds 
nf Paramatma and uh..,iru unable to throw off all 
human attachments, though they perceive the v-inifcy 
of the world ought to take to the Bhakti path, which 
will easily and Mnoottily lead io Yuiragyu, Higher 
(inanatu and Salvation. 

II. As to the general character of Sankara Rudras 
and Vishuu Aditya, Sankara was more merciful and 
implusive in character while Vishnu was more just 
and prudent. Sankara in his personal habits was 
more austere, more eccentric and more unconven- 
tional. He, in fact, treated conventionalities with 
contempt. Vishnu was more sumptions in life and 
dress and more anxious to preserve the proprieties of 
conduct and outward appearances, though when the 
proper time came, He was the first in the battle 
against things and individuals who are obstructing 
Evolutionary Progress. Mr. Ramasamy Iyer's con- 
tention that by the Upasana of the Rudra Aspect of 
Paramatma. Kubeia obtained more than the Bhaktas 
nf the Vishnu aspect is not a patent fact. Prahlada 
and Dhmva jrot at. least as much temporal and spiritual 
benefit, Dhruva's position being higher than that of 
all others, Kubera was also not free from attacks 
like those made by Ravnna, Dhruva and others on his 
dominions. Mr. Ramasamy Iyer's attempts to criticise 
Lord Vishnu for what constituted in Mr. Ramasamy 
Iyer's opinion the too long delay on the Lord's part 
in killing Havana and Duryodana &c, are fumiy. 
Of course, saints have also cried " How long, How 
long, O Lord ■' hut they said it i irreverence and fear 
and not as a criticism and as setting up their ideals 
of fitness or wisdom above the Lords.. 

V2. If Sayujyam means" Union with or enteringinto 
t'arainatma" Sri Krishna Paramatma says in the I lth 

chapter of the Gita that His Bhaktas can "know, 
truly see, and enter into, Him " and even His enemies 
like Sisupalaand Danta Vakra who contemplated Him 
without intermission before their bodies were killed- 
entered into the Lord. The well-known sloka says 
that Sankara gives Gnanam and Janardana gives 

13. The man who wants to enter the Guana path 
will do better, in my humble opinion, to hold to 
the Upasana of that Yibhooty who is called Sankara 
for Lord Sankara is the destroyer who destroys 
out of pure benevolence to do good and His ex- 
ample and His contempt for conventionalities and 
the contemplation of His Holy, Grand,' austere Form 
and character and His spurning of riches and 
soft things will conduce much towards the acquisi- 
tion of Vairagyam and Gnanam and the knowledge 
of the happiness which results from Atma Gnanam. 
Tha Lord Vishnu whose Holy. Perfect and Pleasing 
Form corresponds to His equableness and His Jus- 
tice and His constant wakefulness to work for the 
benefit of the right and the just will be the fitter 
subject for the Upasana of the would-be Bhakta. 
The man, of course, who rises to the knowledge 
of or Bhakti towards the one God who has both Forma 
and who has got the Powers of both these Great 
Beings cannot quarrel with the Bhakta of either of 
the two Gods. The Bhagav&tam says that if Sankara 
is worshipped as the ruler of the Ahankaras, He will 
give all temporal bene6ts and riches to His worship- 

It In conclusion, I wish to request Mr. Ramasamy 
Iyer that while I would, in no way, like to lose the 
benefit of his translations and of his praises of and 
devotional fervour towards Paramatma and His 
Vibhootce Lord Sivaycgeeswara, Mr. Ramasamy Iyer 
will not use his talents in trying to support sectarian 
animosities and will not waste his acuteness in trying 
to depreciate Vishnu Adytya or the Vishnu aspect 
of the Trinity Paramatma or the Avatars of the 

10m Tat Sat). 

Krishna Dasa Baboo. 

\_Viu {(ive our Babuji'a letter in full, if only to remove any mis- 
conception that we arc prepared to tolerate any mere sectarian 
question, Ab misunderstandings are however likely to rise, we 
would liave kept back all such articles, had it not been for the fact 
tlmt Sir. RaiYiasiirmAirnr's own broad views are too well-known, to 
1p;u1 any ono into misunderstanding him. 7r. r. long note, on 
*ttni*a 5, for which we regret we have not been able to find space 
yet, ho distinctly says that his sole desire is not to encourage 



t mW i au prejadic**, bmt to oleavr off party miaoonoeptioiu. But iu 
tka iMilt proven, he baa not bran to tueoesjefol as he hoped. Bat 
•a«ly, Mr. H a m — a mi Ajyax is commenting on » particular text 
tad he is at liberty to show bow that conception dm been arrived 
at, Hid bow it oujw maintained. Where u oor Babuji's boasted 
Mention nod onhtnuoasj of mind, if the game can be disturbed, sad 
—■not brook this aim-pi* diacnsnion. Onr Babnji, no doubt and 
perhaps j<**i7 oritisises our leaned contributor' • use of teste from 
Ac War Upanisbads-; but did he pause to consider the atfe of hie 
own anthontiee, which he quote* to refnte Mr. Ramaaaini Iyer. 
Independent Soropean Scholars, following their own method!, point 
to these wort ■ as Tory late prod notions, and the names of the 
reputed authors urn also given ont. Certain names and certain 
stories may be old but it does not follow tiat the works in which 
we read them are as old as some of the names or some of the 
stories. Till we get to understand onr past history better, and 
appreciate it too, it will be better perhaps to let sleeping dogs lie. 
If Mr. Bamasami Aiyar'a distinction of P&ramatma, and Personal 
Beings are not correct, our Babuji's distinctions also are chimerical. 
If he thinks that wherever Tirawmiar speaks of Siva, he thinks of 
onr Babuji's ViBSthi Saxdoara-Hudra, he is sadly mistaken. He 
has only to rend verse 25 of Tinunolar and the notes thereon, 
givan in Ho. ? of the Tamil Edition of the SuHaaitta Derptka. The 
suae thought* ran throughout the whole of the Biddhanta Liters 
tore, and may be traced through all Yedaa, Puranas and Itihasu, 
Old and new. No doubt, acong these latter authorities, occur 
stories of Avatars and Yibhuties of the Supreme, born of men and 
woman, and to which, no doabt, our Babnji clings- Our Babnji it 
quite welcome to his own predilections, and to regard the other 
authorities as sectarian and spurious interpolations. But that ie 
where person b can honestly differ ; and the question also ia a ques- 
tion of principle and not of mere sentiment. — Ed"] 



We extract tbe following from the admirable speech of 
the learned Judge and Reformer, the genet al agreement 

between which and our article in the " Old and the New" 
are particularly noteworthy despite the unwarranted on- 
slanffht on ReviYnHsm. 

The ArifO Pulrila of Punjab, whirl) is a recognized organ of 
tbe Arya Samajas there, has, in its word* of advice to the 
Conference, expressed its view that we arc radically in the 
wrong in seeking to reform tbe usages of our society without 
a change of religion, and it seriously suggests that we should in 
the first instance hecome members of their Soma), and this con- 
version will bring with it all the desired reforms. Many enthusias- 
tic friendB of the Brahpio Saiusj entertain similar views .mil (five 
us similar advice. All I can my to these welcome advisers is that 
they do not fully realize the, situation and its difficulties, People 
have changed their religion anil yet retained their social usages 
Unchanged. The native Christians, for instance, especially the 
Bonian Catholic section anions them, and many sections of 
Mahomedans, arc instances, in |«jiin. Besides, it has been well 
observed that even for a change of religion, it is too often necessary 
that the social surroundings must he liberalised in a way to hel|> 
people to realize their own resjiousilriHtie*. and tn strengthen them 
in their efforts. Lastly, tliete well meaning advisers seem to fnrjjot 
thot the work of reform cannot be put ott indefinitely till the far 
more arduous and tliflicnlr work of relijiious conversion isaceom- 
plished. ll may take centuries before tlie Arya or the Hmhmo 
Samojas establish their claims t«. ircooral rccoifiiiriou. In the 
meanwhile what is to become of the social organization V Slowly 
hut surely 


must be allowed to work its way in reforming our social customs, 
and the process cannot be stopped even though we may wish it. 

In th« case of our society especially, the usages which at present 
prevail among as were admittedly not those which obtained in the 
most glorious periods of onr history. On most of the [joints which 
are included in our programme, oor own records of the paist show 
that there has been a decided change for the worse, o-nd it ia surely 
within the range of practical possibilities for us to hope that we 
may wort up onr way back to a better state of tilings without 
stirring up the rancorous hostilities which religious differences 
have a tendency to create and foster. There is no earthly reason 
whatsoever why we should not co-operate with thoee religious 
organisations, or why they should not rather cooperate with us 
in this work in which our interests arc common, because the 
majority of our countrymen hold different views about religion 
from those which commond themselves to these Samajas. I am 
speaking these words with a full sense uf my responsibility, for 
I am, in my own humble way, a member of one, if not both, the 
Samajas, and I am a sincero searcher after religious truth in f nil 
sympathy with the Arya and Brahmo 8amaj movements, and I 
hope, therefore, that these advisors of ours will take my reply in 
the same spirit, and will not misunderstand me Schismatic 
methods of propagation cannot be applied with effect to vast com- 
munities which are not within their narrow pale. On the other side, 
some of our orthodox friends find fault with us not because of the 
particular reforms we have in View, but on account of the 
methods we follow. While 

..'uudemu us fbr hciu£ Loo orthodox, the extreme orthodox section 
denounce as for hcinj; too revolutionary in onr methods. Accord- 
(Ms to these last, our efforts should be directed to reform. I have 
many friends iu this camp of extreme orthodoxy, and their watch- 
word is that revival and not reform should be our motto. They 
advocate a return to the old ways, an appeal fro the <jld authori- 
ties and old sanctions. Here also, ns in the instance quoted 
above, people spent without realizing tbe full significance 
of their own words. When we are asked to revive our 
old institutions and customs, people seem to me to be very 
much at sen wlmt it is they seek to revive. What particu- 
lar period of our hirtory is to be taken MS the old- -whether 
the period of the Toting, of the Smrits, "f the Purans, or of the* 
JIaliomedau or the modern Hindoo times Oor usojjes have been 
changed from time to time by a glow process of jfrnwth, and in sonic 
cases of decay and corruption, and y«ii cannot stop at any parti- 
culm' period without breaking the continuity of the whole When 
my revivalist friend presses hisanruincnt upon me he has to seek 
recourse in some subterfuge which really furnishes no reply to his 
own question. What shall we revive.'' Shall wu revive the old 
habits of onr people when the most sacred of onr castes indulged 
in all the abominations, ns wc now understand them, of animal 
food and intoxicating drink, which exhausted every section of our 
country's Zouloity and Botany '? The men and the itnds "f these old 
daysaicaud drank forbidden thiujrs to excess, in a way no revivalist 
will now venture (o recommend, Shall we revive the twelve forme 
of sous, or cijfht forms of marriage, which included rapture, and 
recognized mixed myl ilh'iritimicic intercourse? Shall we revive the 
Nivintu ■ system of |/i'op>a;.'U! '■!.' sons on onr i<rolli<uV win* when 
widowed? .Shall we revive the old lihrrih .- taken by the Uislits and 
by the wives itf the xtishis with lie- marital lie?' ^hallwv iviive 
the heoiHonik* of animals sa.-itlii-od Ironi o-nr'.- fmi tu yt'Hr'smd 
and in which t-V"ii Iniman livings were u..t spared hi pi'onttialorj 
olferin.'f In at At Shall we ii'i'ivf the Shukti wiashiji of Hie left 
hand, with its iuih-'vn.-ies and pra. ileal ■l.hii inhernn ? Shall we 
revive tin- oV'i and infaniieide CBsttrtns or Ihr Flifijiina "f I l.c li"- in^' 
men into (he rivers or over nicks, or book.swiir.rine or thr ems.Iiiiiii J'jvaaiiutb oar 'r .Shall we revive the iiiierueeiue wtirs tie- 
the Brahmins and KsbHtriyas, the crm I pirsecation ami devradutiof 
of the ulutrifiiliiil .population ? Shall we require our Hrahloin» to 
cease to he landlords and jrelUlnrioii and turn into l,e}-*K»ra and 
depcttdi-nt* upon the king ns in ..hl.-o iino-«? These inetaiKi-s will 
sulhVe to shuw that the plan '■!' r-\ iMH;r llie auiierit o-aires and 

and is not praetica'ile. Jl these u>as»» Welti (food arid hetieliviai 

wl,v wire they altered by our «!«■■ ai i-i..r»f If tiny '•■ >r,- hud 

rind injurious how enn any ctaiiu be pin finwanl for their resrora- 
tidn after so many ui^es? Ik-sjdes ii irenis to lie foi-ROttcn that in 
a Ji\iug organism, us society it', no revhal is possible. The dead 



and the buried or burnt are dead, buried and burnt once for all, and 
the dead past cannot, therefore, be re-rived except by a reformation 
<n* the old materials into new organized beings If rcvNal is 
impossible this reformation is the only alternative open to 
sensible people, and now it may be asked what is the principle 
on whioh this reformation mult be baaed. People have very 
buy ideas on this subject. It seems to many that it is the 
outward form which has to be changed, and if this change can 
be made, they think that all the difficulties in our way will 
vanish. If we change our outward manners and customs, and 
change our food and dress, sit in a particular way or walk irr 
* particular fashion, our work according to them is accomplished. 
I cannot but .think that much of the prejudice against the 
refoitnersiadue to this misunderstanding. It is not the outward 
form but the inward forma, the thought and the idea which 
determines the outward form, that' has to be changed if real 
reformation is desired. Now, what have been the inward forma 
or ideas which have been hastening our decline during the 
past three thousand years. These ideas may be briefly set forth 
aa isolation, submission to outward force or power more than 
to the voice of the inward conscience, perception nf factitious 
differences between men, and men, due to heredity and birth, 
a passive acquiescence in evil or wrong doing, and a general 
indiffernece to secular well being, almost bordering upon fatalism. 
These have been 


They have, as their natural result, led to the existing family 
arrangements, where tbe- woman is entirely subordinated to the 
man, and the lower castas to the higher castes, to the length of 
depriving men of their natural respect for humanity. All the 
evils we seek to combat flow from the prevalence of these ideas 
They are m'-re corollaries to these axiomatic assumptions. They, 
prevent our pei pie from realising that they really are, in all 
conscience, neither better nor wor^c from their fellows, and that 
the average man, whatever garb he may put on, is the 
worse for his assuming dignities and powere which do not iu 
fact belong to him. As long as these ideas remain operative 
on our mind we may change our outward forms and institutions 
and be none the better for the change. These ideas have produced 
their results, and we must judge of their good or had quali- 
ties, as St. Paul says, by their fruits. Now, that these results 
have been disastrous nobody disputes or doubts, and the lesson to 
be drawn for our guidance in the future from this fact is that the 
current of these ideas must be changed, and in the place of the 
old worship we must accustom ourselves and others to 


In place of isolation we must have fraternity, or rather elastic 
«xpansivenees. At present it is everybody's ambition to pride 
himself upon being a member of tbe smallest community that 
■can be conceived, and the smaller tht; number of those with whom 
yon can dine or marry or associate the higher your purity and 
perfection. The purest person is he. who cooks his owu food and 
does not allow the shadow of his nearest friend to lall upon his 
cooked food. Every caste and everv sect has thus a tendency to 
split itself into smaller castes and smaller sects in practical life. 
Even in philosophy it is :i received uiavim that knowledge and 
salvation are only possible for the esoteric few with whom only is 
true wisdom and power, and for the rest of mankind, they must 
be left to grovel in superstition and vice, with only a colouring 
of so-called religion to make them respectable. 

The new mould of thought must be cast as stated, above in 
fraternity, or Jill-attracting cxpansirencas and cohesion in 
society. Increase your circle of friends and associates, slowly and 
cautiously if you will, but the tendency must be to turn our face 
towards a general recognition of the essential equality between 
man and man. That will better sympathy and power. It will 
strengthen your Own hand* by the sense that you hare numbers 
with you, and not against you. or, as your foolishly imagine, below 
yon. The next idea which lies at the root of our helplessness is 
that we were always intended tr> )( main children, to he subject to 
outside cOntrol,_and never to risr- to the dignity of , self-control liy 
making oar conscience and our reason the sole guides to our conduct. 
All our past history has beer a terrible witness to the havoc com- 
mitted by this misconception. We are children, no doubt, but the 

children of God and not of man, and the voice of God in ns is the 
only voice to which we are bound to listen. Of course, all of us can- 
not* listen to that voice when we desire it, because from long 
neglect we have benumbed the faculty of conscience in us. With 
too many of us a thing is true or false, righteocs-or sinful, simply 
because somebody else has said that it is so. Duties and obliga- 
tions are dnties and obligations, not becauee we feel them to be so, 
but because somebody reputed to be wise has laid it down to be so. 
Of course, in small matters of manners and courtesies this 
outward dictation is not without its use. But when we abandon 
ourselves entirely to this helplessness, and depend on other wills, 
it is no wonder that we become as helpless as children. Now; fee 
new idea which should take its place ia not the idea of rebellious 
independence and overthrow of all authority, bnt that of 

Great and wise men in the past or in the present have a claim 
on our regard. But they must not come between ns and oar God 
— the Divine principle se&tedVwithiu everyone of ue, high or low. 
It is this sense of self-respect, or rather, of respect to the God in 
us which has to be cultivated, and it is a tender plant which takes 
years and years to cultivate it. But we have the capacity, and we 
owe it as a duty to ourselves to undertake the task. Reverence 
all human authority, pay your respects to all prophets and revela- 
tion but subordinate that reverence to the Divine command iu ns. 
Similarly men differ from men, and in natural capacities and 
aptitudes, and heredity and birth are factors of some importance 
in our development, hut it is at the same time true that they 
are not the all important factors that we have learnt to regard 
them from sheer idleness as determining them by necessity. 
Heredity and birth explain many things, but neither they northe 
law of Karma explain all things and what is worse they do not 
explain the mystery that mattes man and woman what they 
really are — the reflections of the image of God. Our passions 
and our feelings, our pride and our ambition, lend strength to 
these factitious agencies and with their help, the doctrine of Karma, 
completes our conquest .and enforces our surrender. Heredity 
and birth can be controlled and set back by a properly, trained will, 
when this will is subservient to a higher will. This misconception 
is very hard to remove — perhaps the hardest of the old idemls — 
but removed it must be, if not in one life or generation; in many 
lives and in many generations if we are to rise to our full stature. 
The fourth old forma or idea to which I will allude here is our 
acquiescence iu wrong or evil-doing as our inevitable condition 
of human life, about which we need not Vie very particular, st- 
affer all human 

and we are not much concerned with it. It is in fact atheism 
in its worst form No muii or woman really ceases to be animal 
who does not perceive and realixe that wrong and evil-doing, 
impurity and vice, crime and misery, and sin of all kinds is really 
our animal existence prolouged. It is the beast in ns which 
blinds us to impurity and vice and makes them even attractive. 
There most be naittehen in our temples, say our priests, because 
even tbe- gods cannot do without their impure fairies. This is 
only n typical instance of our acquiescence in impurity. There 
«must be drunkenness in the world, there must be poverty, and 
wretchedness, and tyranny, there must be fraud and force, there 
must be thieves and robbers and the law to punish them. No 
doubt these have been facte, and there is no use denying their ex- 
istence. But in; the name of all that is sacred and true do not 
acquiesce in;tbein,' do not hug these evils to your bosom and 
cherish them. Their contact is poison, and the worst poison, 
because it does not kill but corrupts men A healthy sense of 
the true dignity of our nature and of man's high destiny is the 
best corrective and antidote to this poison. I think I have said 
more thun enough to suggest to your reflecting minds what it ia 
that we have to reform. All admit that we have been de-formed. 
We have Idst our stature, we are bent in a hundred places, Our 
eyes lust after forbidden things, our ears desire to hear scandals 
about our neighbours, our tongue wants to taste forbidden fruit, 
our hands itch for another man's property, our bowels are' derang- 
ed with indigestible food. We cannot walk on our feet, but 
require stilts or crutches. This is 

and now we want this deformity to be removed, and the only 
way to remove it is to place ourselves under the discipline of 

Please attach Wis slip in the previous issue, i. e. No. i*. 

Vera* Line. For Bead. 

70 11 i*r*t*l&4f Srwvmtyf. 

n is s*»^** »^->#fc 

72 Not** to may a. Co-exkt Co-ariets 

74 Uat but dm lino. ,0 Torija felt Of Turiya felt. 

76 15 Manaa and Anda- Andakaiana*. mama* 

karanaa Ac. Ac. 

X H F 


— OB — 


A Monthly Journal Devoted to Religion, Philosophy, Literature, Science, &c. 

Commenced on * the Queen's Commemoration Day, 189 


VOL l. 




No. 9. 




Bh A'aHVAKA'Hi's iN'TitoDtrrioy. 

J. Bow ! to S'iva, the Parnmatman (Supreme Spirit) 
■tvhoisSat ( Existence t, Chit (Intelligence) and A'nanda 
( Hliss) in essence denoted by tlie wtfrd «.?*»w(f«#go*; 
the eaosv of tin.- niHiislesniTK'U of flit- worlds. 

Supreme K'ica, (JltsTL A'lmau (spirit 
the entire fsH'iii'i' • >," :ili ;iir;tiii:is seriptHres), by lvhoin 
tin- whole paiii>i*iMii:i "fall rlt" worlds litis b&en pnint- 
t-if on 'the wall of lii- "~>'.i',n (i'ii. r'j-y 

Mnv 11k swiiiv I'l't'tuettiiH h twi, — Id 

tIic I'avaniatitiai: Sit] .vciiK' Spirit', Miduc-d Wtifl :ill 

i^i'lli.'nci 1 ', to wlirn.i all tins Liiiycr.*.. of Chit and 

liit (spirit and uiutu-i'i b,MlljH-lvi<-ut. 

I- Bow ! to the Teacher UlCUtl'PYU', Ss'vfit.u oy Maine, 
:t,./iiotnor f! many an agaiuu (.rcnptiu'el ; bow ! to 

tlie excellent Master (Guru,, the generous giver of 
liberation (kaivaiya) 

Resplendent is S'rikantlia's work on the blessed 
Sutras of Vyasa, — his great commentary (Bhashya), 
ft sweet composition, mighty in meaning (bat) not too 

6. This Sutra of Vyasa, the eye for the wiae to aee 
the Brahman with, made tnrjjid by the former teach- 
ers, will be made clear by S'rikantha. 

7. This commentary (BhAshyi) is a great treasure 
for those A'ryas who are devoted to S'iva. and who take' 
u delight in tasting tlie sweet essence of the whole 

Here bop l:i^ an enquiry iulti the Upiinishad 

Saw ; — (I) For what end of man i pitrwhitrthu) is tbis 
immiiry intended Tin end vf man consists verily 
111 the attainment of happiness which is the object ol' 
itii<|iialitied low. m- the complete eessatiuii of puin 
« lur-li is rliL- object ot uinjLuililied hatred. (-) Wlit* 
here the luIkthiriH, who the person ^uali- 

tk'd for the t-mjilify The adhikann the person 

who is endued with such attributes as a thirst for the 
subject. (3) What is its »ti?.jft-{ That forms tlie 



subject of an enquiry which, though known, is yet 
not quite so well-known, and which, therefore, hangs 
on the swing of doubt. (-4) After what does this en- 
(ju'ry arise ? What is it which, as necessarily leading to 
theenqni, <l>ou]d precede that enquiry ? It is with 
a view ftp eradicate these sharp bristles of doubts from 
the minds of enquirers that the following Sutra is in- 
troduced by Lord Yyiisa,the crest-jewel of the Om- 

H&w, ties, arises & desire to bow Erainnm. 

This Sutra forms one icpctioii (odhifcnrana)' By an 

nd.hikuruiia or section is meant here a topic which is 
made up of the following' members (lj VWhayn or the 
.subject. ('2) fSrtmx'injn or the doubt, (3) PtirraymlaiJtH 
or the primn fiieie vi«w or argument, f4) §iiMhi'mta~ 
iiiriiftijU or the demonstrated conclusion, and (p) S«n~ 
•tat- or the connection. 

Here the word "now"' [aiJitt) denotes tinaniarya 
or immediate succession, not udhifaira or commenee- 
nient ii 15 iu "nthn Yttgihtit&ix'miani" "Now (let us 
hpirinl to treat of Yoga.'* We cannot, indeed, sneak 
of commencing a desire r« know Brahman as though 
jt were something that enn be done as a, duty In 
fact, desire can arise from a mere sense of loveliness 
in the oliject. 

Neither can we interpret the word ' now ' (rtflut) sis 
meaning Mtthyatu ov auspicioiisiiess as said in the 

Tii- s\ Itt.Uli' jiihI dir WuimI Arlin. tWsr I wt* ptnt'P^/oil ai 

■irsi IV-mi !*ni!tm*Ui. ln^\tkiu^ I'unh fnmi lus i Iji-oni ; wheiivf' Ifoili 

'•>v ! Miisnieionsness can h:ive no logical connection 
with " dps-ire to know." As to tin? necessity of per- 
k'rniiiiy-. in pursuance of the example of the wise, tin 
uispieious act when commencing a science^ that 
necessity ran be met by the mere utterance of the 

Nor does the word :i now ; ' (nihil) indicate that now 
follows another side (of an argument) ; for there is no 
occasion to speak of another side, as no one side (of 
any subject) has been treated of before. 

The uFeof " now " [afh't] can have no reference to 
an antecedent circumstance nu:h as, like the act of eat- 
ing or of, is merely accidental; for, hure it is 
intended to speak of something which forms a neces- 
sary L-ciuipmeqt: that ia here held to be the antece- 
dent condition which, when secured, forma a special 

qualification of the student and constitute* unnecessary 
equipment for an enquiry into Brahman. 

New one may say : it is bat right that the necessary 
antecedent (here implied) of Brajmi.a-vichara is the 
Vedudhyayana or the learning of the Vedas, which, 
preceded by the uacrianental rite of Upsuayan* per- 
formed in the case of Bruhniauas and other castes at 
the age of eight and so on, consists in the getting up 
of the texts coming frotn the mouth of. the teacher 
duly approached, and which teada (ultimately) to a 
knowledge nf its contents, — this learning of the Veda* 
being obligatory inasmuch as it is enjoined in tlhe 
special injunction " Veda should be learned;" for, 
Brahman, like Dharma, being known only through' the 
Vedas, an enquiiy into Brfchmnn is not possible 
for him who has not learnt the Vedas. An eoquiry 
into Brahnnm should therefore come immediately 
after the learning of the Vedas. 

(We say) granted th«t such a study is necessary; 

but immediately after that study should . come the 

Dbarma-vichara or enquiry into Dharma, since 

such an enquiry is not possible without .theft study. 

It has accordingly been expounded by the A'cbfirya 

(Teacher) — in the words " Now, then, (arises) a desire 

to know Dhnrmu,"* — that after learning the Vedas 

from the Upadhyaya (Teacher) is the time for an 

enquiry into Dharrrei. We do not hold that the 

S'astras treating respectively of Dharma and Brahman 

are juite distinct. On the other hand we hold that 

they form one (S'etstra). From the Sutra, "Now the.n 

arises a desire to know Dharao," to the Sutra, " No 

return, because of the text/'-t it is but one S'ustra, 

treating of Dhavmn. and Hrnhnian, of worship and the 

object of worship : the Sutra " Now then arises a 

desire to know 'Brahman," marks only the beginning 

of a section which forms an integral part of that one 

S'astru, like the Sutra ** Now then as to the definition 

of s'exhn- or the subsidiary."" X 

Or, because Dharma is a means to the knowledge of 
Brahman, ami that sneh topics as strut i (direct state- 
ment', and ILngu (indication -1 , and the' exposition of _ 
the authorities such as Veda-e hodanii (scriptural injunc- 
tion), ttrthavi'ida (explanatory passage), Smriti (me- 
diate revelation), — which are treated of in the science 
of Dharma— ^are also useful in the science of Brahman, 
it is right that the science of Brahman should- come 

* 3Itmunsul-9atra, t, i, 1. 
+ VcdlntB-SHraa IV, iv, 22, 

* MtmAms&.Sutra, III, i, 1. 



tbft seienee of Qhanaa ; for, the end cannot 
he<M&i*ved without the. means. The authority as 
♦* fifetftftot being the meaoe to the knowledge of 
Urahman is the divioo s'rati itself, 

"Thn by Vediii fiady do the Bribroanrui geek to know, by Yajfin 

(«wriflAJ rttl*)* by D*»» (gift). Iff tagM (uoeeritf ), by fast." 

It cannot be urged that, if- Karma be the means to 
the knowledge of Brahman, Dbarroa alone should 
lie investigated and practised, and that the enquiry 
into the import of the Vedantic passages serves no 
purpose. For, when devoid of a .longing for the 
fruits, Karma forms a means to the knowledge of 
Brahman by-briuginpr about parity of mind, by way 
of rejnoving sins. Accordingly the Smriti of the 
learned, beginning with the words "He who "Trlcrgoes 
the forty samskaras (sacramental rites)-' And ending 
with the words " He attains unity with the Brahman 
and goes to His loka,"t declares that all Kairnas begin- 
ning with the Garbhadhaua (the ceremony cpn netted 
with Impregnation 1 ) constitute a, means of (spiritual; 
regeneration by way of removing the drrt of sin. 

(Objeriiok) i~ If all Karma should th as form but a 
complement (of something else), like the sprinkling of 
water npon the grains jin a sacrificial rite), then it 
would detract from the independence of the- (several) 
AVramas or religions orders as to their fruits, — that 
independence which is declared by the S'ruti in the 
-words '"' all those Attain te the heavenly regions, "J 

{Annum) : Not so. Though those Karmas are inde- 
pendent which are done with a longing for such fro its 
as heavenly region;, aJSll it holds goefd that those 
which are performed by the man who is free from 
nttcha longing constitute mere- complementary fac- 
tors by way ofr conducing to the purity of mind. ' In 
the case of such a man_the fruit of Jnstna (know- 
ledge) is itaelf the fruit of Karma, Just as- the sprink- 
ling of water upon the grains helps to secure 
Searga, us forming a factor in generating the apiirva 
(unseen effect) of the sacrifices of Dars'a ■ PfirnamAsa, 
so Karmas help to secure moksha through the 
attsinment-of Jfi&na; and therefore as forming guna- 
karvuts (secondary factors) they are mere anyas (sub 

{Objection) : Since the Jyotisbtoma and other sacrifi- 
cial rites which are enjoined by independent injunc- 

■* Brihadiranyaka-Upaiiishari IV, iv, 22. 
■f- Aautama BhantiaeattK, viii, 24, 25. 
t ChaAdogT* UpaTu»h»d,ii, 23, 2. 

tions as obgligatory cannot constitute the mere ilikar- 
tatyata or the manner of bringing about another main 
act, it cannot, be that they are complementary factors. 

(Answer) : This objection is untenable; for just 
as the Sautramani, the Brihaspati-sava and the like 
which are enjoined as primary means by independent 
injunctions form also secondary constituents of the 
Agnichayana and the like, so also an act may be of 
the two-fold nature in virtue of a two-fold injunction.* 
Wherefore until knowledge springs up karma should 
be performed. 

{Objection] : Because of the test "(by yajfiA *>tc.) 
they seek to know," t karma should be performed till 
the dawn of a desire for knowledge. 

(Answer) ; There is no force in the objection ; for, 
mere desire eannot constitute an object of human 

Wherefore it is but right thaf the science treating 
of Brahman should follow the enquiry into karmas 
which are the means by which to attain the know- 
ledge of Brahman. 

(Objection): How can, the order of sequence, here 
defined, as to Ijhe sciences of Karma and Brahman be 
explained ? If it* be so because the agent is the same 
in both, then it may be that the agent is the same in 
both either because the one is complementary to the 
other, as the tigknra (an oblation) is cornplementarj' to 
the (main sacrifice of) Dars'a and Pvmam<'tsa ; or be- 
cause, they both form, like the five prayojas (certain 
oblations), two secondary factors of a third which is 
primary ; or because, as in the case of yodokana * and 
the like, the one is enjoined under a special circum- 
stance as a substitute for the other ,' or because like 
the six constituent parts§ (of the Dais'a-Purnamas*) 
they conjointly produce one single effect. We find no 
s'ruti or any other authority showing that the sciences 
beBr such a relation to each other. Wherefore this 
definite order of sequence as to the sciences of Kami" 
and Brahman is unjustifiable. 

•One injunction enjoining it as a primary means and a stcnml 
injunction enjoining it =i« a secondary factor. 
* f BrL tip. IV, iv. 9. 

X Referring" tn tlie mjuiu-tion, " the priori shouhl ctm&TTntr wnii-r 
in the vessel callcfl rfltiMtfSrt., Hnil in the ease of one who <losin'> t'» 
attain plenty uf cattle, he should consecrate it in the vesst-i mllifll 
ituduUaua instead of eJuti»w»i.*' 

§ TheBe- Bit parta are made up or the three main ancririeris in tho 
Film am ilea known ns the tujni°i«u thutf./i, hhuttihtn, ami flu- n r f~ti>i*'"- 
yiifltf ; antl of the three main samfieeK in the Dnn'a know n 
the tymcttti- llic tundrnwth'dl'', anil ike i'itHlrn.H-ynyf!-. 



(Atuticer) : Indeed it may be so, if there worn no 
authority, s'ruti and the like. We do find passages 
like the following in s'rnti, declariug a conjunction of 
Karma and J nana : 

*' He w!io tiiowa toother both Vidyi nnd Avidyl" • 
" On lie goes, whoever known Brnlmmn and who Imb dona good.' + 
" By t ml li verily thia A'tinan can ever he ntfoined, by tapaa 
(austerity), by riglu knowledge, by BraUmacharya (devotion to 
Drahroftii)." J 

Thus Karma and Jiiana conjointly producing one 
effect, namely Mokaha, it^s but right that the two 

sciences should come in a definite order of sequence. 

Though indeed the injunction as to the learning of 
the Vedas inculcates the mere getting up. of the text,, 
still there does arise ati occasion for tne two enquiries. 
By thi- learning of the Veda together with the Angas 
or auxiliary sciences, § one comes to know the 
literal meaning of the passages in the s'r-uti. Then 
finding apparent mutual contradictions in the passages, 
■which treat of the Jyotishtoma and other rites consti- 
tuting the Sthula-Upasana or coarser form? of worship, 
as well as in those passages which treat of Dahara- 
Vidyti (contemplation of the Divine Being in the heart) 
aud the like constituting the Sukshma-Upasana or 
finer form of worship, "the student aspiring towards 
higher aims of life, engages of himself in an investiga- 
tion of ihe suojeet. Hence no absence of an occa- 
sion for the enquiry. 

(Objection): In the passage, "theA'tman should 
be learnt the vedantic enquiry is directly enjoined. 

(Anmn-r) : No, because of the absence of condi- 
tions which go to make it :m injunction. To explain : 
vedantic enquiry cannot be the subject of an ttptivra- 
chUti, an injunction which enjoins an act not known 
of before from any other source, for, the vedantic 
enquiry is otherwise known as necessary. It is known 
as necessary by arguing thus: vedantic enquiry, 
like the iMiquiry into the science of medicine, is a 
means to the understanding of the thing the Ved&nta 
irtsatst of, since ttie former is a scientific enquiry like 
thy latter. Neither does it form the subject of a 
a !ii i ma-vi-J'lt t, — an injunction intended to restrict the 
act to only one of several alternative Ways of 
doing it,— like the threshing of rice (in a sacrifice) j 

'' I.sV>|>:mUlta<l 11. 

+ ltri. V\>. IV. iv, U. 

X Mnti(lako|ianig|i:ul IN, J, 5. 

§ Ttefse are B'ifcstiS ([ilmiiftics 1 , grammar, mctiics, nivukta (civ 
ni'ilui;. 1 '«. aetronoiiiy. nurd kalim (litnrttv). 

for, no other means (except the vedantic enquiry) has- 
been known in oar experience to produce tbe same 
result. Nor does it form the subject of a parisar&hyd- 
vidbi, — an injunction which is intended to exclude alt 
other alternatives, — for then it would be tantamount 
to this, that the vedanta should be only enquired into 
and not learned by rote. In that case since the 
enquiry into the vedanta is not possible for those 
who have not thus learnt vedantic texts they can 
never attain the (Supreme) end of man. If, on the 
other hand, vedantic enquiry should form the subject 
of a parisankhyd-vidhi as excluding an enquiry into 
the karma-kanda or the ritualistic portion of the 
Vedas, then, too, in the absence of this latter enquiry, 
performance of Karma is not possible. As, without 
performing Karma, mental purity cannot be attain- 
ed, there can be no dawn of knowledge. Wherefore 
the aforesaid proposition holds good 

Thus the sastra Known as the Opanishad which 
treats of the Para-Brabmam — Who js unrivalled in His 
glory, as endued with the Supreme S'akti manifesting 
itself in the form of the Universe composed of Chit and 
Achit, — spirit and matter, the conscious and the inert ; 
Who is the storehonseof all secrets contained in all the 
great scriptures ; Whose supreme grandeur is declared 
by such choice synonymous designations applied to 
Him as Bhava, S'iva, S'arva, Pas'upati, Parames'vara,. 
Mahiideva, Rndra, S'ambhu and the like ; by Whose 
grace, extended to all sentient beings subservient 
to Him according to the manner in which they ap- 
proach and worship Him, all human aspirations are 
fulfilled, — should be enquired into after completing 
the enquiry into the blessed Dhar ma, which ia taught 
in the form of Vedic injunctions constituting Divine 
commands ; which comprises, in ODe whole, various 
forms of Divine worship ; whose excellence is made 
known in many a laudatory passage; which is embel- 
lished with the several subsidiary parts furnished by 
the s'ruti etc. ; which is treated of even at a greater 
length in the Smriti, Itihasa, Parana and the wise 
sayings of the adepts, all these being in perfect ac- 
cord with the original authority ; which is composed- 
oE vidhi and nishedha (injunctions and prohibitions), 
vikalpa and saiuuchchaya (alternatives and conjunc- 
tions , ittsarga nnd ' apantda (general and special 
rules), h'idha and althyuchchaya (weakening' excep- 
tions and strengthening illustrations) ; which is the 
repository of all human ends and the means of attain- 
ing the supreme knowledge. Thus lias been deter- 
mined the meaning of the word "now 3 '. 



The word 'then' (ataJi) indicates that what has 
preceded forms the reason of what follows : because 
D harms, haa been investigated by the (student after 
having learnt the Veda*, therefore, having attained to 
the parity of mind by the observance of Dharma, and 
being endued with supreme Bhakti (devotion) quick- 
ened by trne discrimination and such other attri- 
butes which then nnfold themselves, he should also 
investigate Brahman leading to the highest good. 

In the compound " Brahfloa-jijnasA," Brahman 
should be construed as the "object of the verb " Ju-'i J1 - 
to know. 

The subject {of discussion in this section) is the 
following passage : 

" Having surveyed the worlds that deeds (done for 
reward) build up, He (the Brahmana) who loves God 
nnto renunciation should betake himself. The un- 
create is not bv the create (to be obtained). To find 
out That, he verify should to a teacher go — versed in 
the law, who takes his final stand oa God, — fuel'samit 
in hand."* 

The douht arises io the following form : Is Brah- 
,man fit for enquiry or not ? 

And the prima facie view may be stated as follows : 
Brahman ib not n subject fit for enquiry, there being 
no room for doabt concerning it. — How can there be 
no doubt ?— Thus : the S'ruti " This A'tman is Brah- 
man " t teaches that the very A tnian that is imtne 
diately percioved as " I " is Brahman. How, then, 
can there be an occasion for slightest doubt ? Further- 
more, the aim oE an enquiry is verily a knowledge of 
the subject of that enquiry. And to know is to 
define the object of knowledge. Now, does the know- 
ledge, arising from VedAntic enquiry, define Brahman 
or not ? If it could define Brahman, then it would 
militate against the notion that Brahman transcends 
all definition. If it could not define Brahman, then 
He is not known in His true light. A jar or any other 
object is said to be known when it is defined " such 
is the jar ". Wherefore knowledge, too, concerning 
Brahman is not possible. And, moreover, wb see no 
good (resulting from the enquiry). Liberation (Mukti) 
is not the end, inasmuch as the beginniagless sam- 
sara is hard to set aside. 

Such prima facie view presenting itself, we argue 
as follows : From all points of view the enquiry 

*Mnnd*ka-rjp»iiijih«i. I, ii, 12. 
t lUndak7t-U|wniah»d, t. 


should be undertaken, because Brahman ."being within 
the realm of doubt, forms the subject of enquiry ; and 
further because a determinate knowledge of the sub- 
ject conduces to a great end. There does arise a 
doubt for the very reason that such passages of S'ruti 
as " This A'tman is Brahman " speak of this very 
sanisArin, bound by egotism (ahankura), as Brahman. 
It is indeed the possession in a great measure of the 
unsurpassed potencies of knowledge and bliss and the 
like, free from all taint of evil, that constitutes the 
nature of Brahman ; and it is the being subject to the 
necessity of entering into and getting out of varions 
bodies suited to the reaping of the fruits of actionn 
ripening under the influence of the traces of beginning- 
Jess ajfiana (nescience) and thus becoming subject to 
boundless pain, that constitutes the nature of Jiva. 
How can the s'rutis speak of a unity of two such 
quite distinct entities ? — How can a doubt not arise 
in this way ?• A doubt, moreover, ca-i also arise on 
the following grounS : Pood is Brahman ; " "Manas 
is Brahman ; Vijnana is Brahman; "* " The sup is 
Brahman ; " t Narayana is the supreme Brahman;" — J 
these and other passages speak of widely different 
things as Brahman. Which of these is Bi-ahman ? 

.Being thus in many ways subject to doubt, Brahman 
is a subject fit for enquiry. And then by the Great 
Grace of Siva, the Para-Brahman, the Great Teacher, 
highly merciful and all-benign, Who, ascertained by 
studying the S'ruti-and reflecting thereupon, is won 
over by proper Devotion and Knowledge (Bhakti and 
Jfiiina), — there actrrues to the aspirant the great Good, 
the wealth of Liberation (Kaivalya-lakshmi), all bonds 
(Piis'a) being destroyed, his own nature as made up or 1 
unsurpassed intelligence and bliss directly percieved, 
while he is endued in his essence with the qualities 
similar to those of the Para-Brahman. Thus the 
Vediintic enquiry has a subject to treat of and a purpose 
to serve. 

As to the objection that, because knowledge consists 
in defining the object of that knowledge, no know- 
ledge concerning the indefinable Brahman can arise, — - 
it is only due to a want of proper investigation ; lor, 
though no positive definition of Brahman — " He is so 
and so" — can be given, still it is possible to define 
Himindirectly by means of implication, by distinguish- 
ing Him from all others. Indeed, everywhere, to know 

• ChnndoKyn-Upanish»[| VII, i\, iii. vii, ic. 

+ Ibid He, xix, 1. 

J Idahanarayaoa-Upanishud ii 5, 



u tiling by definition is to know it asdtstingnished from 
m11 others. When Brahman is enunciated, defined and 
investigated by means of Vedantic texts, He is known 
to be that thing which is distinguished from all others 
of the same class or from other classes not possessing 
the given character i sties of Brahman. Wherefore it is 
right to enter upon this enquiry into Brahman. 

What is not subject to doubt or is not productive 
of aDy good cannot indeed form, for the wise men, a 
subject of enquiry. So, (the two points) that Brah- 
man, Who forms a subject of doubt owing to the so4 
called authoritative texts and arguments on the subject, 
is the subject of this enquiry of Vrd&nta-S'nstra, and 
further that by worshipping Him the aspirant attains 
his end, the Mukii, which consists in the breaking of 
the bond(Pas'a), as taught in the following passages: — 

"The knower of Brahman reaches tlir Supreme;"'* 

" Knowing S'i\ a, he pnasee into peice foi' ever:"-|* 

" Knowing thut Is'a they become immortal;"* 

" A man who has left all grief behind, sees the majesty, the 

Lord, the passionless, by Llio if raw of till- creator; "J 
"' Making At man the arani, ami prannva [lie upper arani, onlr 

by tlie churning of tlhyi'ina, the wise man buri'U up the 

bond(pttVa) ;"§ 
" Knowing God, lie is irleased from nil bonds" ; — 

these two points have "been propounded here in the 
first section. 

A. Mahale^a. Sast'hj, b.a. 

• Taiuinaya-Upiimshad, II. ii. 1. 
tS'Tet. Up. 4— IK 

* Ibid. 3—7, 20. 

§ Kaivnlya-Upanishad, II. 
j. S'ret. Up. 1—8. 




[Continued from page 180.) 
Jainism:— Nikandavadi Sect. 

1. Let us state the views of the Jains of the 
Digambara sect, who worship the Asoka tree laden 
with sweet-scented flowers, covered with bees, who, in 
the performance of Tapas, inconsistent with the Vedic 
Dharma, go about without clothes, and with dnst 
covered body, remain asceties abjuring family life, 
and feeding sumptuously, carry about with them mats 
aod peacock feathers. 

2. Our Lord is the Immortal Aruga, full of glori- 
ous attributes, praised by the Gods, who, leaving all 
the eight evil qualities, is clothed with the eight im- 
maculate virtues, as the full moon is clothed in cool- 

8. Our Lord filled with austerity, has rid himself 
of the evil senses and know in an instant what takes 
place in all places and in all. time, and is gracious to 
those who worship him and worship not. His other 
good qualities will be further described. 

4. Leaving the evils of hunger, thirst, fear, envy, 
liking, lust, thinking, abusing, disease and death., 
sweating, surprise, pride, wondering, eating, anc 
birth, and sleep and being covered with the eight 
good attributes, and being seated in the Highest